General Tips To Overcome An Interview                                Exclusively for Campus/Off-campusSo what if you are n...
Therefore, do not lie that you have not. However, you are on thin ice here! The interviewer couldbe checking your honesty....
QUESTIONS YOU SHOULD ASK :Interviewers usually round off by giving you an opportunity to ask questions. Treat it like awel...
Self Development                   Set Your Goal                   Many people bring great unhappiness to themselves becau...
made him the man of world - fame. Personality is the sum total of allphysical, mental and emotional attitudes, values, int...
decide to move in a determined and positive direction, and move.Social Development is an important aspect of ideal persona...
you become a joker or chirping bird.The whole essence of social development as a part of personalityimprovement reminds us...
until (a) you understand it (b) you have learned as much theinformation as you wish to learn. Many students despite beingi...
would avoid. Increasing its frequency gradually and tell yourself, "If Iwant I can do it." Visualize yourself as being a p...
jut made for publicity. The myths about intelligence usually misguidethe students and in many cases create psychological f...
whatever order (you think is appropriate), you will be surprised at theamount of work you can do. Remember, "panic paralys...
We can see the movements in gross but cannot see the movements infiner, as too subtle these are in order to be perceived. ...
and order. Then come belongingness such as affiliation, affection, andidentification. Thereafter Self-esteem needs follows...
of thanks - offering to Gods after he won the throne of Syracuse. Hemade a contact at a fixed price and weighed out the go...
Providing specific instruction in creative thinking as divergentthinking is in focus of such a process.Fostering openness ...
and successful in his perspective career. He wanted the prestige, thesecurity, and the satisfaction that his career would ...
sleeping. And it never tires.You ought to realize that there are much healthier ways of dealingwith day to day problems, w...
Your friend may be more intelligent than you. But you have noreason to feel depressed about your own self. A little insigh...
they practice more and work harder for their goals. There is nosubstitute to work. Everyday of living brings you opportuni...
other intellectual operation. The present examination and educationsystem in India gives much weightage to memory. Thus it...
presidents of United States.IntelligenceThough there is no perfect way in which intelligence can be defined,psychologists ...
yourself to be poor in understanding the scientific appliances etc., asyou may be good in some other kind of intelligence ...
their children is very low i.e., +0.31. all these findings seem tosuggest that heredity plays a very important role in det...
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General tips to overcome an interview

  1. 1. General Tips To Overcome An Interview Exclusively for Campus/Off-campusSo what if you are not a mountaineer. Or a keen hiker. You still cannot treat your interview likea careless morning trot along a joggers path. Your jaw-jaw at the interview table is nothing lessthan a cautious climb up a mountain trail--which begins around your early childhood andmeanders through the years at the academia before reaching a new summit in your career. Andas you retrace your steps down memory lane make sure that you post flags at importantlandmarks of your life and career, so that you can pop them before the interview panel scoopsthem out of you. You dont want to be at the receiving end, do you?Face the panel, but dont fall of the chair in a headlong rush-and-skid attempt to tell your story.Take one step at a time.Dont go into unnecessary detail about how you aced your business mathmidterm in your sophomore year at accounting school. Here are a few preparation tips from theTeam of that books on interviews sometimes overlook. Remember, as afresher you do not have anything to loose but to gain.TYPICAL QUESTIONS THAT AN INTERVIEWER WOULD ASK1.Tell me about yourselfThe most often asked question in interviews. You need to have a short statement prepared inyour mind. Be careful that it does not sound rehearsed. Limit it to work/Study-related itemsunless instructed otherwise. Talk about things you have done well at your college and how youwanted to perform in the first job.2. Why Should We Employ You?For this question, your answer should list out strengths that you feel are relevant to the job.Given below are some answers which could help you with your answers. However, structurethem to suit your requirements.I have good co-ordination skillsGood analytical skillsI can persuade people to see my point of view, and get the work doneMy greatest asset is my ability to motivate peopleEven during emergencies, I do not loose my coolI have good entrepreneurial skillsI have consistently met my deadlines and targetsCan say “no” to people when required to do so!I am very co-operative with my sub-ordinates, and would like to see them growI am a good team playerI am very flexible, and have the ability to work hard under difficult work conditionsI have the experience and knowledge relevant to this job (Here, give appropriate details andexamples)3. Do You Have Offers From Other Companies ?This is of course a difficult question to answer. Obviously, you must have applied to othercompanies if you are looking for a job or would have some offers from other companies already.
  2. 2. Therefore, do not lie that you have not. However, you are on thin ice here! The interviewer couldbe checking your honesty. On the other hand, he/she may also be trying to find out how focusedyou are - are you applying randomly, or is there a well-planned strategy?Whatever your answer, it should match your career goals.4. What Salary Are You Expecting?Try not to get into salary details early in the interview. If pressed, you could say that it alldepends on the job, and would like to talk about it after a job offer. Say this in a convincing tone.In case you are asked this question in your latter interviews, give a direct answer. Do not soundapologetic while quoting the figure you have in mind.SALARY EXPECTATIONS :1. How much do you expect?If you have done your homework, you would know how much other people in similar jobs arepaid. Quote the range upfront.2. How much do you think you are worth?Work out how much you should be paid, given the market value of the job and your skills. If youcan bring some extra skills to the table, do not hesitate to ask for more than the market value.3. What kind of a culture are you comfortable with?It is better to be frank about your preferences. Your interviewer will get a clear idea about yourexpectations.4. Which is more important to you-salary, perks or growth opportunities?This one will reveal the real you. So be sure what you are going to say. Above all, be true toyourself. If you think this is a negotiation move, then say clearly that you will never sell yourselfshort.5. What do you know about our company?Do not give your opinions about the company. Stick to reported facts that you have gatheredfrom newspapers and so on. Talk about the product portfolio, size, income, and marketperceptions of the company. Also it is better to refer details about each company before going forthe interview from or PlacementWeek.com6. Why should we choose you over someone else?Talk clearly about problems that you have solved in your College/Project Team and highlight thequality required.6. Your qualifications are excellent, but you may be overqualified for the position we have tooffer?Point out that more experience can never be a drawback. If you are multi-skilled, then highlightthe fact that a company on the fast-track needs multi-skilled people. It needs people withindifferent departments to work together. Also emphasise that the companys future growth will bean exponential function of your experience.
  3. 3. QUESTIONS YOU SHOULD ASK :Interviewers usually round off by giving you an opportunity to ask questions. Treat it like awelcome opportunity.You could ask questions like.a) Tell me about your company.b) Now that I have outlined my career goals, do you think you can offer me the opportunities Ineed?c) What kind of training and learning can I expect in your company?d) Describe the work culture and the management style of your company?e) What is the long-term vision of your company?As a fresher, current position and status can impact the way you are interviewed. Fresh Out ofCollegeThe basis on which you will be judged is your academic background, family background, andinterests.If looking for your first job, ensure that your previous experience, even if it is part-time, isnoticed.Mention projects or responsibilities you may have undertaken. This will indicate your area ofaptitude.You should be willing to put in regular hours, in line with the companys policies. Theinterviewer needs to know whether you can be punctual and put in full-time work.In case you have applied for the post of management trainee, you should display an ability toadapt, and indicate all-round interests. Moreover, you should have good interpersonal skills.You should be enthusiastic to learn, and show commitment towards the organization, as thecompany will be spending a lot on your training.Bring with you :a) Copies of your resumesb) References and letters of recommendations.First Impressions :There is a common saying that minds are made up within the first 5 minutes of an interview. Sokeep in mind these important first impression indicators. Walk in the door as if you already workthere, carry yourself as though you feel perfectly comfortable with the situation. Arrive on timeor a little early. In the waiting area, politely tell the receptionist who you are meeting and in afriendly way, ask where you should sit. Take slow, deep breaths to help you remain calm andfocused. When introduced to the interviewer, have a firm, but not painful, handshake. Smile.Have good posture when sitting or standing. Introduce yourself in a relaxed, confident manner.Have a well-groomed, professional appearance. Project a feeling of confidence. Bring extracopies of your resume, some thing to write on and something to write with.
  4. 4. Self Development Set Your Goal Many people bring great unhappiness to themselves because they refuse to accept themselves. Someone elses job, somebody elses personality always seems so much desirable than ones own. The essence of life is that every one in the whole world is unique. Success, therefore, lies in a single-minded development of ones own abilities and personality traits. Never try to copy or model other people whose potentials and qualities may be quite different than yours. Groom your own garden. While setting your goals, you must accept your own potentials and drawbacks. Have a proper critical introspection about your own self and only thereafter you should decide the goals that are in accordance with your personal and environmental needs, apart from the resources available to you. Impulsive decision making in this regard would be damaging to your career planning/setting of the goals. You ought to carefully observe inside and look outside for tapping the suitable and achievable goals of your life. Personality In fiction and journalism people use the terms "charming personality", "charismatic personality", "electrifying personality" …… "a milk- toast personality"……, and so on. These phrases/terms, however, do not use the scientific principles of vocabulary. The term personality has been derived from Latin persona, a mask worn by actors in classical dramas. Behaviorist psychologists feel that if a person has some kind of impact, makes a certain impression on others, it must be because of his actions. The simplest possible way to explain the meaning of personality, therefore, is "the pattern of responses" which characterizes the individual. Contrary to the general idea that good personality refers to good physical features or trendy looking individual, the fact is the personality includes many other more important behavioral and mental features. Think of a boy who is not handsome and attractive apparently, not even tall or robust, yet he has a commanding verbal influence which makes him a successful army officer. Think of Mahatma Gandhi for example. Most people did not find him to be attractive or impressive as far as his physical make - up was concerned. Short, meek looking, bard, dhoti - clad old looking man moved the whole India behind him. Even today he is known his Personality which had its impact, and force with an everlasting impression on the people around him that
  5. 5. made him the man of world - fame. Personality is the sum total of allphysical, mental and emotional attitudes, values, interests andmotivational factors. Personality is the core potential that determinesones success in life and career.If you feel depressed or disheartened because you think that you areborn with weak personality - stop thinking negatively. Personalitymake - up of yours is not only (totally) determined by heredity. Thereis another important factor that determines (influences) yourpersonality - environment. It is the environment that can bemanipulated to get the desirable positive effects in shaping thepersonality. Well known psychologist Watson (a behaviorist)emphasized the importance of environment in shaping personality ofthe child so much that he declared, "… give me a dozen mentallyhealthy infects, well formed, and my own specified world to bringthem up in …… and I will guarantee to make any one at randomand train him to be any type of specialist I desire - doctor, lawyer,artist, merchant …..., even beggar man or thief!" This is obviouslyan extreme view that some behaviorists have taken to focus on therole of environment in personality development. The fact remains thatenriching the environment of the individual does show significantimprovement in developing your personality. At the same time,however, do not get blindly influenced by some non-standard, cheappublicity stunts of some people who sell their "personality-development" courses just to make quick money. You must use yourbrain and understanding before you join such courses.Improving your personality requires a strong will and determinationto achieve healthy growth. Any one of you who aspires for self-improvement should make an objective evaluation about himself.Then he must look into his positive potentials and also (confess)weaknesses. On this basis of this information, an objective self-evaluation may be carried.At the same time it is also essential to counteract all negative andpessimistic thoughts. These negative thoughts/forces destroy manypotential abilities of human beings. Brooding, self-debasement,feeling of inferiority, hate and jealousy are all negative and damagingemotions. One must face and tactfully weaken these negative forces toemerge as successful. You should not be fatalistic in your approachto life. Never feel you are at mercy of others.So what if you have failed repeatedly? With all your intelligence,wisdom, and vigor make your positive potentials to grow. Revealyourself with truth and you will find that there is a storehouse ofvirtues within you. You dont have to expect chances of miracles, just
  6. 6. decide to move in a determined and positive direction, and move.Social Development is an important aspect of ideal personalitydevelopment. Closed room with open books, may help you to fetchhigher marks in certain exam, however, for a full and completegrowth of personality, one must be able to expose himself to thesocial realities of life. Interaction with people around you may giveyou pain or pleasure but it certainly adds to your personality growth iftaken from healthy frame of mind.A school or university is just not a cramming machine. You maystudy at home too. The value of lectures over reading is that you get asense of participation with other like you. Such a situation is alsosuitable for development of the personality. The class - room situationencourages debags and discussions and thus broaden the horizons ofmind. There is always a need to socialize - mix with fellow colleaguesto know them, feel them and understand them to grow socially(socially educated). There is a natural (social) need to know if otherare like you or different. Some people are more social than others.Sociability is an art which should be cultivated to grow into effectivepersonality.Extrovert is a person whose basic orientation is towards externalworld. Such persons are outgoing (going out and socially mixing withothers), sociable, rather impulsive and require constant stimulationsfrom the environment. The psychological research shows that their(extreme extraverts) academic performance tends to be lower thanthat of introverts, because (mostly) concentration is not one of theirstrong points.Introvert is a person who may be described at the other continuum ofthe bipolar scale, as hesitant, reflective, withdrawn ….., reserved etc.None of you fall on the extreme of the bipolar scale. Infact, most ofthe people have various degrees of the two types combined. At timesyou feel you are introvert and sometimes you feel you are extrovert.In reality most of us are ambivert - the mixture of two. The degree ofthe two sets of characteristics varies from person to person and that iswhat makes you different from others.In case you find that you are basically an introvert but in peace andcomfortable with yourself, fine! Dont push yourself out and out to belike extreme extroverts. You will have your own merits ofuniqueness. Making fun, giggling, over-laughing or teasing, talkingmore are not the goals to be achieved by modeling others or practice.By asking you to socialize with people I dont mean to suggest that
  7. 7. you become a joker or chirping bird.The whole essence of social development as a part of personalityimprovement reminds us of the fact that we are social by nature. Totalisolation from others is against the basic principles of social living -of which you and me are the part. Emotions, empathy, co-operation,competition, group working, group cohesiveness, …… being one likethe others and yet unique in the whole world should be the outcomeof healthy personality development. Have positive attitude towardspeople in general. It is wrong to think of people as always striving toside on one anothers back. The natural urge is towards co-operation.Such attitudes always help you to cultivate stronger and healthypersonality. Another interesting area of personality research hashighlighted two types of personality - Type A and type Bpersonalities. The individuals who are like Type A personality, areaction - emotion oriented that can be observed in any person who isaggressively involved in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve moreand more in less and less time, and if required to do so, against theopposing efforts of other things or other persons. It may also be seenas a temperament characterized by excessive drive andcompetitiveness, unrealistic sense of time urgency, inappropriateambition, reluctance to provide self - evaluation and a tendency toemphasize quantity of output over quality. Such people are believedto have greater chances of coronary disease. In contrast, Type Bpersons are characterized by a relaxed, easygoing approach to life.They focus on quality over quantity have low competitiveness and atendency for self - reflection. A word of caution into a type - dontfall into type fallacy. None of the above types are mutually exclusiveor bipolar, in the sense that you need not label yourself at one or theother extreme. You may have the characteristics of both the types i.e.,Introversion - Extraversion; type A - type B, and all the qualities havetheir virtues if used in a balanced and mature way at appropriateplace.Effective LearningYou may like it or not, the fact is that in order to be successful, onehave to study – at least up to some level. Even if you ultimatelydecide to avoid studies by joining some vocational/professionalcourse, you are required to study at least some minimum. And yes (ifyour objective is to become a doctor, an engineer, professor, scientistor administrative officer or a manager, you have to study and studyvery hard.It is easy to sit down and look at the book. Real study, however, is aconcentrated attack on the book or other resources of information
  8. 8. until (a) you understand it (b) you have learned as much theinformation as you wish to learn. Many students despite beingintelligent, may find that the hardest part of the study is settling downto it - - i.e. the beginning. Very often a student decides to becomeserious about his studies from the next morning. And when the alarmrings he gently presses the button (of the alarm) and honestly re-decides to work in the evening and so on. And the process continues.If you happen to be one of such students – Dont worry. Follow sometips to start studying and learning the subjects efficiently.Work out a schedule for yourself. It acts as a challenge and as a guide.It is better to begin with a general schedule which is flexible. Afterfollowing it for a few days, you will know which subjects require thegreatest allotment of time and then you adjust your scheduleaccordingly. Try to spread out your time allocation in a rational way.With more and more experience you will be your best judge: you maythen re-schedule your timing, depending on your weakness or strengthin various subjects.If your study is interrupted every ten minutes to attend to somethingfor your comfort, you will loose concentration, break the threads ofargument and waste a great deal of energy. Therefore before settlingto the spell of hard study, adjust the window to you liking, get a drinkif you are thirsty, keep a bottle of water with you, and attend to anyother small physical matter that may otherwise distract you later. Atthe same time never try to be over comfortable: dont study on thebeds using pillows, always use a table and chair and keep your backupright. Try to use natural day light rather than artificial.Learning is an active effortful process. Just to read the wordspassively is ineffective. You must have interest in the matter andshould get involved in the task actively. Retention of the subjectmatter will be better if reading is supplemented by self-recitation. If apsychological research it was found that when the students devoted alltheir time to reading, recall (memory) of the five biographiesaveraged 16% after four hours. However, when 3/5th to 4/5th of thelearning time was devoted to self-recitation, recall after four hourswas nearly twice as great. The advantage of recitation over passivereading is that the student is forced to react to the subject matter ratherthan merely trying to absorb it.Improving The WillTo begin with do something that you do not want to do, at least onceevery day. It could be writing a letter, getting up early from bed,taking the dog for a walk …….. Let it be something that normally you
  9. 9. would avoid. Increasing its frequency gradually and tell yourself, "If Iwant I can do it." Visualize yourself as being a person of strong will.Tell yourself proudly: hour-by-hour, day-by-day "my will power isgetting stronger and stronger. Thus by your strong will power theconcentration will increase. If you are lazy by nature, dont feel badabout it. We all try to avoid physical and mental effort if at allpossible. When confronted with something that is a little difficult, allthoughts tend to shoot off to what is easy and pleasant. Will powerand interest again come to focus. What is helpful in such a situation isto develop the attitude, which regards difficulties as a challenge andan opportunity. Instead of running away from them, your combativeinstinct will release fresh energies. Laziness feeds on discouragement,and this often arises from dwelling too much on the enormity of thetask you have set for yourself. The solution is to breakdown the taskinto manageable parts. Cross your bridges one at a time. Do not bediscouraged by looking at the final examinations while you have notyet passed the preliminaries.To live a full and varied existence is an admirable thing but when youhave an objective in view, then concentration is the order of the day,and you must restrict your activities. If you participate in number ofactivities (like football, debating, acting, tuition taking etc.) betterrestrict the field of your activities in priority order. It is always safeand secure way to win one front than loose on a dozen.What differentiates the other animal kingdom from human species isperhaps for more superior intelligence that we posses. You musthave gone through many articles or write-ups about intelligence.Some titles like test your intelligence and improve yourintelligence are quite popular and common for general masses. Attimes, you may wonder whether intelligence can be measured bysomething like weighing machine or what kind of vitamins and tonicscan improve it?You may be one of unlucky persons to feel sorry for thinking that youare less intelligent than some others. Worst of all you may develop aninferiority complex after going through some questions given by theauthor (to test IQ) because you are unable to answer many of themcorrectly. Let me make it clear to you that intelligence is not IQ.Intelligence quotient (IQ) is an index of intelligence. It is the unit ofmeasuring intelligence. And most of the tests (claiming to beintelligence/aptitude tests) published in common magazines or booksare not reliable and valid for measuring what they loudly claim. Yourability in answering or in not answering a few questions does notmeasure your intelligence. There is no need for despondency orfeeling sad if you were unable to score high on such non-serious tests,
  10. 10. jut made for publicity. The myths about intelligence usually misguidethe students and in many cases create psychological fallouts.Time ManagementOnce you have set your goals and targets to be achieved and drawn aschedule to follow, learn to manage the time at your disposaleffectively. You must seek some satisfaction in doing whatever taskyou undertake. You should see the days work in some perspective. Toachieve these purposes, you can make a list of the things you wish todo during the day, and take a good look at it. One effect of such anexercise would be that a mental scheme of the work to be done isachieved. You will become clear about the number of activities andtheir kinds which will help you in scheduling and executing the chainof linked activities.Then as each task is competed, you can cross it off the list. The act ofcrossing it off will give you just the small satisfaction and a feeling ofachievement. Finally, when you look at the list, you can modify oralter your plans according to the need of the hour. Such an exercisemay be done at a piece of paper or a diary. Later this may become justa part of your mental habit.Honestly speaking, most of the students sabotage their working dayby too long pottering in the bedroom, or breakfast, or over newspaper.Get up early, dress up briskly, finish breakfast without lingering andthen attack the days work. There are some very obvious priorities.You should tackle first those tasks that can least afford to wait. Beinga student competing with lakhs of others, you have to decide and planthe schedule of the day on priority basis. Should you do mathematicsor English; or should you go for chemistry or G.K. book ……… orshould you finish with exercise that your teacher gave …… choice isyours. But do not quickly change your mind impulsively or becauseyou like X subject better than Y - after all you have to score well inall the subjects.Tackle one job at a time. There is so much to be done that one islikely to get confused as to what to do first and from where to beginit. Consequently on any of the tasks for fear of not finishing the otherin time, and finally do nothing. These are times when you have to domany things at a time. Decision ought to be yours. It is your life. It isyour day. And it will be your achievement. Think with a cool mindand take up the job of top priority first. Most things require attention- and you are capable of attending one thing at a time. So, dont letyour attention be split or diverted, come what may. If you tackle mostobviously urgent task first, and let others wait, then tackle the other in
  11. 11. whatever order (you think is appropriate), you will be surprised at theamount of work you can do. Remember, "panic paralyses and calmcan strengthen us."It is equally important that you do not overwork yourself andbecome fatigued - mentally or physically. As some jobs are finishedand provide satisfaction to you, take rest period also - not to forget thenext job but to be better prepared for it. A few minutes to splash anaching brow with cold water or work in fresh air will be helpful. Toavoid/reduce fatigue you may also alternate sedentary jobs andactive jobs, because a change is as good as rest. If you have beendoing mathematics for hours, better do some gardening for some timeand shift back to your studies later. This will give you a fresh frame ofmind and strength. Comparative freshness of new occupation helps usto concentrate and makes work more interesting.The Expanding And Spiritual Quotient (SQ)To begin with let me confess that the terms Spirit and SpiritualQuotient are not the part of scientific vocabulary yet. And still youhear more and more about the terms like: Spiritual intelligence,Spiritual quotient, Spiritual relation quotient, Souls intelligence,Cosmic intelligence, Self-actualization and so on. Mans interest inextra sensory process has always been multiplying despite hisscientific bent of mind coupled with well-focused empirical zeal.Religion and Spiritualism have always involved greater number ofbelievers and followers than non-believers: it is to say that the numberof believers has always been higher than others, throughout the world.Greatest scientists and scholars at some stage of their life haverecognized the existence of „some kind of intelligence, which cannotbe measured or touched, perhaps referring to Spiritual Intelligence.We may talk and reason all our lives, but cannot understand a word ofTruth unless we Experience it ourselves.The neurologists and other scientists know that the greatest power islodged in fine, not in the coarse. In his words Swami Vivekanandasaid, "we see a man taking up a huge weight, we see his musclesswell, and all over his body we see signs of exertion, and we thinkmuscles are more powerful things. But it is thin thread-likestructures, the neurons that bring power to the muscles. Themoment one of these tiny looking neurons is cut off from reachingthe muscles from brain, the muscles will not be able to move.These neurons actually bring the power from something finerstill-- thought, and so on". Thus, it is the finer that is really the seatof power.
  12. 12. We can see the movements in gross but cannot see the movements infiner, as too subtle these are in order to be perceived. Perhaps oursenses are not that sharp or keen to be able to notice thesubtle world. Neurologists, psychologists and other scientists areworking in such directions, with the hope that one-day humans (atleast some of them), may be trained to work at very subtle level of theexistence. Some familiar terms in this context are Extra SensoryPerception (ESP), Distance seeing or Remote viewing etc. After allwe talk so much about mind but who has seen it? Who has touched ortasted it?SQ-- The Spiritual Quotient - IQ and EQ are the integral part ofSpiritual Quotient (SQ). Spiritual intelligence is not necessarilyrelated to religion. According to Zohar, Spiritual intelligence is aboutthe human need and talent for finding meaning in experience. Shesays" it is our access to and use of meaning, vision, and value in theway that we think and the decision that we make" SQ can not bequantified or measured, whereas IQ and EQ may be assessed. Thereason being that the very essence of spiritual intelligence lies in itsseeking a bigger and broader, ever growing perspective. SQ mayalso be seen as the highest and ever growing need in the mankind.Basically all the human beings are spiritual in their nature. They maydiffer in their evolution of such a need and hence work at differentlevels of "need satisfaction". Abraham Maslow, a great psychologistand existentialist, classified such needs of the man in five categoriesin a hierarchical order:The lowest needs in such hierarchy are Biological, such as hunger,thirst and sex. Next are the Safety needs that include security, stability
  13. 13. and order. Then come belongingness such as affiliation, affection, andidentification. Thereafter Self-esteem needs follows that includeprestige, success, and self respect. Finally at the top in hierarchycomes the need for Self-actualization that refers to persons need todevelop his full potentialities in whatever field he works.The beauty and essence of Self-actualization is that it is spirally cyclicin nature: more and more a person gets satisfied, more and more heseeks such satisfaction. Its parallel is seen in Indian concept of Self-realization and Atma darashana. Vedanta refers to "Ananda", thatkeeps on multiplying and ever evolving that finally merges intoParmananda the Universal Self.In todays materialistic and highly competitive world man seem to beloosing his identity and direction both. Fast growing technologicalchanges have put a lot of pressure on him that blinds his vision forother alternatives of growth and survival.Man seems to have become machine forgetting his true essence andoriginal needs with which he comes to earth. Career, Competition,jobs, more money, higher status, etc. are the slogans of the day.Breath a moment, give a chance to your self for self-reflection. Youmay find some relevance of spiritualism not only with yourcareer and career planning, but also with your life and success.It gives you an opportunity to uncondition your mind and look for adifferent, unstressed and relaxed way of life even in career planning.It also provides you careers-- dont forget people do teach yoga,astrology, ayurveda, and other healing techniques throughout theworld. As a matter of fact even though I personally dont like calling itIndustry, billions of dollars flow in market that gives some kind ofrelief to the people from the stress and agony being produced by thepresent style of living. Acupuncture is so widely being used inwestern and south Asian countries that people do make their career inthis line too.Why struggle only for English style of medicine and surgery only.Remember, you need to be creative in order to find new solutions ofthe chronic problems-- be it anything.CreativityYou may be aware of the words Eureka ……. Eureka ……, and yetunaware about its relation with creativity.King Hiero decided to place a golden crown in the temple as a gesture
  14. 14. of thanks - offering to Gods after he won the throne of Syracuse. Hemade a contact at a fixed price and weighed out the gold for thecontractor at the royal scale. The contractor worked on the given goldand delivered a beautiful crown equal to the weight of the gold givento him. Later, a charge was made that the contractor had removed thegold and added silver instead, to keep the weight equal. The kingbecame furious and asked Archimedes to find out the facts.It was a big problem for Archimedes as he knew little about the waysto answer this problem of the king. Yet he kept on thinking aboutsome kind of solution to establish if the contractor had stolen thegold. While he was working on the problem in his mind he happenedto go into a bath and noticed that when he got into the bath-tub,exactly the same amount of water flowed over the side as the volumeof his body that was under water. This (accidental) observation gavehim a clue to the solution. He jumped out of tub and in a rush of joy,he ran naked, shouting loudly Eureka … Eureka … (i.e., I havefound it ……, I have found it …….).Archimedes could scientifically prove that the contractor had cheatedthe king. The silver in the crown, having a larger volume than anequal weight of gold, made the crown displaced more water than itwould have, had it been made of pure gold.Archimedes seemed to have found the novel and unique solutionmagically (all of sudden), but the truth is that even in bath tub, he wasworking on the problem (unconsciously) without being aware of it. Inthis example the process of Creativity (Creative thinking) is clearlyseen. It refers to mental process that leads to solutions, ideas, artisticforms, theories or products that are novel and unique. Creativethinking involves the manipulation of images and other symbolicelements; the elements are rearranged (bypass) to achieve some goalin such a way that the pattern of symbols is totally new. It may besurprising how many great principles and ideas were achieved inbuses, bathrooms, and bedrooms. Obviously, these are the placeswhere the individual is relaxed and under little pressure.Usually, even though it seems that creative solution to a problem hasemerged all of a sudden, it is not so. Creative process takes (quiteoften) certain sequential step: (i) problem recognition (ii) preparation(iii) inculcation (iv) illumination (v) verification and evaluation. If forinstance the solution to the problem does not stand verification, onegoes back (unconsciously) to the beginning (step I) and repeats theprocess or else the final solution is accepted.One may improve creativity by:
  15. 15. Providing specific instruction in creative thinking as divergentthinking is in focus of such a process.Fostering openness to new experiences.Providing consigned and favorable social environment.You may also improve your creativity by putting your thoughts andmind to proper use. For such achievement, you apply wings to yourthoughts but not to wonder around and day-dream. Practice to thinkin divergent manners and unique ways to solve your problems.Diversion does not necessarily imply perversion or revolt. It onlyprovides bigger challenge and more stimulation to your brain to workmore independently. Remember, everyone has this potential. Whatyou have to do is to put yourself in the situations where you have nocommon solution to the problem. Give your mind some exercise - theonly way to be Creative is to think Creatively.Power of ConcentrationNo matter how long you sit with open eyes looking at the open book,hardly anything is registered in your brain unless you make meaningout of the text.Concentration is the process of selecting certain inputs for inclusionin the focus of experience. Whenever an individual tries to focus hisconcentration on an object, idea or text the process of attentiondivides the field of his experience into a focus and a margin. Whiletrying to concentrate, one ties to bring the information (e.g., a text)under focus of attention. While trying to focus your attention onrelevant (text) material, you are filtering all other irrelevant, marginaland unwanted information to the margin. If you succeed in doing soyou will definitely understand the (text or spoken) material and notcomplain about lack of concentration.Many great persons are known for their power of concentration.While it is common for many students not to be able to concentrate, itis in their interest to develop their power of concentration.When we read a thrilling novel or magazine of our interest, we areusually not troubled with the problem of concentration. At times, youdont even notice a person entering the room. What is important toyou is to arouse and maintain interest in various subjects of yourstudies. Some subject/s would definitely not interest you but you haveto remember and remind yourself about the goals you want toachieve.Mudit, a student at undergraduate level wanted to be fully qualified
  16. 16. and successful in his perspective career. He wanted the prestige, thesecurity, and the satisfaction that his career would bring to him. Thiswas his ambition, his supreme desire. Mudit resolved to beginstudying for the series of examinations which would give him hishearts desire. During his intensive studies, there were times when hefaltered a little in his resolve, and frequently there were eveningswhen his mind would wander from some of the textbooks. Afterconsulting me about his problems, Mudit discovered that the secret ofconcentration lay in quickening his original desire, in re-kindling hisinterest. When he found his attention to be wandering seriously, hewould visualize himself as having gained his much desiredqualifications. He would remind himself of the increased income itwould bring and many exciting and worthwhile things he could dowith that bigger salary and higher status. After this little excursioninto a very possible future, Mudit found that he returned to his studieswith great zeal and enthusiasm. This resolve to succeed thusstrengthened and improved his concentration. You may find your ownways and techniques to improve the concentration. Nothing else couldinterest you so much as negotiating your present difficulty, andirrelevant thoughts will cease to obtrude.Strong Will-power is a necessary condition, especially foracademically oriented subjects. The person of weak will would havespent all the evening in day dreaming, without doing anything tomake his dreams come true. How about you? You might say "thatswhat I lack-will-power ……. I just cant bring myself to act ……"Power of MindEverything speaks of expansion in the contemporary world. Throughthe expansion of knowledge in psychology, a new era of mentalpower is emerging. There are many discoveries in the field ofpsychology that can help us to realize our mental potentials – themental powers.The medical science acknowledges that in case of many functionaldiseases, the troubles are caused, not so much by physical factors, butprimarily by emotional factors in the mind of the sufferer. A rash forinstance, might be caused by a guilty conscience, a headache mightappear as a consequence of the emergence of an intolerable memory.Mind – The Master: - Just imagine you may cure asthma, pepticulcer, high blood pressure, allergic troubles and many such ordered bya part of the mind you are not conscious of. This (unconscious) part ofthe mind is at work, both while you are awake and when you are
  17. 17. sleeping. And it never tires.You ought to realize that there are much healthier ways of dealingwith day to day problems, worries and anxieties. You may do so bytraining your mind consciously. Tell yourself that you are going tokeep well. Every time the temptation comes to suggest to yourself thatyou are not so well, counter it with the suggestions of health, successand well being. An hour before you go to bed, get a pencil and apaper, write down your problem and possible answers to it. Quietlyfeed your mind with the problem asking your unconscious mind todeal with it during the quiet hours of the night. Give assurance toyourself that the right answer will be delivered to you when you getup the next morningIn the morning, give a few minutes to yourself – mediating before thedays work. Come back to your problem and you may realize thateveryone has sufficient mental power but a few use it to the maximumpossible extent. Be one of the latter.The mind waits to serve you and has the capacity much greater thanwhat you realize. There are no limits to the mental power. You muststop putting limits to yourself. Stop allowing self-pity to rule yourmind. Stop believing the arguments like, “ I never had a chance”, …..“ It is all the fault of my parents”…..” if only the things had beendifferent” Remove such phrases and notions from your vocabulary forall practical purposes. Know that you have your chance by work andstudy. You have the power to settle your destiny. And if you reallywish it, with diligence and good heart, you can climb to the top of theladder.Improving The IQThose of you know that intelligence is not one ability but aggregate ofmany abilities have a reason to be optimistic. There is always a hopethat one can improve some of his abilities and thereby can achievebetter IQ grades. Intelligence is something with which we have beenprogrammed at the time of birth. Intelligence is like a seed. The seedwill determine the quality of the plant, its height, strength, flowersand fruits. However, the seed can become that plant (or a tree) only ifit is nurtured by its environment. No matter how fine (quality) a seedyou have, unless it gets good soil, good sun, minerals, water etc. itwill not result in the best of its quality in terms of size and amount offlower or fruits. On the other hand, even if the quality of the seed isjust average and it gets optimal environmental support, the resultantplant may be better at least comparable to the better quality seed notnurtured properly. This precisely is the case with intelligence.
  18. 18. Your friend may be more intelligent than you. But you have noreason to feel depressed about your own self. A little insight in thewhole process and some efforts on your part can easily bring you atpar with him. Obviously you will ask, how? "How do I improve myresults or outcome and make it at par with those who have inheritedbetter capacity than me?" the answer is simple: enrich yourenvironment.The character of enriched environment is that it gives more than usualopportunities for learning through experience. Recent psychologicalresearch shows that one can improve his IQ by enriching hisenvironment. It does not mean that those who are economically richare having enriched environment naturally, and those who are poorlack it.Any one who wants to improve his measured intelligence or IQ cando it without spending a single penny. He can do it without spendinggeniuses come from environments rich in interaction between thedeveloping persons and older (experienced) people. Talk to peoplewho interest you, listen to them, try to analyze and understand them;see their positive aspects and try to gain from them. Surprisingly, youlearn a great deal, lot more with such interactions than from readingvolumes of books for months.If you feel your earlier achievements have not been satisfactory due tosome reasons other than your potentials you ought to recognize yourenvironment. Your friends, books, TV programs that you see, and thekind of people you interact with constitute your environment. It alsoincludes kind of magazines you read, the articles and the radioprograms you listen to. Reading more books and articles are good butnot sufficient for growth. One must expose one self to various kind ofpeople and situations. You have to be very careful as to what kind ofdiscussions you do and its content. Then analyze them and givefeedback to yourself to improve further. Real friendship or goodcompany is not just to spend time; rather it should add to yourintellectual growth. Thus, one always grows with continuousinteraction with his environment. That is why your environmentshould be carefully organized in tune with your goal.If you are poor in particular language, expose yourself more to peoplewho speak that language. If you are not able to solve arithmeticproblems with ease and accurately, do more practice with suchproblems. Remember failure is the first step towards success. Practicemakes a man perfect. Those who become IAS or engineers or evendoctors are mostly of the same intelligence as you have - it is just that
  19. 19. they practice more and work harder for their goals. There is nosubstitute to work. Everyday of living brings you opportunity of self -improvement - just use them and by doing so you can improve yourIQ (measured intelligence).InitiativeThe emperor-philosopher Marcus Aurelius anticipated the findings ofmodern psychology that the general tenor of our thoughts determinesthe kind of our thoughts, which determines the kind of person weactually become. This is true not only in the realms of socialaccomplishment, moral development, and material success, but also inthat of health. If your health has been poor, dont accept that conditionas a life sentence. So is true if you failed in making your career in thedesired field. Take initiative in various possible fields.In the field of education, ordinary people tend to rest content withwhat was handed out to them in school or college. But ambitiouspeople are increasingly taking the initiative and doing something toremedy the gaps in their education. They join coaching classes, readeducative magazines, participate in academic activities, and try toreach the latest and most informative ways to gain knowledge. Theyuse such knowledge to improve the abilities and personality. Theyplan their career and work for it with an all out effort.You should not expect the career of your dreams to be handed to youon a plate. Make up your mind exactly what you want to do and thengo after it like a „hound after a hare. Achievement involves muchpatience and hard work, and the effort will be amply rewarded.Within reasonable limits, hardly anything is impossible to the manwho really makes up his mind. Determination and enthusiasm canovercome the most formidable obstacles. The chemist of May andBaker produced the drug for pneumonia – it was called “M and B693” because it was produced only after six hundred ninety threeexperiments. Thomas Edison, who invented electric bulb after morethan fifteen hundred experiments, said “I never allow myself to bediscouraged under any circumstances”.Once you begin showing initiative, even the most terrifyingcircumstances will shrivel and slink away, acknowledging yoursupremacy. With courage and initiative, you can start changing yourcircumstances in the desired direction.Improving MemoryMemory is a fundamental power without which there could be no
  20. 20. other intellectual operation. The present examination and educationsystem in India gives much weightage to memory. Thus it becomesall the more important to those who aspire to score higher ranks inexaminations. It does not, however, mean that memory is the solefactor in determining the examination performance. Nevertheless, itremains the focus of primary importance for nothing can be expressedif one does not remember, no matter how well one has learned thematerial without memory there can be no learning, and withoutlearning each of us would remain as helpless as in the hour of birth.Many students forget quite a bit of their learned material in theexamination hall. And a soon as the examination is over, one says,"Oh I forgot it in the examination, but now I remember it very well……". Perhaps, it was due to some kind of stress that inhibited withyour recall during examination, and when the situation of stress(duration of examination) was over, the memory came to yourconscious stream of mind. Good memory results from deeper, moreelaborate processing (understanding) of the material. It is, however,not always important for a person to process information deeply. Forexample while going to school it is not important for you to processmuch information while driving your vehicle or sitting in a bus. But ifyou want to achieve good grade in examination, you must go intodepth of the lessons and other relevant contents for otherwise yourmemory may fade.No matter how confident you are about your understanding of thematerial, unless at times you repeat (rehearse) the material it is likelyto deceive you. Rehearsal is not a parrot. If involves Keepinginformation at the center of attention. Most effective way of rehearsalis elaboration. It means degree to which incoming information (e.g.,text) is processed so that it can be tied or linked with the existingmemories in the form of images or figures.You may also use Mnemonics to improve your memory. Most ofthese techniques are based on the linking or association of thematerial to be remembered, with systematic and organized set ofimages or words that are already firmly established in long-term-memory and therefore can serve as reminder cues. Thus, the fact canbe woven into a jingle which makes them easy to memorize. Forexample, many of you remember the order of colors in the spectrumof visible light - VIBGYOR - violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow,orange, red. Friends, you will be surprised to know that people canremember unbelievably well the things you dont even make attemptsfor. Very often, their secret lies in memories. You may just make littlefun by remembering the poem here and in a matter of few minutes,you may realize that you have remembered forty-two names of the
  21. 21. presidents of United States.IntelligenceThough there is no perfect way in which intelligence can be defined,psychologists have given emphasis on different aspects ofintelligence. For example some place emphasis on ability to learn,others define intelligence as the ability to carry on logical thinking.And yet some other psychologists focus on ability to adjust oradaptation of individual to his total environment. Thus it is logical toassume that a person who can recognize and apply what he hasacquired for the purpose of dealing with varied and novel situation ismore intelligent than a person who is capable of little beyondrepeating what he had previously acquired. So friends! if someone hasmemorized a standard answer to the question asked and got moremarks than you, it does not show that he is more intelligent than you.But yes, he has put efforts in memorizing for which he has beenrewarded. Memory is definitely an asset and it also adds tointelligence. However, it cannot be solely equated with intelligence.As a matter of fact intelligence is just not one ability. Intelligence is aglobal capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to thinkrationally, and to deal effectively with environment. Therefore weobserve that intelligence consists of number of abilities of anindividual. Then, how can your inability to answer some questions onmathematics or general knowledge make you less intelligent? Theproblem with most available cheap literature in the market is that inzeal of selling psychology quickly, they give wrong prescriptions toincrease your intelligence quickly. Alas! This is not possible.Intelligence is not something like weight that can be altered easily.But yes, by exposing yourself to enriched environment you cancertainly improve your IQ by a few points. But certainly not bymerely reading a book.Psychologists have also distinguished several kids of intelligence.There are three kind of intelligence: social intelligence, concreteintelligence and abstract intelligence. Social intelligence involves theabilities to understand to deal with persons; concrete intelligenceinvolves the abilities to understand and deal with the things (e.g.,scientific appliances); abstract intelligence involves the abilities tounderstand and deal with verbal and mathematical symbols. If youhappen to be poor in one kind of intelligence, it does not mean thatyou are low in overall intelligence. Take the example of a boy who isnot good at talking to people or even understanding the verbal andmathematical symbols; he, however, may be very good in dealingwith machines and thus can be an excellent mechanic for cars, scooteror even aeroplanes. Similarly you do not have to worry if you find
  22. 22. yourself to be poor in understanding the scientific appliances etc., asyou may be good in some other kind of intelligence e.g., in social orabstract.Coming back to the meaning of intelligence, remember, "intelligenceis not one ability, it consists of many abilities put together." So if youhappen to score low on dimension of intelligence you are likely tocompensate it by scoring high on some other dimension. Then whyyou should be told that you have lower intelligence? In fact you arenot below average by failing on some best items. You rather askyourself as to what there items are measuring? Most of the tests thatyou see in various magazines/newspapers and books are the tests ofreasoning or mathematics which is just a part of intelligence.Moreover, such tests are usually not standardized tests - they maylack the required validity and reliability. It does not mean that youdont practice with these tests or throw them away. Just remember thatthese items are tapping some kind of ability of your and not what istechnically called intelligence.What if you repeatedly cannot score high on such tests in order to besuccessful in some exam? Dont worry. It takes some time for you tounderstand the basics behind such items are practice; even when youfail again. It will take time - less for some and more for others. Butyou will grasp the things ultimately and within few months you willbe surprised by your own progress. It does not mean, however, thatyour intelligence has improved.Can we improve intelligence - Now many of you may ask: Can weimprove our intelligence? Yes and No. For answering thesequestions we should pose another question: Is intelligence inherited orderived from environment? Why people differ in their intelligence?Most psychologists and other experts agree that at least some aspectsof intelligence are inherited, but opinions differ to the relativecontribution of heredity and environment. The idea is that ifintelligence is inherited absolutely then it is rather difficult to improveit.However, if it happens to be on environment, then one couldperhaps improve his intelligence by bringing certain changes in theenvironment. The evidence bearing on the inheritance of intelligencecomes from the studies correlating IQs between persons of variousdegrees of genetic relationships. In a survey of more than 100 suchstudies, it was found that the average correlation between IQs ofparents and their children in +0.40. It means that intelligent parentsare likely to have intelligent children. The correlation between the IQsof identical twins is very high i.e., +0.86. it is because the identicaltwins develop from single egg and share precisely the same heredity.In contrast of this, correlation between the IQs of foster parents and
  23. 23. their children is very low i.e., +0.31. all these findings seem tosuggest that heredity plays a very important role in determining theintelligence. Although genetic determinants of intelligence are strong,there studies also indicate that environment is also important. Forexample, when siblings are reared together - in the same homeenvironment - their IQ similarity (correlations) increases. Therestands always a good chance of improving intelligence, as the kind ofenvironmental influence, we live in, usually inhibit the full - capacity- use of intelligence. And if we can organize the environment in sucha way so that it facilitates the abilities associated with intelligence, itwill result in apparently enhanced intelligence. Practically suchexposure to environment results in increased IQ on a test. So you candefinitely improve your ID even through in reality the intelligence canonly be improved up to what you have come with i.e., trueintelligence. How could we enrich our environment to improve theIQ?