Using These Slides These PowerPoint slides have been designed for use by students and instructors using the  Anthropology:...
Contents of Student CD-ROM <ul><li>Student CD-ROM—this fully interactive student CD-ROM is packaged free of charge with ev...
Contents of  Online Learning Center <ul><li>Student’s Online Learning Center—this free web-based student supplement featur...
In the Field C  h  a  p  t  e  r 2 This chapter introduces students to the field methods and research methods employed by ...
Ethnography <ul><li>Ethnography is the firsthand personal study of a local cultural setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnographe...
Participant Observation <ul><li>Ethnographers are trained to be aware of and record details from daily events, the signifi...
Ethnography Here, ethnographer Nadine Peacock works among the Efe of Congo. Photo Credit: Irven DeVore / Anthro-Photo
Conversation and Interviewing <ul><li>Ethnographic interviews range in formality from undirected conversation, to open-end...
The Genealogical Method <ul><li>Early anthropologists identified types of relatedness, such as kinship, descent, and marri...
Ethnographic Techniques <ul><li>Key Cultural Consultants are particularly well-informed members of the culture being studi...
Ethnographic Techniques Anthropologists such as Christie Kiefer typically form personal relationships with cultural consul...
Emic vs. Etic <ul><li>An emic (native-oriented) approach investigates how natives think, categorize the world, express tho...
The Evolution of Ethnography <ul><li>Bronislaw Malinowski is generally considered the father of ethnography. </li></ul><ul...
Bronislaw Malinowski <ul><li>Malinowski believed that all aspects of culture were linked and intertwined, making it imposs...
Bronislaw Malinowski Here, Bronislaw Malinowski is seated with villagers of the Trobriand Islands. Photo Credit: British L...
Interpretive Anthropology <ul><li>Interpretive anthropologist believe that ethnographers should describe and interpret tha...
Experimental Anthropology <ul><li>Experimental anthropologists, like Marcus and Fischer, have begun to question the tradit...
Ethnographic Present <ul><li>The early ethnographies were often written in the ethnographic present, a romanticized timele...
Problem-Oriented Ethnography <ul><li>Ethnographers typically address a specific problem or set of problems, within the con...
Longitudinal Research <ul><li>Longitudinal Research is the long-term study of a community, region, society, or culture bas...
Archaeological Survey <ul><li>Systematic survey provides a regional perspective on the archaeological record. </li></ul><u...
Settlement Patterns <ul><li>Settlement patterns are important for making inferences regarding the social complexity of the...
Excavation <ul><li>Excavation compliments the regional survey data with more fine grained data collected at the level of a...
Excavation: Planning <ul><li>Nobody digs a site without a clear reason, because there are so many sites and because excava...
Excavation: Preparation <ul><li>Before a site is excavated, it is first mapped and surface collected so that the archaeolo...
Excavation: Preparation Archaeologists use grids, such as this grid in Teotihuican, Mexico, in order to record the locatio...
Excavation: Stratigraphy <ul><li>Digging can be done in either arbitrary levels or by following the natural stratigraphy. ...
Excavation: Stratigraphy James Adovasio records the stratigraphy of the Meadowcroft rock shelter site in southwestern Penn...
Excavation: Recovery <ul><li>Archaeologists use a range of techniques to recover materials from the excavation. </li></ul>...
Show Me The Money <ul><li>Anthropologists need funding to support their research in the field. </li></ul><ul><li>There are...
Show Me The Money <ul><li>In order to receive funding from any of these institutions, anthropologists must write grant pro...
Show Me The Money <ul><li>Why this place? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The grant writer needs to demonstrate the connection betwe...
Ethics: People and Animals <ul><li>The primary ethical obligation of the anthropologist is to the people, species, or mate...
Ethics: Scholarship and Science <ul><li>Anthropologists should expect to encounter ethical dilemmas during their work. </l...
Ethics: Teaching <ul><li>Anthropologists should conduct their programs in ways that preclude discrimination on the basis o...
Ethics for Applied Anthropology <ul><li>Applied anthropologists should use and disseminate their work appropriately. </li>...
Survey Research <ul><li>Anthropologists working in large-scale societies are increasingly using survey methodologies to co...
Survey Research Comparison between Ethnography and Survey Research ETHNOGRAPHY SURVEY RESEARCH is the study whole, functio...
Survey Research Comparison between Ethnography and Survey Research (continued) ETHNOGRAPHY SURVEY RESEARCH tends to be con...
Anthropology in Complex Societies <ul><li>Anthropologists rely increasingly on a variety of different field methodologies ...
Science <ul><li>Science is a way of viewing the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Science recognizes the tentativeness and uncertai...
Social Science <ul><li>Associations are usually stated probabilistically: two or more variables tend to be related in a pr...
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Antropologia/anthropology

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Antropologia/anthropology

  1. 2. Using These Slides These PowerPoint slides have been designed for use by students and instructors using the Anthropology: The Exploration of Human Diversity textbook by Conrad Kottak. These files contain short outlines of the content of the chapters, as well as selected photographs, maps, and tables. Students may find these outlines useful as a study guide or a tool for review. Instructors may find these files useful as a basis for building their own lecture slides or as handouts. Both audiences will notice that many of the slides contain more text than one would use in a typical oral presentation, but it was felt that it would be better to err on the side of a more complete outline in order to accomplish the goals above. Both audiences should feel free to edit, delete, rearrange, and rework these files to build the best personalized outline, review, lecture, or handout for their needs.
  2. 3. Contents of Student CD-ROM <ul><li>Student CD-ROM—this fully interactive student CD-ROM is packaged free of charge with every new textbook and features the following unique </li></ul><ul><li>tools: </li></ul><ul><li>How To Ace This Course: </li></ul><ul><li>Animated book walk-through </li></ul><ul><li>Expert advice on how to succeed in the course (provided on video by the University of Michigan) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning styles assessment program </li></ul><ul><li>Study skills primer </li></ul><ul><li>Internet primer </li></ul><ul><li>Guide to electronic research </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter-by-Chapter Electronic Study Guide: </li></ul><ul><li>Video clip from a University of Michigan lecture on the text chapter </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive map exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter objectives and outline </li></ul><ul><li>Key terms with an audio pronunciation guide </li></ul><ul><li>Self-quizzes (multiple choice, true/false, and short-answer questions with feedback indicating why your answer is correct or incorrect) </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinking essay questions </li></ul><ul><li>Internet exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary flashcards </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter-related web links </li></ul><ul><li>Cool Stuff: </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive globe </li></ul><ul><li>Study break links </li></ul>
  3. 4. Contents of Online Learning Center <ul><li>Student’s Online Learning Center—this free web-based student supplement features many of the same tools as the Student CD-ROM (so students can access these materials either online or on CD, whichever is convenient), but also includes: </li></ul><ul><li>An entirely new self-quiz for each chapter (with feedback, so students can take two pre-tests prior to exams) </li></ul><ul><li>Career opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Additional chapter-related readings </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropology FAQs </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint lecture notes </li></ul><ul><li>Monthly updates </li></ul>
  4. 5. In the Field C h a p t e r 2 This chapter introduces students to the field methods and research methods employed by anthropologists. It pays special attention to the field methods of ethnographers and archaeologists, to survey research, and to funding and ethics in anthropology.
  5. 6. Ethnography <ul><li>Ethnography is the firsthand personal study of a local cultural setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnographers try to understand the whole of a particular culture, not just fragments (e.g. the economy). </li></ul><ul><li>In pursuit of this holistic goal, ethnographers usually spend an extended period of time living with the group they are studying and employ a series of techniques to gather information. </li></ul><ul><li>The early ethnographers conducted research almost exclusively among small-scale, relatively isolated societies, with simple technologies and economics. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Participant Observation <ul><li>Ethnographers are trained to be aware of and record details from daily events, the significance of which may not be apparent until much later. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Participant observation,” as practiced by ethnographers, involves the researcher taking part in the activities being observed. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike laboratory research, ethnographers do not isolate variables or attempt to manipulate the outcome of events they are observing. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Ethnography Here, ethnographer Nadine Peacock works among the Efe of Congo. Photo Credit: Irven DeVore / Anthro-Photo
  8. 9. Conversation and Interviewing <ul><li>Ethnographic interviews range in formality from undirected conversation, to open-ended interviews focusing on specific topics, to formal interviews using a predetermined schedule of questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly, more than one of these methods are used to accomplish complementary ends on a single ethnographic research project. </li></ul>
  9. 10. The Genealogical Method <ul><li>Early anthropologists identified types of relatedness, such as kinship, descent, and marriage, as being the fundamental organizing principals of nonindustrial societies. </li></ul><ul><li>The genealogical method of diagramming such kin relations was developed as a formalized means of comparing kin-based societies. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Ethnographic Techniques <ul><li>Key Cultural Consultants are particularly well-informed members of the culture being studied that can provide the ethnographer with some of the most useful or complete information. </li></ul><ul><li>Life histories are intimate and personal collections of a lifetime of experiences from certain members of the community being studied. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life histories reveal how specific people perceive, react to, and contribute to changes that affect their lives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since life histories are focused on how different people interpret and deal with similar issues, they can be used to illustrate the diversity within a given community. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Ethnographic Techniques Anthropologists such as Christie Kiefer typically form personal relationships with cultural consultants, such as this Guatemalan weaver. Photo Credit: Peggy / Yoran Kahana / Peter Arnold, Inc.
  12. 13. Emic vs. Etic <ul><li>An emic (native-oriented) approach investigates how natives think, categorize the world, express thoughts, and interpret stimuli. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emic means the “native viewpoint” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key cultural consultants are essential for understanding the emic perspective. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An etic (science-oriented) approach emphasizes the categories, interpretations, and features that the anthropologist considers important. </li></ul>
  13. 14. The Evolution of Ethnography <ul><li>Bronislaw Malinowski is generally considered the father of ethnography. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He did salvage ethnography, recording cultural diversity that was threatened by westernization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His ethnographies were scientific accounts of unknown people and places. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethnographic realism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The writer’s goal was to produce an accurate, objective, scientific account of the study community. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The writer’s authority was rooted in his or her personal research experience with that community. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Bronislaw Malinowski <ul><li>Malinowski believed that all aspects of culture were linked and intertwined, making it impossible to write about just one cultural feature without discussing how it relates to others. </li></ul><ul><li>Malinowski argued that understanding the emic perspective, the native’s point of view, was the primary goal of ethnography. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Bronislaw Malinowski Here, Bronislaw Malinowski is seated with villagers of the Trobriand Islands. Photo Credit: British Library of Political & Economic Science London School of Economics and Political Science
  16. 17. Interpretive Anthropology <ul><li>Interpretive anthropologist believe that ethnographers should describe and interpret that which is meaningful to the natives. </li></ul><ul><li>Geertz argues that cultures are texts that natives constantly “read” and that ethnographers must decipher. </li></ul><ul><li>Meanings in a given culture are carried by public symbolic forms, including words, rituals, and customs. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Experimental Anthropology <ul><li>Experimental anthropologists, like Marcus and Fischer, have begun to question the traditional goals, methods, and styles of ethnographic realism and salvage ethnography. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnographies should be viewed as both works of art and works of science. </li></ul><ul><li>The ethnographer functions as the mediator who communicates information from the natives to the readers. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Ethnographic Present <ul><li>The early ethnographies were often written in the ethnographic present, a romanticized timelessness before westernization, that gave the ethnographies an eternal, unchanging quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, anthropologists understand that this is an unrealistic construct that inaccurately portrayed the natives as isolated and cut off from the rest of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnographers today recognize that cultures constantly change and that this quality must be represented in the ethnography. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Problem-Oriented Ethnography <ul><li>Ethnographers typically address a specific problem or set of problems, within the context of broader depictions of cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Variables with the most significant relationship to the problem being addressed are given priority in the analysis. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Longitudinal Research <ul><li>Longitudinal Research is the long-term study of a community, region, society, or culture based on a series of repeated visits. </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal research has become increasingly common among ethnographic studies, as repeat visits to field sites have become easier. </li></ul><ul><li>Such studies may also encompass multiple, related sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Team Research involves a series of ethnographers conducting complimentary research in a given community, culture, or region. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Archaeological Survey <ul><li>Systematic survey provides a regional perspective on the archaeological record. </li></ul><ul><li>Survey collects information on settlement patterns (e.g. the location of cities, towns, villages, and hamlets) over a large area (e.g. a river valley). </li></ul><ul><li>Survey is one of the ways in which archaeologists locate sites that might be excavated in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>During a survey, the team records the location, the size, and the approximate age of the site. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Settlement Patterns <ul><li>Settlement patterns are important for making inferences regarding the social complexity of the prehistoric communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Groups at lower levels of complexity generally have lower population densities and people living in small campsites or hamlets with very little variation in architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>With greater complexity, comes higher population densities (more people living in the same space) and a variety of sites organized along a settlement hierarchy (e.g. cities, towns, villages, and hamlets) with increased architectural variation between sites. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Excavation <ul><li>Excavation compliments the regional survey data with more fine grained data collected at the level of a specific site. </li></ul><ul><li>The layers or strata that make up a site help archaeologists establish a relative chronology for the material recovered (e.g. this pot is older than that pot). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The principle of superposition states that in an undisturbed sequence of strata, the oldest is on the bottom and each successive layer above is younger than the one below. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artifacts from the lower strata are older than artifacts from higher strata and artifacts from the same strata are roughly the same age. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Excavation: Planning <ul><li>Nobody digs a site without a clear reason, because there are so many sites and because excavation is so expensive and labor intensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Resource Management (CRM) or contract archaeology is concerned with excavating sites that are threatened by modern development. </li></ul><ul><li>Most other sites are selected for excavation because they are well suited to address a series of specific research questions. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Excavation: Preparation <ul><li>Before a site is excavated, it is first mapped and surface collected so that the archaeologist can make an informed decision about where to dig. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using the map, the archaeologist lays an arbitrary grid of one meter squares across the site. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This grid is used to record the location of the surface collection units as well as the excavation units on the surface of the site. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Excavation: Preparation Archaeologists use grids, such as this grid in Teotihuican, Mexico, in order to record the location of artifacts recovered during excavation. Photo Credit: Kenneth Garrett / National Geographic
  27. 28. Excavation: Stratigraphy <ul><li>Digging can be done in either arbitrary levels or by following the natural stratigraphy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using arbitrary level is quicker, but less refined and important information can be lost. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Following the natural stratigraphy is more labor intensive, but also more precise way of excavating as each layer (natural or cultural) is peeled off one by one. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Excavation: Stratigraphy James Adovasio records the stratigraphy of the Meadowcroft rock shelter site in southwestern Pennsylvania. Photo Credit: Scott Goldsmith
  29. 30. Excavation: Recovery <ul><li>Archaeologists use a range of techniques to recover materials from the excavation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All of the excavated soil is passed through screen to increase the likelihood that small and fragmented remains are recovered. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flotation is used to recovered carbonized and very small materials like fish bones and seeds. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Show Me The Money <ul><li>Anthropologists need funding to support their research in the field. </li></ul><ul><li>There are a series of agencies that support anthropological research. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Science Foundation (NSF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Institutes of Health (NIH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Science Research Council (SSRC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Show Me The Money <ul><li>In order to receive funding from any of these institutions, anthropologists must write grant proposals that summarize what questions are going to be addressed, where the research will be conducted, and how it will be done. </li></ul><ul><li>Why this topic/problem? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The grant writer must present the topic or problem that they will address during the proposed research. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More importantly, the writer needs to convince the agency that the topic is important and worthy of being funded. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Show Me The Money <ul><li>Why this place? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The grant writer needs to demonstrate the connection between the research topic and the location where the research will be carried out. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some locations address certain topics better than others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why this person? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The grant writer needs to identify the special qualifications that he or she brings to the research topic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proficiency in the local language, previous research experience in the area, and strong local contacts are important. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How will the study be done? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The grant writer needs to discuss, as specifically as possible, how this research will be carried out. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This section can include a discussion of the techniques and methods as well as the logistics of living in the study community and gaining permission from the study community to perform the research. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Ethics: People and Animals <ul><li>The primary ethical obligation of the anthropologist is to the people, species, or materials he or she studies. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers must respect the safety, dignity, and privacy of the people, species or materials that he or she studies. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers should determine in advance whether their hosts wish to remain anonymous or receive recognition. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers should obtain the informed consent of the people to be studied and of those whose interests may be affected by the research. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropologists who develop close relationships with individuals must adhere to the obligations of openness and informed consent. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropologists may gain personally form their work, but they must not exploit individuals, groups, animals, or cultural or biological materials. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Ethics: Scholarship and Science <ul><li>Anthropologists should expect to encounter ethical dilemmas during their work. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropologists are responsible for the integrity and reputation of their discipline, of scholarship, and of science. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers should do all they can to preserve opportunities for future field work. </li></ul><ul><li>To the extent possible, researchers should disseminate their findings to the scientific and scholarly community. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropologists should consider reasonable requests for access to their data for purposes of research. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility to the public. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers should make their results available to sponsors, students, decision makers, and other non-anthropologists. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropologists may move beyond disseminating research results to a position of advocacy. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Ethics: Teaching <ul><li>Anthropologists should conduct their programs in ways that preclude discrimination on the basis of sex, marital status, “race”, social class, political convictions, disability, religion, ethnic background, national origin, sexual orientation, and age. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropologists should strive to improve their teaching and training techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers should impress a concern with ethics on their students. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers should properly acknowledge student assistance in their research and in the preparation of their work. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers must avoid sexual liaisons with those for whose education and professional training they are in any way responsible. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Ethics for Applied Anthropology <ul><li>Applied anthropologists should use and disseminate their work appropriately. </li></ul><ul><li>With employers, applied anthropologists should be honest about their qualifications, capabilities, aims, and intentions. </li></ul><ul><li>Applied anthropologists should be alert to the danger of compromising ethics as a condition for engaging in research or practice. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Survey Research <ul><li>Anthropologists working in large-scale societies are increasingly using survey methodologies to complement more traditional ethnographic techniques. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey involves drawing a study group or sample from the larger study population, collecting impersonal data, and performing statistical analyses on these data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By studying a properly selected and representative sample, social scientists can make accurate inferences about the larger population. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Survey research is considerably more impersonal than ethnography. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey researchers call the people who make up their study sample respondents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respondents answer a series of formally administered questions. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Survey Research Comparison between Ethnography and Survey Research ETHNOGRAPHY SURVEY RESEARCH is the study whole, functioning communities is the study a small sample of a larger community is usually based on firsthand fieldwork during which information is collected after a good, friendly working relationship, based on personal contact, is established between researcher and informants is often conducted with little to no personal contact between study subjects and researchers as interviews are frequently conducted by assistants over the phone or in printed form is generally interested in studying all aspects of a the informants’ lives (holistic) usually focused on a small number of variables, such as ones that influence voting, rather than on the totality of people’s lives
  39. 40. Survey Research Comparison between Ethnography and Survey Research (continued) ETHNOGRAPHY SURVEY RESEARCH tends to be conducted outside the First (industrial) World, among communities that do not read or write is normally carried out in modern nations , where most people are literate, permitting respondents to fill in their own questionnaire makes little use of statistics since the societies being investigated tend to be smaller and less diverse is heavily dependent upon statistical analyses in order to make inferences regarding a large and diverse study community, based on data collected from a small subset of that community
  40. 41. Anthropology in Complex Societies <ul><li>Anthropologists rely increasingly on a variety of different field methodologies to accommodate a demand for greater breadth of applicability of results. </li></ul><ul><li>Kottak argues that the core contribution of ethnology remains the qualitative data that result from close, long-term, in-depth contact between ethnographer and subjects. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Science <ul><li>Science is a way of viewing the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Science recognizes the tentativeness and uncertainty of our knowledge and understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>To improve our knowledge, scientists test hypotheses, which are suggested explanations of things and events. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanations show how and why the thing to be understood is related to other things in some known way. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanations rely on associations which are the observed relationships between two or more measured variables. </li></ul><ul><li>A theory is more general, suggesting and implying associations and attempting to explain them. </li></ul>
  42. 43. Social Science <ul><li>Associations are usually stated probabilistically: two or more variables tend to be related in a predictable way, but there are exceptions. </li></ul><ul><li>A theory is an explanatory framework that helps us understand why something exits. </li></ul><ul><li>Theories cannot be proved, we evaluate them through the method of falsification. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a theory is true, certain predictions should stand up to tests designed to disprove them.. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theories that have not been disproved are accepted. </li></ul></ul>

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