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Exploration 1


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US I - European Explorers

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Exploration 1

  1. 1. The Age of Discovery 8th Grade US History
  2. 2. 8th Grade Agenda Agenda: • Portuguese Sailors • Christopher Columbus •Spanish Conquistadors •The Columbian Exchange •French Explorers •English Explorers •colonization
  3. 3. European Exploration of the Americas 1400s - 1700 1400s - 1700
  4. 4. Exploration Preview QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  5. 5. Changes in Europe Middle Ages & Feudalism ................ 400s - 1300s Crusades ......................................... 1096 - 1300s Renaissance .................................... 1300s - 1600 Reformation ..................................... 1480s - 1600s
  6. 6. Impact of the Crusades • opened European countries to travel • introduced Asian goods to European markets • sparked competition between emerging European nations.
  7. 7. Europe and Asia
  8. 8. Impact of Science • advances made during the scientific revolution enabled people to make longer, safer sea voyages. • explorers were in search of new trade routes for spices. • European rulers wanted to control the spice trade.
  9. 9. Portuguese Explorers • Henry the Navigator • Bartholomeu Dias • Vasco da Gama • exploration of the African coast.
  10. 10. Voyages to America • Political climate in Europe • Ferdinand & Isabella • Christopher Columbus’ plan for exploration...
  11. 11. Columbus • Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer. • sought fame and fortune through exploration • believed you could reach India (the east), by sailing west.
  12. 12. Columbus cont. • made four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean to the American continents. • Initiated Spanish colonization of the New World. • died in Italy, impoverished and without the fame he desired
  13. 13. First Expedition
  14. 14. Line of Demarcation
  15. 15. Columbus on the Natives... “They ... brought us parrots and balls of cotton and spears and many other things, which they exchanged for the glass beads and hawks' bells. They willingly traded everything they owned... . They were well-built, with good bodies and handsome features.... They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves out of ignorance. They have no iron. Their spears are made of cane... . They would make fine servants.... With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want.”
  16. 16. more from Columbus “As soon as I arrived in the Indies, on the first Island which I found, I took some of the natives by force in order that they might learn and might give me information of whatever there is in these parts.” What type of information do you think Columbus wanted? Columbus reported the following about Cuba and Haiti: “Hispaniola is a miracle. Mountains and hills, plains and pastures, are both fertile and beautiful ... the harbors are unbelievably good and there are many wide rivers of which the majority contain gold. . . . There are many spices, and great mines of gold and other metals....”
  17. 17. Columbus’ Reports... The Indians, Columbus reported, "are so naive and so free with their possessions that no one who has not witnessed them would believe it. When you ask for something they have, they never say no. To the contrary, they offer to share with anyone...." He concluded his report by asking for a little help from their Majesties, and in return he would bring them from his next voyage "as much gold as they need ... and as many slaves as they ask." He was full of religious talk: "Thus the eternal God, our Lord, gives victory to those who follow His way over apparent impossibilities."
  18. 18. Mercantilism
  19. 19. Mercantilism - Defined • economic policy used from 1500-1700s • acquire colonies to control raw materials and markets • create a favorable balance of trade • maintain a strong navy • the strength/prosperity of a nations depends on its supply of capital
  20. 20. Spanish Explorers/Conquistado rs• Ponce De Leon • Balboa • Cortez • Pizarro • De Soto • Coronado
  21. 21. French Explorers • Cartier • Champlain • LaSalle • Marquette & Joliet • French Colonies
  22. 22. Ferdinand Magellan
  23. 23. English Explorers • John Cabot - Italian explorer, sailed for England Claimed North America for England (1497). • Henry Hudson - English/Dutch explorer explored the area that is near NewYork City today. Sailed up the river that is named after him. Laid claim to this area for the Dutch. Also explored Hudson Bay area of Canada • Walter Raleigh - English explorer, established the first English colony in America (unsuccessful), introduced tobacco to Europe. (1584) • Francis Drake - English “sea dog” first Englishman to circumnavigate the earth. Helped destroy the Spanish Armada (1580)
  24. 24. Spanish Colonies • divided into two provinces called Viceroyalties. (New Spain and Peru) • colonies were ruled by aViceroy (governor) • only people of 100% Spanish descent could hold governing positions. • Social Structure - Spanish, Creole, Mestizos, Natives, Slaves
  25. 25. Bartolome de Las Casas • Catholic Priest in the Spanish colonies • wrote extensively about the destruction of the native population in the “Indies” • advocated for an increase in African slavery in order to save the native population
  26. 26. Atlantic Slave Trade
  27. 27. Emergence of American Slavery • immune to European diseases • no friends of family to help escape • offered a permanent source of labor • experienced farm/plantation workers in their native lands.
  28. 28. Slavery Statistics • Between 1666 - 1776 approximately 3 million slaves were imported to the English, French, and Spanish colonies. • Over 250,000 died on the middle passage • By 1786 over 2 Million slaves were imported to the English colonies. • By the time the slave trade was outlawed, it is estimated that over 12 million Africans had been shipped to the Western Hemisphere.