Common Foot Problems


Published on

Common Foot Problems.. Symptoms,Signs,Complications, Treatments..etc

Common Foot Problems

  1. 1. Common Foot Problems A Project by
  2. 2. Your Foot • The feet are flexible structures of bones, joints, muscles, and soft tissues that let us stand upright and perform activities like walking, running, and jumping.  The foot contains  26 bones  33 joints  19 muscles  107 ligaments.
  3. 3. • The feet are divided into three sections 1. Forefoot 2. Midfoot 3. Hindfoot
  4. 4.  Forefoot  Contains the five toes (phalanges) and the five longer bones (metatarsals).  Midfoot  Pyramid-like collection of bones that form the arches of the feet.  Include the three cuneiform bones, the cuboid bone, and the navicular bone.  Hindfoot  Forms the heel and ankle.  The talus bone supports the leg bones (tibia and fibula), forming the ankle.  The calcaneus (heel bone) is the largest bone in the foot.
  5. 5. Foot arches  Foot has three distinct arches.  Two "longitudinal" arches (one on each side) run from front to back  One "transverse arch" runs across the midfoot from inside to outside.
  6. 6. Foot arches
  7. 7. Functions of foot arches  The structure of an arch is the spread the load out so it can be supported with the least amount of effort and material.  Some shock absorbency,  Prevents blood vessels and nerves from being crushed.
  8. 8. Functions of the foot  Proper functioning of the foot is required for normal gait
  9. 9.  Weight Distribution Weight of the body is supported by the foot, and is transmitted and distributed over 6 areas Functions of the foot
  10. 10. Common foot complaints  Hammertoes  Heel pain  Bunions  Athlete’s foot  Warts  Ingrowing nails
  11. 11. Bunions • Common bunion is a localized area of enlargement of the inner portion of the joint at the base of the big toe.(abnormal bony bump) • Big toe pushes up against other toes, forcing big toe joint in the opposite direction • Causes the big toe to move outward ( hallux valgus deformity)
  12. 12. • Most commonly affect women. • Bunions may or may not cause symptoms. • A less common bunion is located at the joint at the base of the smallest (fifth) toe. Bunions
  13. 13. Bunions
  14. 14. Bunions
  15. 15. Bunions
  16. 16. Bunions
  17. 17. Bunions… Symptoms and Signs • Foot pain in the involved area when walking or wearing shoes. That is relieved by resting. • Bulging bump on the outside of the base of big toe • Swelling, redness or soreness around big toe joint • Thickening of the skin at the base of big toe • Restricted movement of big toe • Positioning of the big toe toward the smaller toes.
  18. 18. Bunions… Causes • High-heeled or ill-fitting shoes • Inherited foot type • Foot injuries • Deformities present at birth (congenital) • May be associated with various forms of arthritis and an activities that puts extra stress on the feet (eg. Bunions are common in ballet dancers.)
  19. 19. Bunions….Complications • Bunions are permanent unless surgically corrected, they are a structural deformity. • If the cushioning sac of fluid (bursa) over the affected joint becomes inflamed (bursitis), a bunion can be very painful and interfere with the normal activities. • May get larger and more painful, making nonsurgical treatment less effective.
  20. 20. Bunions…Treatments Conservative treatment Nonsurgical treatments that may relieve the pain and pressure of a bunion include: • Changing shoes. Wear roomy, comfortable shoes that provide plenty of space for toes. • Padding and taping. tape and pad your foot in a normal position to reduce stress on the bunion and alleviate the pain. • Medications. Anti-inflammation medications/ local injection of steroids to ease inflammation as well as pain
  21. 21. Bunions… Conservative treatment
  22. 22. Bunions… Conservative treatment
  23. 23. • Orthotic Inserts Goal of orthotics:  To reestablish the weight bearing parabola across all the metatarsals  Orthotics re-align the foot with the leg for more efficient function. In essence, the foot does not have to work as hard to accomplish the same movements.  For mild to moderate bunions that do not hurt on a daily basis, orthotic therapy can be very effective. • Others….  Simply resting the foot by avoiding excessive walking  Stretching exercises to reduce tension on the inner part of the joint Bunions…Treatments
  24. 24. Severe Cases with persisting pain a surgical operation is considered for removal of the bunion. Bunions…Treatments
  25. 25.  Bunion surgery is the ultimate correction of the structural deformity. (That does not necessarily mean that it is the best solution for every bunion)  Surgical operation to remove a bunion is referred to as a “Bunionectomy”.  Surgery involves breaking the metatarsal bone and moving it towards the second toe while relocating the big toe straight on the bone.  Some form of fixation is used to hold the metatarsal in place (pin, screw, etc) Bunions…Treatments
  26. 26. Bunions… Surgical treatment
  27. 27. Shoes Wearing comfortable shoes that fit well can prevent many foot problems.
  28. 28. What qualities make up a well-constructed shoe? • Lightweight walking shoe • With breathable upper materials, such as leather or nylon mesh. • Very firm heel counter, the heel should have reduced cushioning to position the heel closer to the ground for walking stability. • The front or forefoot area of the shoe should have adequate support and flexibility.
  29. 29. Shoes…. Tips for choosing right shoes for you • The size of your feet changes as you grow older so always have your feet measured before buying shoes. • Most of us have one foot that is larger than the other, so fit your shoe to your larger foot. • Don't select shoes by the size marked inside the shoe but by how the shoe fits your foot. • Select a shoe that is shaped like your foot.
  30. 30. • Make sure there is enough space (3/8" to 1/2") for your longest toe at the end of each shoe when you are standing up. • Make sure the ball of your foot fits comfortably into the widest part of the shoe. • Don't buy shoes that feel too tight and expect them to stretch to fit. • Your heel should fit comfortably in the shoe with a minimum amount of slipping • Walk in the shoes to make sure they fit and feel right. Shoes…. Tips for choosing right shoes
  31. 31. Hammertoes  A hammer toe or contracted toe is a deformity of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the second, third, or fourth toe causing it to be permanently bent, resembling a hammer.
  32. 32. Hammertoes.... Causes  Wearing poorly fitting shoes that can force the toe into a bent position (eg. High heels)  Muscle, nerve, or joint damage resulting from conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, stroke or diabetes  Often found in conjunction with bunions or other foot problems
  33. 33. Hammertoes
  34. 34. Hammertoes
  35. 35. Hammertoes....Symptomes/Signs  Pain with walking  Difficulty moving the toe  Corns and calluses resulting from the toe rubbing against the inside of footwear
  36. 36. Hammertoes....Treatment  Conservative treatment  Physical therapy  New shoes with soft, spacious toe box  Wear shoe inserts (orthotics) or pads to reposition the toe and relieve pressure and pain.  Surgical treatment If the toe has become tight and inflexible
  37. 37. Hammertoes… Conservative Treatment
  38. 38. Hammertoes… Surgical Treatment
  39. 39. Heel pain “pain usually occurs underneath your heel (plantar fasciitis) or just behind it”
  40. 40. Heel pain….Causes  Achilles tendinitis  Achilles tendon rupture  Bone bruise  Bone cyst  Bone spurs  Bursitis  Fracture  Gout  Heel pad wear and tear  Neuroma • Osteomyelitis • Peripheral neuropathy • Pinched nerve • Plantar fasciitis • Problems with your gait • Rheumatoid arthritis • Stress fractures • Tarsal tunnel syndrome • Tendinitis
  41. 41. Heel pain... Treatment  Treatment of heel pain depends entirely on the cause of the problem.  Therefore, it is of utmost importance that you understand the cause of your symptoms before embarking on a treatment program.  Some general measures  Rest  Apply Ice Packs  Exercises and Stretches  Anti-Inflammatory Medications  Shoe Inserts-Orthotics
  42. 42. Heel pain... Treatment Orthotic Inserts
  43. 43. Neuroma “Neuroma is a growth or tumour of nerve tissue”.
  44. 44. Morton's Neuroma • Morton's neuroma is a painful condition that affects the ball of your foot, most commonly the area between your third and fourth toes. • Involves a thickening of the tissue around one of the nerves leading to your toes. • May occur in response to irritation, injury or pressure.
  45. 45. • A feeling as if you're standing on a pebble in your shoe • A burning pain in the ball of your foot that may radiate into your toes • Tingling or numbness in your toes Morton's Neuroma…. Symptoms
  46. 46. • Non Surgical Treatment  Arch supports and foot pads fit inside your shoe and help reduce pressure on the nerve  An “Arch Cookie” pad can help to spread the metatarsals and give the nerve more space  Injection of steroids into the painful area  Injections of medications to desensitize the nerve Morton's Neuroma…. Treatments
  47. 47. • Surgical Treatment  Cryogenic neuroablation • This minimally invasive procedure • Exposes the nerve to very cold temperatures • It interferes the transmission of pain signals • Results are not permanent.  Decompression surgery. • In some cases, surgeons can relieve the pressure on the nerve by cutting nearby structures Morton's Neuroma…. Treatments
  48. 48.  Removal of the nerve • Surgical removal of the growth may be necessary if other treatments fail to provide pain relief. • As a last resort, because the procedure removes both the neuroma and the nerve, which can leave permanent numbness in the affected toes. Morton's Neuroma…. Treatments
  49. 49. Athlete’s foot • Very common skin condition that affects the sole of the foot and the skin between the toes. • Usually a scaly, red, itchy eruption( occasionally may be weepy and oozing.) • Athlete's foot, also called tinea pedis, is the most common type of fungal infection.
  50. 50. Athlete’s foot  Athlete's foot is contagious and can be spread by contact with an infected person or with contact with contaminated surfaces, such as towels, floors and shoes.
  51. 51. Athlete’s foot
  52. 52. Athlete’s foot
  53. 53. Athlete’s foot
  54. 54. • a man ? • Frequently wear damp socks or tight fitting shoes • Share mats, rugs, bed linens, clothes or shoes with someone who has a fungal infection • Walk barefoot in public areas where the infection can spread, such as locker rooms, saunas, swimming pools, communal baths and showers • Have a weakened immune system Athlete’s foot... Risk factors
  55. 55. Athlete’s foot.... Causes  Caused by a fungus (group of mold-like fungi called dermatophytes ).  Can be contracted in many locations, including gyms, locker rooms, swimming pools, nail salons, airport security lines, and from contaminated socks and clothing  Athlete's foot is closely related to other fungal infections, including ringworm and jock itch- change the towel when drying off!
  56. 56. Athlete’s foot... Symptoms  Itching, stinging and burning  Cracked and peeling skin between your toes on the soles of the feet  Excessive dryness of the skin on the bottoms or sides of the feet  Toenails that are thick, crumbly, ragged, discolored or pulling away from the nail bed
  57. 57. Athlete’s foot… Treatment • Make the infected area less suitable for the athlete's foot fungus to grow  Keeping the area clean and dry.  Absorbent socks like cotton that wick water away • Antifungal creams and washes  Tea tree oil  Lamisil cream  Ertazco
  58. 58. Plantar Warts • Warts are local growths in the skin that are caused by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection • Plantar warts are noncancerous skin growths on the soles of your feet • Virus enters the body through tiny cuts or breaks
  59. 59. Plantar Warts
  60. 60. • Often develop beneath pressure points in the feet, such as the heels or balls of the feet • Pressure also may cause a plantar wart to grow inward beneath a hard, thick layer of skin (callus). Plantar Warts
  61. 61. Callus
  62. 62. Callus
  63. 63. Plantar Warts…..Signs & Symptoms • Small, fleshy, grainy lesions, or growths on feet • Hard, thickened skin (callus) where a wart has grown inwards • Black pinpoints- "wart seeds" ( actually small, clotted blood vessels) • Lesions that interrupt the normal lines and ridges in the skin of your feet • Pain or tenderness when walking or standing
  64. 64. Plantar Warts…..
  65. 65. Plantar Warts….. Complications • Plantar warts cause pain • May alter your normal posture or gait — perhaps without realizing the change • Contagious
  66. 66. Plantar Warts…..Treatments • Plantar warts may resolve on their own without treatment within a couple of years. • If they are causing pain or spreading, they should be treated.  Freezing (cryotherapy)  Cantharidin.  Minor surgery  Laser treatment- can leave scarring
  67. 67. Plantar Warts…..Treatments
  68. 68. In Growing Toenails (Onychocryptosis) • Common condition in which the corner or side of one of your toenails grows into the soft flesh of that toe. • Usually affects your big toe. • Result is pain, redness, swelling and, sometimes, an infection.
  69. 69. • Wearing shoes that crowd your toenails • Cutting your toenails too short or not straight across • Injury to your toenail • Unusually curved toenails In Growing Toenails…Causes
  70. 70. • Pain and tenderness in your toe along one or both sides of the nail • Redness around your toenail • Swelling of your toe around the nail • Infection of the tissue around your toenail In Growing Toenails… Symptomes /Signs
  71. 71. • Bacteria and fungi can easily infect the skin of the feet and nails. (Staphylococcus,Pseudomonas, Candida and Trichophyton) • May cause deeper bacterial tissue infection (Cellulitis), localized infection of the nail fold (Paronychia), and scarringg of the nail fold and skin. In Growing Toenails… Complications
  72. 72. Often mild cases be treated through lifestyle  Applying an antibiotic cream  Soaking the foot regularly in Epson Salt warm water Medical interventions  Lifting the nail  Partially removing the nail/Removing nail and tissue In Growing Toenails… Treatment
  73. 73. • Wear shoes that fit properly.  Shoes that you wear every day should have plenty of room around your toes.  But not be too loose. • When trimming your toenails:  Considering briefly soaking your foot in warm water to soften the nail  Use a clean, sharp nail trimmer In Growing Toenails… Prevention
  74. 74. • When trimming your toenails:  Trim toenails straight across the top. Do not taper or round the corners or trim too short  Do not pick or tear at the nails  Keep the feet clean and dry In growing Toenails… Prevention
  75. 75. Thank You Content Developed by