Final engaging diversity

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  • Census Bureau confirmed minorities outnumbered whites: http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/05/17/us/largest-generational-gaps.html?ref=censusbureau
  • http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/08/us/politics/obamas-victory-presents-gop-with-demographic-test.html?pagewanted=all
  • The top richest 10% of the populations - hold 80% of the nation’s financial wealth – the part in blue – if things were fThe bottom 80% of the population holds only 7% of the wealth
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0mxJZ6Jhnrk
  • MAY BE ADDING A SHORT VIDEO DEMONSTRATING WHAT DIALOGUE LOOKS LIKE
  • “What I learned the most was understanding the different privileges and discriminatory practices that affect social, gender, ethnic, and religious groups. I learned through readings but especially from the life stories of my classmates.”“Through dialogue, especially the Web of Oppression, I learned how institutions (media, education, government, etc.) reinforce gender roles and racial inequality. I just didn’t “get” it before.”
  • “I learned that forming alliances means getting out of your comfort zone. Alliances arise from our differences but they are made possible because we conceive of similarities as well. We had a common goal: to shed light on the issue of race and ethnicity within our society.”
  • Final engaging diversity

    1. 1. ENGAGING DIVERSTY Its Importance for 21st Century Education Patricia Gurin | University of Michigan February 27, 2013
    2. 2. GOALS FOR TODAY  Position the rationale for engaging diversity in higher education in affirmative action cases  Make a case for its educational importance beyond affirmative action – a case based in three major challenges the U.S. faces  Present intergroup dialogue as one educational approach that addresses these challenges  Discuss 21st education – cosmopolitan and outward oriented
    3. 3. AFFIRMATIVE ACTION CASES  Baake; Grutter vs. Bollinger; Fisher v. University of Texas  Amicus briefs provide impressive evidence for educational value of diversity  But much broader rationale
    4. 4. THREE CHALLENGES The Demographic Challenge – Changing Demographics in the U.S.  The Democratic Challenge – Engagement of all in light of growing economic inequalities  The Dispersion Challenge – “Rise of the Rest”
    5. 5. DEMOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE 1,970,000 1,980,000 1,990,000 2,000,000 2,010,000 2,020,000 White Babies No Longer Majority in the U.S. U.S. births in the year ending on July 2011 - the Census Bureau 2,019,176 1,988,824 Non-White Babies White Babies
    6. 6. DEMOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE 39% 71% 73% 93% 61% 29% 27% 7% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% White Latinos/as Asian-Americans African Americans 2012 Voters for Obama and Romney Obama Romney
    7. 7. DEMOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Community College 4-Year Institutions 57% 44% 25% 33% 10% 15% 8% 8% 2050 Projections in Higher Education Latinos Whites Asians African Americans
    8. 8. DEMOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE Graduates, 1973 Graduates, 2008
    9. 9. Wealth Distribution in the U.S  The top 10% of households have 80% of the financial wealth  The bottom 80% have 7% of the wealth (Domhoff, 2012)
    10. 10. Country/Overall Rank Gini Coefficient 1. Sweden 23.0 4. Norway 25.0 7. Austria 26 11. Finland 26.8 12. Germany 27 19. Denmark 29 29. Netherlands 30.9 34. Spain 32 36. Canada 32.1 44. Switzerland 33.7 60. India 36.8 87. China 41.5 99. Iran 44.5 101. United States 45 118. Costa Rica 50.3 123. Mexico 51.7 (Central Intelligence Agency, 2008) The United States ranks 101st in the world in terms of income inequality Nine European countries have less inequality than the U.S. So does Canada And India, China, and Iran
    11. 11. DEMOCRATIC CHALLENGE Democracy challenge from increasing economic inequality 2007 Family Incomes Poverty Unemploymen t Incarceration Whites Latinos African Americans
    12. 12. DEMOCRATIC CHALLENGE 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 15 22.7 20.1 11.5 30.7 49.8 29.1 11.9 4.9 4.2 Comparison of UM and U.S. Household Income UM Household Income U.S. Household Income
    13. 13. FAREED ZAKARIA At the politico-military level we will remain in a single-superworld world. But in every other dimension – industrial, financial, educ ational, social, cultural – the distribution of power is shifting, moving away from American dominance.
    14. 14. DISPERSION CHALLENGE “The Rise of the Rest” – Fareed Zakaria
    15. 15. Knowledge and Skills for 21st Century Education  Broad knowledge across many disciplines Communication, problem solving, collaboration across differences Critical, creative, adaptive, flexible thinking ENGAGING DIVERSITY American Association of Colleges and Universities; Partnership for 21st Century Skills
    16. 16. INTERGROUP DIALOGUE: ONE APPROACH TO 21ST CENTURY EDUCATION The goals of intergroup dialogue:  Intergroup Understanding  Positive Intergroup Relationships  Intergroup Collaboration Engaging diversity through:  A distinctive pedagogy  And communication processes
    17. 17. WHAT IS INTERGROUP DIALOGUE?  Two social identity groups  Two facilitators  10-12 week course  4-module curriculum
    18. 18. FOUR-MODULE CURRICULUM Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Learning how to dialogue Learning about identity, inequalities & power Dialoguing about “hot topics” Alliance building for collaboration
    19. 19. PEDAGOGY  Content: Readings, Written Assignments  Structured Interaction, Equal numbers of statuses, Active learning exercises  Facilitative Guidance
    20. 20. WHAT MAKES IT WORK? DISTINCTIVE COMMUNICATION PROCESSES Dialogic Process  Active Listening  Asking questions, follow-up, inquiry  Sharing  Critical Process  Identifying assumptions  Critical analysis of inequalities  Personal and collective critical reflection
    21. 21. RESEARCH QUESTIONS  Does Intergroup Dialogue work?  Evidence of Effects How does it work?  Evidence of processes that account for effects
    22. 22. MULTDIVERSITY RESEARCH PROJECT  Arizona State University Occidental College Syracuse University University of California (San Diego) University of Maryland University of Massachusetts University of Michigan University of Texas University of Washington
    23. 23. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGN Application Randomized DIALOGUE GROUP WAITLIST CONTROL GROUP Pretest Pretest Intergroup Dialogue Posttest Posttest 1-Year Follow-Up Survey 1-Year Follow-Up Survey
    24. 24. PARTICIPANTS 52 Dialogue Experiments (26 race, 26 gender) DIALOGUE GROUP n = 726 26% 24 %26 % 24% Within People of Color: 38% African American 36% Asian/Asian American 21% Latino/a 5% Other WAITLIST CONTROL GROUP n = 721 28% 23%27 % 22%
    25. 25. QUALITATIVE METHODS  Videotaping early, mid, and late session of 10 race and 10 gender dialogues  Interviewing all students in the dialogues that were videotaped – 248 students  Content Analysis of the final papers of students in all 52 dialogues – 720 papers
    26. 26. INTERGROUP EMPATHY 4.7 4.8 4.9 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 0 4 8 12 16 Dialogue Control Months
    27. 27. STUDENT VOICES: EMPATHY
    28. 28. STRUCTURAL UNDERSTANDING OF INEQUALITY 4.9 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 0 4 8 12 16 Dialogue Control Months
    29. 29. STUDENT VOICES: UNDERSTANDING INEQUALITY
    30. 30. INTERGROUP COLLABORATION AND ACTION 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 0 4 8 12 16 Dialogue Control Months
    31. 31. STUDENT VOICES: ACTION
    32. 32. SIGNIFICANT EFFECTS OF DIALOGUE ON: 20 of 24 measures of psychological processes, intergroup understanding, relationships, and action In both race and gender dialogues For all 4 groups of students Still evident a year later, time 1-3, on 21
    33. 33. Content Structured Interaction Facilitation Engaging Self Learning from Others Critical Reflection Alliance Building Intergroup Relationships Intergroup Understanding Intergroup Collaboration & Action Identity Engagement Openness Positivity Across Difference Pedagogy Communicatio n Processes Psychological Processes Three Sets of Outcomes THEORETICAL PROCESS MODEL
    34. 34. BACK TO THE CHALLENGES  A cosmopolitan education – Appiah & Nussbaum  Comprised of:  Pluralistic perspective  Critical thinking, often outside one‟s comfort zone  Empathy  Integration of specific group-based identities with broader identifications
    35. 35. HOW DO WE DO THIS? Deliberate use of diversity to foster communication, problem solving, collaboration across differences Pedagogy that creates active learning and communication processes, especially listening and inquiry  Collective and private reflection Connecting substantive & disciplinary knowledge to intercultural competencies
    36. 36. EPILOGUE: STUDENT GRADUATES  The influence Intergroup Dialogue played in their professional and personal directions  Addressing the demographic, democratic, and dispersion challenges
    37. 37. STUDENT GRADUATES
    38. 38. DEMOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE QUESTION: In what ways are you professionally and personally engaged with people from various identity groups and how are you bridging differences by bringing people from different backgrounds together?
    39. 39. DEMOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE Aaron James “My own life has been circumscribed by living in liberal, urban enclaves. Now I am working in economic development in rural areas and I am trying in many ways to cross cultural boundaries, to understand their perspectives, and bond (including learning to hunt) with rural residents.”
    40. 40. DEMOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE Chloe Gurin-Sands “My personal and professional lives are completely intertwined. My circle of friends includes people from all identity groups. . . I feel I am bridging differences and bringing people together all the time. Intergroup dialogue has educated me that the personal is political (and vice versa).
    41. 41. DEMOCRATIC CHALLENGE QUESTION: What are you currently doing professionally and how did your experiences in intergroup dialogue play a role in your professional direction? In what ways is your work addressing inequalities and aimed at created greater social justice?
    42. 42. DEMOCRATIC CHALLENGE Denny Chan “During my first two summers of law school I helped litigate cases involving federal voting rights laws. I also worked on a gender discrimination case against a large corporate retailer and on a financial mortgage case involving one of the nation‟s largest banks. I see now how I can express my concerns for social justice in public sector law.”
    43. 43. DEMOCRATIC CHALLENGE Tara Hackel “Participating in intergroup dialogue helped me to better recognize inequalities that I faced as a woman in the engineering program. . . Then becoming more in touch with problems within the STEM fields helped me recognize inequalities affecting others, not just women.”
    44. 44. DEMOCRATIC CHALLENGE Kartik Sidhar “My multiple responsibilities in The Program on Intergroup Relations has sharpened my understanding of health disparities and deepened my commitment to create change in that arena.”
    45. 45. DISPERSION CHALLENGE QUESTION: In what ways are you involved with people in or from other countries? In what ways do you consider yourself a global citizen?
    46. 46. DISPERSION CHALLENGE Clare Wrobel “I gained a commitment in intergroup dialogue to learn about what I don‟t know and to keep up-to-date about international political movements. It should not be up to my Egyptian- American friend to explain to me what is going on in Egypt. It is my responsibility to continue to educate myself and to have meaningful conversations with people from many countries.”
    47. 47. DISPERSION CHALLENGE Adam Falkner “In my classroom, I am constantly trying to create settings that „uncork‟ creativity and grant my students permission to connect with the universal human desire for communication. In my life and work as an artist, the local is global and vice versa. To me, being a global citizen means to consider one‟s own role as a contributing member of a society and not in isolation from the most pressing and urgent of global concerns.”
    48. 48. STUDENT GRADUATES
    49. 49. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS W.T. Grant Foundation Ford Foundation Russell Sage Foundation National Center for Institutional Diversity, University of Michigan Division of Student Affairs, College of Literature, Sciences and the Arts, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan
    50. 50. COLLABORATORS
    51. 51. A FULLER ACCOUNT

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