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Pirate Metrics & 

Growth Hacks
Pol	
  Valls	
  Soler	
  
  	
  @polvallssoler!
" "linkedin.com/in/polvallssoler!
" "slideshare.net/polvallssoler!
"!
Reddit for spanglish geeks: http://zumogeek.com/ !
iOS app for discovering people nearby: http://joinerapp.com/ !
Advising entrepreneurs at La Salle Technova Barcelona!
Pol Valls Soler !
	
  
Currently creating:!
Co-creator of:!
Moneda Catalana (Catalan Cryptocurrency): http://moneda.cat/ !
Feel Real Estate Barcelona Property: http://feelrealestate.com/ 	
  
Before 2000!
•  Sun Servers!
•  Oracle DB!
•  Exodus Hosting!
•  12-24mo dev cycle!
•  6-18mo sales cycle!
•  <100M people online!
•  $1-2M seed round!
•  $3-5M Series A!
•  Sand Hill Road crawl!
•  Big, Fat, Dinosaur Startup!
After 2008!
•  AWS, Google, PayPal, FB, TW!
•  Cloud + Open Source SW!
•  Lean Startup / Startup Wknd!
•  3-90d dev cycle!
•  SaaS / online sales!
•  >3B people online!
•  <$100K incub + <$1M seed!
•  $1-3M Series A!
•  Angel List global visibility!
•  Lean, Little, Cockroach Startup!
Some context: Before & After 2 Dot-Com Crashes
Source:500startups!
Daft Punk Startup: !
Simpler, Faster, Cheaper, Smarter 	
  
•  LESS Capital required to build product, get to market
–  Dramatically reduced $$$ on servers, software, bandwidth
–  Crowdfunding, KickStarter, Angel List, Funders Club, etc
–  Cheap access to online platforms for 100M+ consumers, smallbiz, etc
•  MORE Customers via ONLINE platforms (100M+ users)
–  Search (Google)
–  Social (Facebook, Twitter)
–  Mobile (Apple, Android)
–  Local (Yelp, Groupon, Living Social)
–  Media (YouTube, Pinterest, Instagram, Tumblr)
–  Comm (Email, IM/Chat, Voice, SMS, etc)
•  LOTS of little bets: Accelerators, Angels, Angel List, Small Exits
–  Y Combinator, TechStars, 500 Startups
–  Funding + Co-working + Mentoring -> Design, Data, Distribution
–  “Fast, Cheap Fail”, network effects, quantitative + iterative investments
Source:500startups!
Some context: Changes in Tech Startups
Metrics for pirates…

AARRR!
MAARRRketing for
startups
ACQUISITION!
Users come to the site; you
have their attention 	
  
ACTIVATION!
User performs some key activity
that indicates a good first visit 	
  
RETENTION!
User continues to do that key activity
indicating they like your product 	
  
REFERRAL!
User gets other users to join 	
  
REVENUE!
User pays you	
  
AARRR Funnel: Customer Lifecycle / Conversion Behavior!
Emails	
  &	
  
Alerts	
  
Blogs,	
  Content	
  
System	
  Events	
  &	
  Time-­‐
based	
  Features	
  
Biz	
  Dev	
  
Ads,	
  Lead	
  Gen,	
  
SubscripDons,	
  etc	
  
Emails	
  &	
  
widgets	
  
Campaigns,	
  
Contests	
  
Homepage	
  /	
  Landing	
  
Page	
  
Product	
  
Features	
  
SEO	
   SEM	
  
Apps	
  &	
  
Widgets	
  
Affiliates	
  
Email	
  
PR	
  
Biz	
  Dev	
  Campaigns,	
  
Contests	
  
Direct,	
  Tel,	
  
TV	
  
Social	
  
Networks	
  
Blogs	
  
Domains	
  
AARRR Funnel: Customer Lifecycle / Conversion Behavior!
BLOG EXAMPLE!
Acquisition - users come to the site and stay for at least 2 minutes 

Activation - user signs up for RSS/newsletter 

Retention - user reads at least one post a week or opens the newsletter 

Referral - user promotes your blogs contests and drives traffic 

Revenue - user buys your ebook !
SAAS EXAMPLE!
Acquisition - user signs up for the service 

Activation - user successfully makes a document 

Retention - user continues to make documents. As long as they're !
successfully making documents they will continue to use the service. 

Referral – Users send other users to our web, possibly with a coupon code 

Revenue - yay! money! !
(Web-­‐based	
  app	
  to	
  convert	
  HTML	
  to	
  PDF	
  or	
  Excel	
  documents)	
  
AND…
if CLV > CAC, then PROFIT!
AARRR Funnel: Customer Lifecycle / Conversion Behavior!
Emails	
  &	
  
Alerts	
  
Blogs,	
  Content	
  
System	
  Events	
  &	
  Time-­‐
based	
  Features	
  
Biz	
  Dev	
  
Ads,	
  Lead	
  Gen,	
  
SubscripDons,	
  etc	
  
Emails	
  &	
  
widgets	
  
Campaigns,	
  
Contests	
  
Homepage	
  /	
  Landing	
  
Page	
  
Product	
  
Features	
  
SEO	
   SEM	
  
Apps	
  &	
  
Widgets	
  
Affiliates	
  
Email	
  
PR	
  
Biz	
  Dev	
  Campaigns,	
  
Contests	
  
Direct,	
  Tel,	
  
TV	
  
Social	
  
Networks	
  
Blogs	
  
Domains	
  
AARRRP!
Example	
  Conversion	
  Metrics	
  
(note:	
  your	
  mileage	
  may	
  vary…)	
  	
  
Category User Status Conv % Est. Value
Acquisition Visit Site
(or landing page, or external widget)
100% $.01
Acquisition Doesn't Abandon
(views 2+ pages, stays 10+ sec, 2+ clicks)
70% $.05
Activation Happy 1st Visit
(views X pages, stays Y sec, Z clicks)
30% $.25
Activation Email/Blog/RSS/Widget Signup
(anything that could lead to repeat visit)
5% $1
Activation Acct Signup
(includes profile data)
2% $3
Retention Email Open / RSS view -> Clickthru 3% $2
Retention Repeat Visitor
(3+ visits in first 30 days)
2% $5
Referral Refer 1+ users who visit site 2% $3
Referral Refer 1+ users who activate 1% $10
Revenue User generates minimum revenue 2% $5
Revenue User generates break-even revenue 1% $25
Example	
  Conversion	
  Metrics	
  
(note:	
  your	
  mileage	
  may	
  vary…)	
  	
  
Category User Status Conv % Est. Value
Acquisition Visit Site
(or landing page, or external widget)
100% $.01
Acquisition Doesn't Abandon
(views 2+ pages, stays 10+ sec, 2+ clicks)
70% $.05
Activation Happy 1st Visit
(views X pages, stays Y sec, Z clicks)
30% $.25
Activation Email/Blog/RSS/Widget Signup
(anything that could lead to repeat visit)
5% $1
Activation Acct Signup
(includes profile data)
2% $3
Retention Email Open / RSS view -> Clickthru 3% $2
Retention Repeat Visitor
(3+ visits in first 30 days)
2% $5
Referral Refer 1+ users who visit site 2% $3
Referral Refer 1+ users who activate 1% $10
Revenue User generates minimum revenue 2% $5
Revenue User generates break-even revenue 1% $25
Example	
  Conversion	
  Metrics	
  
(note:	
  your	
  mileage	
  may	
  vary…)	
  	
  
Category User Status Conv % Est. Value
Acquisition Visit Site
(or landing page, or external widget)
100% $.01
Acquisition Doesn't Abandon
(views 2+ pages, stays 10+ sec, 2+ clicks)
70% $.05
Activation Happy 1st Visit
(views X pages, stays Y sec, Z clicks)
30% $.25
Activation Email/Blog/RSS/Widget Signup
(anything that could lead to repeat visit)
5% $1
Activation Acct Signup
(includes profile data)
2% $3
Retention Email Open / RSS view -> Clickthru 3% $2
Retention Repeat Visitor
(3+ visits in first 30 days)
2% $5
Referral Refer 1+ users who visit site 2% $3
Referral Refer 1+ users who activate 1% $10
Revenue User generates minimum revenue 2% $5
Revenue User generates break-even revenue 1% $25
KEY METRICS TO TRACK!
ACQUISITION!
Key Metrics To Track:!
• Volume(#) !
• Cost ($)!
• Conversion (%)!
!
Acquisition tips (for the top 10 - 100 words)!
• Your brand / Products!
• Customer needs / Benefits!
• Competitor’s brand / Products (Steal traffic)!
• Semantic equivalents!
• Misspellings !
ACQUISITION!
ACQUISITION!
Extra tip: How to get your first 100 users!
1)	
  What	
  exisDng	
  soluDon	
  do	
  you	
  believe	
  your	
  product	
  is	
  beTer	
  than?	
  
2)	
  Where	
  can	
  you	
  find	
  a	
  criDcal	
  mass	
  of	
  people	
  who	
  use	
  the	
  exisDng	
  soluDon?	
  
3)	
  Go	
  there.	
  Talk	
  to	
  them.	
  Show	
  them	
  your	
  product.	
  
ACQUISITION!
Extra tip: Reverse Engineered App Store’s ranking algorithm
(approximation)!
AppStore	
  Ranking	
  =	
  H +	
  D +	
  R + E +	
  S	
  
!
!H = # of installs weighted for the past few hours!
!D = # of installs weighted for the past few days!
!R = Reviews (star rating + number of reviews)!
!E = Engagement (# of times app opened etc.) !
!S = Sales ($)!
!
!
ACTIVATION!
Key metrics to track:!
• Pages per visit (2-3+ page views)!
• Time on site (10-30+ seconds)!
• Conversions (1 key feature usage)!
• Clicks (3-5+ clicks)!
• Bounce rate (low)!
Activation Tips:!
• Less is more!
• Focus on UX / Usability!
• Provide incentives & call to actions!
• Perform A/B tests and iterate fast!
	
  
ACTIVATION!
RETENTION!
Key metrics to track:!
• Source (email, RSS, affiliates…)!
• Volume (Low spam rating)!
• Conversions (20% open rate / CTR)!
• Visitor Loyalty (1–3+ visits per month)!
• Session Length!
• Long customer life cycle / Low decay!
• Identify fanatics and cheerleaders!
RETENTION!
RETENTION!
Retention Tips:!
• Email is simple and it works!
• But make Unsubscribe easy!
• 80% subject line / 20% body text!
• Actually… 99% subject line / 1% body text!
• Status / “best of” weekly/monthly emails!
• “Something happened” emails!
• Lifecycle emails @ +3, +7, +30 days !
• RSS / News feeds!
• Widgets / Embeds!
• Gamification!
• Fanatics = Virality + affiliate channels (like bloggers)!
REFERRAL!
Key metrics to track:!
Viral Growth Factor = X * Y * Z!
!
!X = % of users who invite other people!
!Y = average # of people that they invited!
!Z = % of users who accepted an invitation!
A viral growth factor > 1 means an exponential organic user acquisition.!
REFERRAL!
REFERRAL!
Referral Tips:!
• Personal send to friend (Email / IM)!
• Social Media!
• Widgets / Embeds!
• Affiliates!
REVENUE!
Key metrics to track:!
• Conversion to revenue (%)!
• Volume ($$$)!
Revenue Tips:!
• Don’t just rely on AdSense, iAd…!
• Offer something free (at least when starting out)!
• Subscription / Recurring transactions!
• Qualify your customers / Traffic for lead generation.!
• Sell somethig (physical or virtual)!
REVENUE!
PROFIT!
…	
  
CAC (Customer Acquisition Cost)!
Take	
  only	
  a	
  porDon	
  of	
  those	
  salaries	
  and	
  expenses	
  
in	
  the	
  early	
  days	
  to	
  give	
  a	
  beTer	
  indicaDon	
  of	
  how	
  
CAC	
  will	
  look	
  when	
  you	
  are	
  at	
  scale.	
  
CLV or LTV (Customer Lifetime Value)!
if	
  the	
  Customer	
  Churn	
  rate	
  is	
  a	
  monthly	
  %	
  or	
  yearly	
  %,	
  then	
  
the	
  Customer	
  LifeDme	
  will	
  be	
  for	
  the	
  same	
  Dme	
  period.	
  	
  
CLV or LTV (Customer Lifetime Value)!
In	
  most	
  SaaS	
  businesses,	
  the	
  gross	
  margin	
  %	
  is	
  high	
  (above	
  
80%),	
  and	
  it’s	
  quite	
  common	
  to	
  use	
  the	
  simpler	
  version	
  of	
  
the	
  formula	
  that	
  is	
  not	
  Gross	
  Margin	
  adjusted.	
  
To	
  truly	
  get	
  an	
  accurate	
  picture	
  of	
  LTV,	
  you	
  should	
  
take	
  into	
  consideraDon	
  Gross	
  Margin:	
  
a	
  =	
  iniDal	
  ARPA	
  per	
  month	
  (	
  x	
  GM	
  %,	
  if	
  you	
  prefer)	
  
m	
  =	
  monthly	
  growth	
  in	
  ARPA	
  per	
  account	
  
c	
  =	
  Customer	
  Churn	
  Rate	
  (in	
  months)	
  
CLV or LTV in a More Complex Scenario
(Where	
  you	
  expect	
  ARPA	
  to	
  change	
  over	
  the	
  lifespan	
  
of	
  the	
  customer	
  due	
  to	
  expansion	
  revenue)	
  
(This	
  formula	
  makes	
  an	
  assumpDon	
  that	
  revenue	
  increases	
  at	
  a	
  roughly	
  
fixed	
  rate	
  every	
  month	
  for	
  the	
  enDre	
  lifeDme	
  of	
  the	
  customer)	
  
if	
  1	
  <	
  LTV/CAC	
  <	
  3	
  	
  
	
  
	
  
if	
  LTV/CAC	
  <	
  1	
  	
  
LTV : CAC Ratio Awesomeness!
> 3	

if	
  
(It’s	
  ok.	
  As	
  a	
  startup,	
  don’t	
  worry	
  
iniDally	
  about	
  LTV>3*CAC)	
  
your	
  business	
  model	
  is	
  broken!	
  
Tools for metrics analysis
…
Tools for testing
…
Less Budget, More Creativity, More Automation -> Maximize Output	

Growth Hacking
Different landing pages according to traffic source!
(Search Engines for SEO –> Footer vs Direct !
Traffic -> No footer)!
Groupon ACQUISITION!
Caution! Use at your own risk! This is cloaking!!
Groupon ACTIVATION & RETENTION!
!
Groupon RETENTION!
!
Groupon REFERRAL!
!Sharing is in Groupon’s DNA
Linkedin ACTIVATION!
!
Gamification example:
Linkedin RETENTION & REFERRAL!
!
Linkedin REVENUE!
!
Linkedin ACQUISITION & REFERRAL!
!
This person passed away about a year ago. For the
majority of her life, she ran a small hardware shop and
she barely understood email, let alone LinkedIn.	

From Linkedin’s PeopleYou May Know page…	

(NOT THE BEST THING TO DO… people can hate you)
Dropbox ACQUISTION!
!
Signup driven homepage:
before	
   aier	
  
Dropbox REFERRAL!
!
Sharing simplicity and availability on Multiple Devices & Platforms:
Dropbox REFERRAL & REVENUE!
!
Get more space
Dropbox ACQUISTION & REFERRAL!
!
Dropbox Great Space Race!
Dropbox REFERRAL & REVENUE!
!
Dropbox growth hack in numbers…
1. September 2008: 100,000 registered users!
2. January 2010 (15 months later): 4,000,000!
3. Mostly from word-of-mouth and viral:!
• 35% of daily signups from referral program!
• 20% from shared folders, other viral features!
• Sustained 15-20%+ month-over-month growth since launch!
Panda 4.0
Panda 4.0 victim
Panda 4.0 victim
It doesn’t need to be online (initially)!
It doesn’t need to be online (initially)!
It doesn’t need to be online (initially)!
It doesn’t need to be online (initially)!
It doesn’t need to be online (initially)!
	
  
-­‐	
  1	
  Private	
  domain	
  (forwarded	
  to	
  affiliate	
  link)	
  -­‐	
  made	
  a	
  very	
  easy	
  domain	
  name	
  -­‐	
  $23	
  
-­‐	
  1,000	
  copies	
  (cut	
  into	
  4	
  =	
  4,000	
  flyers)	
  -­‐	
  $40	
  
-­‐	
  2	
  custom	
  tshirts	
  -­‐	
  $50	
  
-­‐	
  2	
  promo	
  girls	
  ($20/hr	
  each	
  x	
  4	
  hrs	
  =	
  8	
  hours	
  total)	
  -­‐	
  $160	
  
-­‐	
  2	
  accounts	
  on	
  the	
  hook	
  up	
  site	
  (trial)	
  -­‐	
  $10	
  	
  
	
  
Total	
  AdverDsing	
  Cost	
  =	
  $283	
  
	
  
Hand	
  out	
  all	
  4,000	
  flyers	
  +	
  do	
  some	
  heavy	
  flir=ng	
  
	
  
	
  
It doesn’t need to be online (initially)!
	
  
-­‐	
  1	
  Private	
  domain	
  (forwarded	
  to	
  affiliate	
  link)	
  -­‐	
  made	
  a	
  very	
  easy	
  domain	
  name	
  -­‐	
  $23	
  
-­‐	
  1,000	
  copies	
  (cut	
  into	
  4	
  =	
  4,000	
  flyers)	
  -­‐	
  $40	
  
-­‐	
  2	
  custom	
  tshirts	
  -­‐	
  $50	
  
-­‐	
  2	
  promo	
  girls	
  ($20/hr	
  each	
  x	
  4	
  hrs	
  =	
  8	
  hours	
  total)	
  -­‐	
  $160	
  
-­‐	
  2	
  accounts	
  on	
  the	
  hook	
  up	
  site	
  (trial)	
  -­‐	
  $10	
  	
  
	
  
Total	
  AdverDsing	
  Cost	
  =	
  $283	
  
	
  
Hand	
  out	
  all	
  4,000	
  flyers	
  +	
  do	
  some	
  heavy	
  flir=ng	
  
	
  
Got	
  118	
  conversions	
  (2,95%	
  conversion	
  rate)	
  -­‐>	
  	
  
118	
  x	
  $45	
  payout	
  =	
  $5,310	
  Revenue	
  -­‐	
  $283	
  cost	
  	
  	
  
	
  
=	
  $5,027	
  PROFIT!	
  
	
  
ACQUISITION: SEO hacks!
ACQUISITION!
ACQUISITION!
hack	
  
	
  
Caution! Use at your own risk! This is cloaking!!
-­‐>	
   -­‐>	
  
ACQUISITION!
1-­‐	
  Setup	
  domain	
  with	
  a	
  WordPress	
  news	
  theme.	
  
2-­‐	
  Hire	
  writers	
  to	
  rewrite	
  news	
  arDcles	
  for	
  $2	
  each.	
  
(Avoid	
  copying	
  to	
  ensure	
  “journalisDc	
  quality”.)	
  
3-­‐	
  Start	
  with	
  150	
  back-­‐dated	
  arDcles	
  to	
  show	
  that	
  
the	
  site	
  has	
  some	
  momentum.	
  
4-­‐	
  Setup	
  a	
  nice	
  logo	
  and	
  real	
  phone	
  number.	
  
5-­‐	
  Double	
  check	
  that	
  the	
  site	
  complies	
  with	
  the	
  
Google	
  webmaster	
  guidelines.	
  
6-­‐	
  Submit	
  for	
  approval.	
  
	
  
ACQUISITION & REFERRAL!
From	
  adverDsing	
  here…	
  
PS: I Love You. Get Your
Free Email at Hotmail
ACQUISITION & REFERRAL!
To	
  simply	
  wriDng	
  this	
  footer	
  on	
  each	
  email…	
  
ACQUISITION & REFERRAL!
And	
  here	
  are	
  the	
  results:	
  
ACQUISITION & REFERRAL (Through viral content)!
ACQUISTION,
ACTIVATION,
RETENTION
&
REFERRAL!
ACQUISTION,
ACTIVATION
&
RETENTION!
Extra tip: Reverse Engineered App Store’s ranking algorithm
(approximation)!
AppStore	
  Ranking	
  =	
  H +	
  D +	
  R + E +	
  S	
  
!
!H = # of installs weighted for the past few hours!
!D = # of installs weighted for the past few days!
!R = Reviews (star rating + number of reviews)!
!E = Engagement (# of times app opened etc.) !
!S = Sales ($)!
!
!
Luck?	
  AppStore	
  Bot?	
  Dark	
  paTern?	
  
ACQUISITION, REFERRAL & REVENUE!
ACQUISITION & PROFIT!
REFERRAL!
REFERRAL!
REFERRAL!
REVENUE & PROFIT!
REVENUE & PROFIT!
REVENUE & PROFIT!
REVENUE & PROFIT!
Unlock	
  all	
  books	
  is	
  the	
  clear	
  top	
  revenue	
  generator.	
  
REVENUE & PROFIT!
The	
  $144,146,165	
  BuOon	
  
REVENUE & PROFIT! The	
  $144,146,165	
  BuOon	
  
When	
  cabs	
  were	
  cash	
  only,	
  the	
  average	
  Dp	
  was	
  roughly	
  10%.	
  Aier	
  the	
  
introducDon	
  of	
  this	
  system,	
  the	
  Dp	
  percentage	
  jumped	
  to	
  22%.	
  Those	
  
three	
  buTons	
  resulted	
  in	
  $144,146,165	
  of	
  addi=onal	
  =ps	
  per	
  year.	
  
When	
  Growth	
  
Hacking	
  Goes	
  
Fail	
  Hacking	
  
Path
Facebook	
  blocked	
  Path’s	
  “Find	
  Friends”	
  access	
  following	
  spam	
  controversy	
  
Path
Path	
  texts	
  your	
  enDre	
  phonebook	
  
Glide
Same…	
  
Tinder
Same…	
  
Rap Genius: No SEO Genius
Rap Genius: No SEO Genius
Rap Genius fell from around 700,000 uniques a day to around 100,000.!
Rap Genius: No SEO Genius
Google recommends a 4-step approach to fixing the problem:!
1. Download a list of links to your site from Webmaster Tools.!
2. Check this list for any links that violate our guidelines on linking.!
3. For any links that violate our guidelines, contact the webmaster !
of that site and ask that they either remove the links or prevent them!
from passing PageRank, such as by adding a rel="nofollow" attribute.!
4. Use the Disavow links tool in Webmaster Tools to disavow any links !
you were unable to get removed.!
But they had a MASSIVE problem… so they had to write a scraper to!
analyze 178k	
  URLs	
  using concurrency on a Heroku cloud. #NOTBAD!
Facebook Fraud
Facebook Fraud
Talleres	
  de	
  Lean	
  Startup	
  
pvalls@technovabarcelona.org	
  
  	
  @polvallssoler!
" "linkedin.com/in/polvallssoler!
" "slideshare.net/polvallssoler!
"!
Reddit for spanglish geeks: http://zumogeek.com/ !
iOS app for discovering people nearby: http://joinerapp.com/ !
Advising entrepreneurs at La Salle Technova Barcelona!
Thanks! Pol Valls Soler !
	
  
Currently creating:!
Co-creator of:!
Moneda Catalana (Catalan Cryptocurrency): http://moneda.cat/ !
Feel Real Estate Barcelona Property: http://feelrealestate.com/ 	
  

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Pirate Metrics & Growth Hacks

  • 1. Pirate Metrics & 
 Growth Hacks Pol  Valls  Soler  
  • 2.    @polvallssoler! " "linkedin.com/in/polvallssoler! " "slideshare.net/polvallssoler! "! Reddit for spanglish geeks: http://zumogeek.com/ ! iOS app for discovering people nearby: http://joinerapp.com/ ! Advising entrepreneurs at La Salle Technova Barcelona! Pol Valls Soler !   Currently creating:! Co-creator of:! Moneda Catalana (Catalan Cryptocurrency): http://moneda.cat/ ! Feel Real Estate Barcelona Property: http://feelrealestate.com/  
  • 3. Before 2000! •  Sun Servers! •  Oracle DB! •  Exodus Hosting! •  12-24mo dev cycle! •  6-18mo sales cycle! •  <100M people online! •  $1-2M seed round! •  $3-5M Series A! •  Sand Hill Road crawl! •  Big, Fat, Dinosaur Startup! After 2008! •  AWS, Google, PayPal, FB, TW! •  Cloud + Open Source SW! •  Lean Startup / Startup Wknd! •  3-90d dev cycle! •  SaaS / online sales! •  >3B people online! •  <$100K incub + <$1M seed! •  $1-3M Series A! •  Angel List global visibility! •  Lean, Little, Cockroach Startup! Some context: Before & After 2 Dot-Com Crashes Source:500startups! Daft Punk Startup: ! Simpler, Faster, Cheaper, Smarter  
  • 4. •  LESS Capital required to build product, get to market –  Dramatically reduced $$$ on servers, software, bandwidth –  Crowdfunding, KickStarter, Angel List, Funders Club, etc –  Cheap access to online platforms for 100M+ consumers, smallbiz, etc •  MORE Customers via ONLINE platforms (100M+ users) –  Search (Google) –  Social (Facebook, Twitter) –  Mobile (Apple, Android) –  Local (Yelp, Groupon, Living Social) –  Media (YouTube, Pinterest, Instagram, Tumblr) –  Comm (Email, IM/Chat, Voice, SMS, etc) •  LOTS of little bets: Accelerators, Angels, Angel List, Small Exits –  Y Combinator, TechStars, 500 Startups –  Funding + Co-working + Mentoring -> Design, Data, Distribution –  “Fast, Cheap Fail”, network effects, quantitative + iterative investments Source:500startups! Some context: Changes in Tech Startups
  • 7. ACQUISITION! Users come to the site; you have their attention  
  • 8. ACTIVATION! User performs some key activity that indicates a good first visit  
  • 9. RETENTION! User continues to do that key activity indicating they like your product  
  • 10. REFERRAL! User gets other users to join  
  • 12. AARRR Funnel: Customer Lifecycle / Conversion Behavior!
  • 13. Emails  &   Alerts   Blogs,  Content   System  Events  &  Time-­‐ based  Features   Biz  Dev   Ads,  Lead  Gen,   SubscripDons,  etc   Emails  &   widgets   Campaigns,   Contests   Homepage  /  Landing   Page   Product   Features   SEO   SEM   Apps  &   Widgets   Affiliates   Email   PR   Biz  Dev  Campaigns,   Contests   Direct,  Tel,   TV   Social   Networks   Blogs   Domains   AARRR Funnel: Customer Lifecycle / Conversion Behavior!
  • 14. BLOG EXAMPLE! Acquisition - users come to the site and stay for at least 2 minutes 
 Activation - user signs up for RSS/newsletter 
 Retention - user reads at least one post a week or opens the newsletter 
 Referral - user promotes your blogs contests and drives traffic 
 Revenue - user buys your ebook !
  • 15. SAAS EXAMPLE! Acquisition - user signs up for the service 
 Activation - user successfully makes a document 
 Retention - user continues to make documents. As long as they're ! successfully making documents they will continue to use the service. 
 Referral – Users send other users to our web, possibly with a coupon code 
 Revenue - yay! money! ! (Web-­‐based  app  to  convert  HTML  to  PDF  or  Excel  documents)  
  • 17. if CLV > CAC, then PROFIT!
  • 18. AARRR Funnel: Customer Lifecycle / Conversion Behavior! Emails  &   Alerts   Blogs,  Content   System  Events  &  Time-­‐ based  Features   Biz  Dev   Ads,  Lead  Gen,   SubscripDons,  etc   Emails  &   widgets   Campaigns,   Contests   Homepage  /  Landing   Page   Product   Features   SEO   SEM   Apps  &   Widgets   Affiliates   Email   PR   Biz  Dev  Campaigns,   Contests   Direct,  Tel,   TV   Social   Networks   Blogs   Domains  
  • 20. Example  Conversion  Metrics   (note:  your  mileage  may  vary…)     Category User Status Conv % Est. Value Acquisition Visit Site (or landing page, or external widget) 100% $.01 Acquisition Doesn't Abandon (views 2+ pages, stays 10+ sec, 2+ clicks) 70% $.05 Activation Happy 1st Visit (views X pages, stays Y sec, Z clicks) 30% $.25 Activation Email/Blog/RSS/Widget Signup (anything that could lead to repeat visit) 5% $1 Activation Acct Signup (includes profile data) 2% $3 Retention Email Open / RSS view -> Clickthru 3% $2 Retention Repeat Visitor (3+ visits in first 30 days) 2% $5 Referral Refer 1+ users who visit site 2% $3 Referral Refer 1+ users who activate 1% $10 Revenue User generates minimum revenue 2% $5 Revenue User generates break-even revenue 1% $25
  • 21. Example  Conversion  Metrics   (note:  your  mileage  may  vary…)     Category User Status Conv % Est. Value Acquisition Visit Site (or landing page, or external widget) 100% $.01 Acquisition Doesn't Abandon (views 2+ pages, stays 10+ sec, 2+ clicks) 70% $.05 Activation Happy 1st Visit (views X pages, stays Y sec, Z clicks) 30% $.25 Activation Email/Blog/RSS/Widget Signup (anything that could lead to repeat visit) 5% $1 Activation Acct Signup (includes profile data) 2% $3 Retention Email Open / RSS view -> Clickthru 3% $2 Retention Repeat Visitor (3+ visits in first 30 days) 2% $5 Referral Refer 1+ users who visit site 2% $3 Referral Refer 1+ users who activate 1% $10 Revenue User generates minimum revenue 2% $5 Revenue User generates break-even revenue 1% $25
  • 22. Example  Conversion  Metrics   (note:  your  mileage  may  vary…)     Category User Status Conv % Est. Value Acquisition Visit Site (or landing page, or external widget) 100% $.01 Acquisition Doesn't Abandon (views 2+ pages, stays 10+ sec, 2+ clicks) 70% $.05 Activation Happy 1st Visit (views X pages, stays Y sec, Z clicks) 30% $.25 Activation Email/Blog/RSS/Widget Signup (anything that could lead to repeat visit) 5% $1 Activation Acct Signup (includes profile data) 2% $3 Retention Email Open / RSS view -> Clickthru 3% $2 Retention Repeat Visitor (3+ visits in first 30 days) 2% $5 Referral Refer 1+ users who visit site 2% $3 Referral Refer 1+ users who activate 1% $10 Revenue User generates minimum revenue 2% $5 Revenue User generates break-even revenue 1% $25
  • 23. KEY METRICS TO TRACK!
  • 24. ACQUISITION! Key Metrics To Track:! • Volume(#) ! • Cost ($)! • Conversion (%)! ! Acquisition tips (for the top 10 - 100 words)! • Your brand / Products! • Customer needs / Benefits! • Competitor’s brand / Products (Steal traffic)! • Semantic equivalents! • Misspellings !
  • 26. ACQUISITION! Extra tip: How to get your first 100 users! 1)  What  exisDng  soluDon  do  you  believe  your  product  is  beTer  than?   2)  Where  can  you  find  a  criDcal  mass  of  people  who  use  the  exisDng  soluDon?   3)  Go  there.  Talk  to  them.  Show  them  your  product.  
  • 27. ACQUISITION! Extra tip: Reverse Engineered App Store’s ranking algorithm (approximation)! AppStore  Ranking  =  H +  D +  R + E +  S   ! !H = # of installs weighted for the past few hours! !D = # of installs weighted for the past few days! !R = Reviews (star rating + number of reviews)! !E = Engagement (# of times app opened etc.) ! !S = Sales ($)! ! !
  • 28. ACTIVATION! Key metrics to track:! • Pages per visit (2-3+ page views)! • Time on site (10-30+ seconds)! • Conversions (1 key feature usage)! • Clicks (3-5+ clicks)! • Bounce rate (low)! Activation Tips:! • Less is more! • Focus on UX / Usability! • Provide incentives & call to actions! • Perform A/B tests and iterate fast!  
  • 30. RETENTION! Key metrics to track:! • Source (email, RSS, affiliates…)! • Volume (Low spam rating)! • Conversions (20% open rate / CTR)! • Visitor Loyalty (1–3+ visits per month)! • Session Length! • Long customer life cycle / Low decay! • Identify fanatics and cheerleaders!
  • 32. RETENTION! Retention Tips:! • Email is simple and it works! • But make Unsubscribe easy! • 80% subject line / 20% body text! • Actually… 99% subject line / 1% body text! • Status / “best of” weekly/monthly emails! • “Something happened” emails! • Lifecycle emails @ +3, +7, +30 days ! • RSS / News feeds! • Widgets / Embeds! • Gamification! • Fanatics = Virality + affiliate channels (like bloggers)!
  • 33. REFERRAL! Key metrics to track:! Viral Growth Factor = X * Y * Z! ! !X = % of users who invite other people! !Y = average # of people that they invited! !Z = % of users who accepted an invitation! A viral growth factor > 1 means an exponential organic user acquisition.!
  • 35. REFERRAL! Referral Tips:! • Personal send to friend (Email / IM)! • Social Media! • Widgets / Embeds! • Affiliates!
  • 36. REVENUE! Key metrics to track:! • Conversion to revenue (%)! • Volume ($$$)! Revenue Tips:! • Don’t just rely on AdSense, iAd…! • Offer something free (at least when starting out)! • Subscription / Recurring transactions! • Qualify your customers / Traffic for lead generation.! • Sell somethig (physical or virtual)!
  • 39.
  • 40. CAC (Customer Acquisition Cost)! Take  only  a  porDon  of  those  salaries  and  expenses   in  the  early  days  to  give  a  beTer  indicaDon  of  how   CAC  will  look  when  you  are  at  scale.  
  • 41. CLV or LTV (Customer Lifetime Value)! if  the  Customer  Churn  rate  is  a  monthly  %  or  yearly  %,  then   the  Customer  LifeDme  will  be  for  the  same  Dme  period.    
  • 42. CLV or LTV (Customer Lifetime Value)! In  most  SaaS  businesses,  the  gross  margin  %  is  high  (above   80%),  and  it’s  quite  common  to  use  the  simpler  version  of   the  formula  that  is  not  Gross  Margin  adjusted.   To  truly  get  an  accurate  picture  of  LTV,  you  should   take  into  consideraDon  Gross  Margin:  
  • 43. a  =  iniDal  ARPA  per  month  (  x  GM  %,  if  you  prefer)   m  =  monthly  growth  in  ARPA  per  account   c  =  Customer  Churn  Rate  (in  months)   CLV or LTV in a More Complex Scenario (Where  you  expect  ARPA  to  change  over  the  lifespan   of  the  customer  due  to  expansion  revenue)   (This  formula  makes  an  assumpDon  that  revenue  increases  at  a  roughly   fixed  rate  every  month  for  the  enDre  lifeDme  of  the  customer)  
  • 44. if  1  <  LTV/CAC  <  3         if  LTV/CAC  <  1     LTV : CAC Ratio Awesomeness! > 3 if   (It’s  ok.  As  a  startup,  don’t  worry   iniDally  about  LTV>3*CAC)   your  business  model  is  broken!  
  • 45. Tools for metrics analysis …
  • 47. Less Budget, More Creativity, More Automation -> Maximize Output Growth Hacking
  • 48. Different landing pages according to traffic source! (Search Engines for SEO –> Footer vs Direct ! Traffic -> No footer)! Groupon ACQUISITION! Caution! Use at your own risk! This is cloaking!!
  • 49. Groupon ACTIVATION & RETENTION! !
  • 51. Groupon REFERRAL! !Sharing is in Groupon’s DNA
  • 53. Linkedin RETENTION & REFERRAL! !
  • 55. Linkedin ACQUISITION & REFERRAL! ! This person passed away about a year ago. For the majority of her life, she ran a small hardware shop and she barely understood email, let alone LinkedIn. From Linkedin’s PeopleYou May Know page… (NOT THE BEST THING TO DO… people can hate you)
  • 56. Dropbox ACQUISTION! ! Signup driven homepage: before   aier  
  • 57. Dropbox REFERRAL! ! Sharing simplicity and availability on Multiple Devices & Platforms:
  • 58. Dropbox REFERRAL & REVENUE! ! Get more space
  • 59. Dropbox ACQUISTION & REFERRAL! ! Dropbox Great Space Race!
  • 60. Dropbox REFERRAL & REVENUE! ! Dropbox growth hack in numbers… 1. September 2008: 100,000 registered users! 2. January 2010 (15 months later): 4,000,000! 3. Mostly from word-of-mouth and viral:! • 35% of daily signups from referral program! • 20% from shared folders, other viral features! • Sustained 15-20%+ month-over-month growth since launch!
  • 64. It doesn’t need to be online (initially)!
  • 65. It doesn’t need to be online (initially)!
  • 66. It doesn’t need to be online (initially)!
  • 67. It doesn’t need to be online (initially)!
  • 68. It doesn’t need to be online (initially)!   -­‐  1  Private  domain  (forwarded  to  affiliate  link)  -­‐  made  a  very  easy  domain  name  -­‐  $23   -­‐  1,000  copies  (cut  into  4  =  4,000  flyers)  -­‐  $40   -­‐  2  custom  tshirts  -­‐  $50   -­‐  2  promo  girls  ($20/hr  each  x  4  hrs  =  8  hours  total)  -­‐  $160   -­‐  2  accounts  on  the  hook  up  site  (trial)  -­‐  $10       Total  AdverDsing  Cost  =  $283     Hand  out  all  4,000  flyers  +  do  some  heavy  flir=ng      
  • 69. It doesn’t need to be online (initially)!   -­‐  1  Private  domain  (forwarded  to  affiliate  link)  -­‐  made  a  very  easy  domain  name  -­‐  $23   -­‐  1,000  copies  (cut  into  4  =  4,000  flyers)  -­‐  $40   -­‐  2  custom  tshirts  -­‐  $50   -­‐  2  promo  girls  ($20/hr  each  x  4  hrs  =  8  hours  total)  -­‐  $160   -­‐  2  accounts  on  the  hook  up  site  (trial)  -­‐  $10       Total  AdverDsing  Cost  =  $283     Hand  out  all  4,000  flyers  +  do  some  heavy  flir=ng     Got  118  conversions  (2,95%  conversion  rate)  -­‐>     118  x  $45  payout  =  $5,310  Revenue  -­‐  $283  cost         =  $5,027  PROFIT!    
  • 72. ACQUISITION! hack     Caution! Use at your own risk! This is cloaking!! -­‐>   -­‐>  
  • 73. ACQUISITION! 1-­‐  Setup  domain  with  a  WordPress  news  theme.   2-­‐  Hire  writers  to  rewrite  news  arDcles  for  $2  each.   (Avoid  copying  to  ensure  “journalisDc  quality”.)   3-­‐  Start  with  150  back-­‐dated  arDcles  to  show  that   the  site  has  some  momentum.   4-­‐  Setup  a  nice  logo  and  real  phone  number.   5-­‐  Double  check  that  the  site  complies  with  the   Google  webmaster  guidelines.   6-­‐  Submit  for  approval.    
  • 74. ACQUISITION & REFERRAL! From  adverDsing  here…  
  • 75. PS: I Love You. Get Your Free Email at Hotmail ACQUISITION & REFERRAL! To  simply  wriDng  this  footer  on  each  email…  
  • 76. ACQUISITION & REFERRAL! And  here  are  the  results:  
  • 77. ACQUISITION & REFERRAL (Through viral content)!
  • 79. Extra tip: Reverse Engineered App Store’s ranking algorithm (approximation)! AppStore  Ranking  =  H +  D +  R + E +  S   ! !H = # of installs weighted for the past few hours! !D = # of installs weighted for the past few days! !R = Reviews (star rating + number of reviews)! !E = Engagement (# of times app opened etc.) ! !S = Sales ($)! ! ! Luck?  AppStore  Bot?  Dark  paTern?   ACQUISITION, REFERRAL & REVENUE!
  • 80.
  • 82.
  • 83.
  • 90. REVENUE & PROFIT! Unlock  all  books  is  the  clear  top  revenue  generator.  
  • 91. REVENUE & PROFIT! The  $144,146,165  BuOon  
  • 92. REVENUE & PROFIT! The  $144,146,165  BuOon   When  cabs  were  cash  only,  the  average  Dp  was  roughly  10%.  Aier  the   introducDon  of  this  system,  the  Dp  percentage  jumped  to  22%.  Those   three  buTons  resulted  in  $144,146,165  of  addi=onal  =ps  per  year.  
  • 93. When  Growth   Hacking  Goes   Fail  Hacking  
  • 94.
  • 95. Path Facebook  blocked  Path’s  “Find  Friends”  access  following  spam  controversy  
  • 96. Path Path  texts  your  enDre  phonebook  
  • 99. Rap Genius: No SEO Genius
  • 100. Rap Genius: No SEO Genius Rap Genius fell from around 700,000 uniques a day to around 100,000.!
  • 101. Rap Genius: No SEO Genius Google recommends a 4-step approach to fixing the problem:! 1. Download a list of links to your site from Webmaster Tools.! 2. Check this list for any links that violate our guidelines on linking.! 3. For any links that violate our guidelines, contact the webmaster ! of that site and ask that they either remove the links or prevent them! from passing PageRank, such as by adding a rel="nofollow" attribute.! 4. Use the Disavow links tool in Webmaster Tools to disavow any links ! you were unable to get removed.! But they had a MASSIVE problem… so they had to write a scraper to! analyze 178k  URLs  using concurrency on a Heroku cloud. #NOTBAD!
  • 104. Talleres  de  Lean  Startup   pvalls@technovabarcelona.org  
  • 105.    @polvallssoler! " "linkedin.com/in/polvallssoler! " "slideshare.net/polvallssoler! "! Reddit for spanglish geeks: http://zumogeek.com/ ! iOS app for discovering people nearby: http://joinerapp.com/ ! Advising entrepreneurs at La Salle Technova Barcelona! Thanks! Pol Valls Soler !   Currently creating:! Co-creator of:! Moneda Catalana (Catalan Cryptocurrency): http://moneda.cat/ ! Feel Real Estate Barcelona Property: http://feelrealestate.com/