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Female Reproductive Tract Anatomy of Domestic Animals

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Female Reproductive Tract Anatomy of Domestic Animals

  1. 1. Animal Science/Dairy Science 434 Reproductive Physiology Female Anatomy John Parrish, Professor, UW-Madison
  2. 2. Female Reproductive Tract Anatomy
  3. 3. •To be able to describe the female reproductive system in cattle. »Structure »Function Learning Objectives
  4. 4. Updated:05/04/19 Equine - Horse Femal e MareMale Stallion
  5. 5. Updated:05/04/19 Bovine - Cattle Femal e CowMale Bull
  6. 6. Updated:05/04/19 Ovine - Sheep Femal e EweMale Ram
  7. 7. Updated:05/04/19 Porcine - Swine - Pig Femal e SowMale Boar
  8. 8. Updated:05/04/19 Avian - Chicken Femal e HenMale Rooster
  9. 9. Updated:05/04/19 Vulva Vagina Cervix Uterine Body Clitoris Urethra Bladder Uterine Horn Uterine Horn OvaryOvary Oviduct Oviduct
  10. 10. Updated:05/04/19 Uterus Ovary Oviduct Broad Ligamen t CervixBladder PelvisVagina Vulva Rectum
  11. 11. Updated:05/04/19 Broad Ligament • connective tissue sheet which supports and suspends the reproductive tract BL - Broad Ligament UH - Uterine Horn O - Ovary OD - Oviduct
  12. 12. Broad Ligament • Mesometrium » Supports Uterus • Mesosalpinx » Supports Oviduct • Mesovarium » Supports Ovary
  13. 13. Ovary - Primary Sex Organ Updated:05/04/19 • Functions »Hormonal • Estrogen • Progesterone »Female gamete • Oocyte
  14. 14. Updated:05/04/19 Ovary Corpus Luteum Corpus Luteum Follicle - Estrogen, Oocyte Progesterone Progesterone
  15. 15. Updated:05/04/19 Blood and lymphatic Vessels & nerves Hilus } Ovary Germinal Epithelium Tunica Albuginea 85% of Ovarian Cancers Cortex Medulla
  16. 16. Updated:05/04/19 Tertiary follicle Primary follicle Tertiary follicle Egg nest Secondar y follicle Atretic follicle Corpus albicans Corpus luteum Corpus hemorrhagicum Ruptured follicle (ovulation)
  17. 17. Updated:05/04/19 Tertiary follicle Primary follicle Tertiary follicle Secondar y follicle Atretic follicle Corpus albicans Corpus luteum Corpus hemorrhagicum Ruptured follicle (ovulation)
  18. 18. Updated:05/04/19 Tertiary follicle Primary follicle Tertiary follicle Secondar y follicle Atretic follicle Corpus albicans Corpus luteum Corpus hemorrhagicum Ruptured follicle (ovulation)
  19. 19. Updated:05/04/19 Tertiary follicle Primary follicle Tertiary follicle Secondar y follicle Atretic follicle Corpus albicans Corpus luteum Corpus hemorrhagicum Ruptured follicle (ovulation)
  20. 20. Follicle Cells • Flattened cells surround oocyte • Increase in size of oocyte and height of follicular cells • Surrounded by several layers of follicular cells Nucleus Ooplasma Follicular Cells • Fluid filled cavity • Differentiation of cell layers in the follicle wall Oocyte Antrum Primary Follicle Secondary follicle Primordial Follicle Tertiary follicle
  21. 21. Updated:05/04/19 Antrum Theca Externa Theca Interna Granulosa Cumulus Oophorus Oocyte (Follicular Fluid) Tertiary Follicle Basement Membrane
  22. 22. Updated:05/04/19 Tertiary Follicle Granulosa Theca Interna Cumulus Oophorus Antrum Oocyte
  23. 23. Updated:05/04/19 Follicular Blood Supply Theca interna cells Granulosa cells Follicular fluid Capillary network Basement Membrane
  24. 24. Updated:05/04/19 Circular smooth muscle layer Longitudinal smooth muscle layer Muscularis Serosa Submucosa Lumen Mucosa Secondary Sex Organ: A Series of Tubes to Convey the Oocyte/Embryo/Fetus to the Outside
  25. 25. Updated:05/04/19 Functions of Oviduct • Gamete Transport »Sperm »Oocyte • Supports early embryo development • Transport of embryo to uterus
  26. 26. Updated:05/04/19 Oviduct Uterine Horn Utero-Tubal Junction Ampullary-Isthmic Junction Isthmus Ampulla Infundibulum (20 - 30 cm2 ) Fimbria Ostium Follicle Ovary Cumulus Oophorus and Oocyte
  27. 27. Oviduc t
  28. 28. Oviduc t
  29. 29. Updated:05/04/19 Oviduct Histology •Ciliated Columnar •Nonciliated Columnar Mucosa
  30. 30. Updated:05/04/19 Functions of the Uterus • Muscle contractions » Transport sperm » Expel fetus and placenta • Absorption and phagocytosis • Partially prepares sperm for fertilization » capacitation • Provides environment for embryo and fetal growth • Hormone production » Prostaglandin F2α production
  31. 31. Updated:05/04/19 Uterus (bovine) • Bicornuate » poorly to moderately developed uterine horns » uterine body » one cervix cervix body horn
  32. 32. Uterus
  33. 33. Updated:05/04/19 Uterine Histology Perimetrium Endometrium Myometrium Endometrial Glands
  34. 34. Updated:05/04/19 Mucos a Submucosa Myometrium Endometrium Endometria l Gland Perimetrium Uterine Histology
  35. 35. Updated:05/04/19 Functions of the Cervix • Transport of sperm • Barrier to sperm (species dependent) • Reservoir for sperm • Blocking bacterial invasion during pregnancy • Birth canal
  36. 36. Updated:05/04/19 Cervi x • Cervix is composed of thick connective tissue COW Cow has 4-5 annular rings Uterine Body Vagina External Cervical Os Internal Cervical Os • Mucus is secreted near the time of breeding and ovulation.
  37. 37. Externa l Cervica l Os
  38. 38. Updated:05/04/19 Functions of the Vagina • Copulatory organ • Glands secrete lubrication • Birth canal • Glands secrete pheromones
  39. 39. Updated:05/04/19 Vagin a Anterior VaginaPosterior Vagina (Vestibule) Columnar Epithelium Stratified Squamous Epithelium Submucosa Urethra Submucosa Mucosa Fornix Vulva- Vaginal Sphincter Cervix
  40. 40. Updated:05/04/19 Posterior Vaginal Histology Stratified Squamous Epithelium Mucosa Submucos
  41. 41. Updated:05/04/19 Function of External Genitalia • Labia »Closes entrance to vagina • Clitoris »Female sensory organ
  42. 42. Updated:05/04/19 External Genitalia of the Cow Anus Labia Clitoris Labia Vulva
  43. 43. Updated:05/04/19 Phenomena For Fertility • vagina dentata - a vagina with teeth • female bedbug - no vagina • hysterectomy - if woman went to long without becoming pregnant then uterus would wonder in body causing hysteria and other distresses • hyena - clitoris is very large and looks like the male penis; female also has a false scrotum (labia); female is the dominate sex and produces more testosterone than male

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