History Of Photography

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History Of Photography

  1. 1. History of Photography Luis Saldivar Period 5 Photography Mrs. Becker
  2. 2. The Meaning <ul><li>Comes from 2 ancient Greek words: </li></ul><ul><li>- Photo = Light </li></ul><ul><li>- Graph = Draw or Write </li></ul><ul><li>Photography = Light Writing </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Principles <ul><li>Optics </li></ul><ul><li>-Camera obscura = “darkroom” </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>- Silver chloride turns </li></ul><ul><li>dark under exposure. </li></ul>Leonardo da Vinci drawing; 1519
  4. 4. Inventors <ul><li>1826: Nicéphore Niépce's produces the first permanent photograph, in France </li></ul><ul><li>- The image exposure required 8 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>1839: Louis Daguerre invents the daguerreotype </li></ul><ul><li>- Image exposed directly on </li></ul><ul><li>a polished silver surface (copper plate) </li></ul><ul><li>with a chemical coating. </li></ul><ul><li>-A “direct positive” process – </li></ul><ul><li>there is no negative from which copies </li></ul><ul><li>can be produced. </li></ul><ul><li>- Use of different chemical </li></ul><ul><li>coatings later resulted in shorter </li></ul><ul><li>exposure times </li></ul>Louis Daguerre, 1837; Still Life
  5. 5. Important People <ul><li>Thomas Wedgwood </li></ul><ul><li>-Silhouettes, not permanent/ turned black unless stored in dark room </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Niepce </li></ul><ul><li>-Permanently capture image of camera obscura </li></ul><ul><li>-Summer of 1827; 1 st photograph </li></ul>Earliest surviving photograph, 1826
  6. 6. Daguerreotypes <ul><li>Also sometimes called tintypes or Ambrotypes </li></ul><ul><li>All these are photographic images, typically stored in a folding leather case </li></ul><ul><li>All used a process that produced pictures without negatives </li></ul>
  7. 7. Daguerreotypes Pt. 2 <ul><li>The daguerreotype, invented first, was also the first commercially successful photographic process </li></ul><ul><li>Brought portraits to the </li></ul><ul><li>masses </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1850’s, a photo </li></ul><ul><li>cost only 50 cents </li></ul><ul><li>Portrait painters went </li></ul><ul><li>out of business </li></ul>
  8. 8. Drawbacks <ul><li>The daguerreotype was hard to duplicate </li></ul><ul><li>It was fragile, so had to be kept inside a case or frame </li></ul><ul><li>By 1864, the once popular </li></ul><ul><li>profession of “daguerreotypist” </li></ul><ul><li>had almost disappeared in </li></ul><ul><li>America </li></ul>
  9. 9. Calotype <ul><li>William Henry Fox Talbot experimented with photography before Daguerre, but Daguerre showed his early pictures first </li></ul><ul><li>1841: Talbot publicized his new calotype process </li></ul><ul><li>A calotype produced a negative </li></ul><ul><li>You could make numerous positive prints from one negative </li></ul><ul><li>For a while Talbot was charging </li></ul><ul><li>photographers an annual fee to </li></ul><ul><li>use his patented process </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Freedom of Photography <ul><li>William Talbot’s lawsuit against another photographer, Martin Laroche, had a mixed result for Talbot: </li></ul><ul><li>- His patent rights were upheld </li></ul><ul><li>- The court ruled Laroche, </li></ul><ul><li>using a similar process was </li></ul><ul><li>not infringing on Talbot’s </li></ul><ul><li>patent </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, Talbot did not renew </li></ul><ul><li>his patent and expired 1855 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Glass Plates <ul><li>Both the daguerreotype and the calotype were ultimately made obsolete by collodion </li></ul><ul><li>- A viscious solution that dries to a waterproof surface </li></ul><ul><li>- Applies to glass plates </li></ul><ul><li>- Used in conjuction with a dip of silver nitrate </li></ul><ul><li>A wet plate process that </li></ul><ul><li>required rapid processing in the </li></ul><ul><li>field </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled photography until 1880 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Stereoscopic Photography <ul><li>A 3-D image </li></ul><ul><li>Special camera with 2 lenses </li></ul><ul><li>2 simultaneous photographs </li></ul><ul><li>2 different views </li></ul>
  13. 13. Early Pioneers <ul><li>Scott Archer: Wet Plate/Collodion Process:1851 </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Richard Maddox: Dry Plate:1871 </li></ul><ul><li>George Eastman: Flexible film 1884 </li></ul><ul><li>Eadweard Muybridge: Motion Picture </li></ul>
  14. 14. THE END

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