Test and Behaviour Driven Development (TDD/BDD)


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In this introduction to Test Driven Development (TDD) or Behaviour Driven Development (BDD) we give a high level description of what it is and why it is useful for developers. Then we go into some details on stubs and mocks, test data, UI testing, SQL testing, JavaScript testing, web services testing and how to start doing TDD/BDD on an existing code base.

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Test and Behaviour Driven Development (TDD/BDD)

  1. 1. Test & BehaviourDriven DevelopmentLars ThorupZeaLake Software ConsultingMarch, 2012
  2. 2. Who is Lars Thorup?● Software developer/architect ● C++, C# and JavaScript ● Test Driven Development● Coach: Teaching agile and automated testing● Advisor: Assesses software projects and companies● Founder and CEO of BestBrains and ZeaLake
  3. 3. Why are we here today?● What is TDD/BDD? ● Express expected behaviour before writing code● Why is TDD/BDD a good thing? ● Enjoy more efficient and predictable course of development ● Find and fix bugs faster ● Prevent bugs from reappearing ● Improve the design of our software ● Reliable documentation● How do we do TDD/BDD? ● Write test programs ● Run the tests automatically
  4. 4. Workflow of TDD/BDD Think, talk Idea Test Failing test Code Good Succeeding design Refactor test
  5. 5. BDD or TDD?● Behaviour first ● makes more sense than "Test first"● Structure of test programs ● Given <precondition> ● When <invocation> ● Then <expectation>● High level as well as low level ● Testing user stories and requirements ● Testing class design and algorithms● Communicate intent● Fast feedback
  6. 6. Different kinds of automated tests● Unit tests ● Test individual pieces of code and the interaction between code blocks● System tests / acceptance tests ● Verify the behaviour of the entire system against the requirements● Performance tests ● Test non functional requirements
  7. 7. Unit tests or system tests?● Unit tests are efficient ● Fast to run (hundreds per second) ● Robust and predictable ● Can be easy to write ● Is written together with the code it is testing● System tests are thorough ● Tests all layers together ● Most efficient way to create a set of tests for existing code ● Can be easier to read for non-technical people
  8. 8. Can we automate performance tests?● Performance tests are brittle ● Tip: create performance trend curves instead
  9. 9. How do we run the tests automatically?● From our programming environment (IDE) ● Command line: make test ● Right click | Run Tests● On every commit ● Setup a build server ● Jenkins, TeamCity ● Let the build server run all tests ● Get build notifications ● Keep the build green ● Fixing a broken build has priority over any other development task
  10. 10. How can tests help improve our design?● The software design will evolve over time● A refactoring improves the design without changing behavior● Tests ensure that behavior is not accidentally changed● Without tests, refactoring is scary ● and with no refactoring, the design decays over time● With tests, we have the courage to refactor ● so we continually keep our design healthy
  11. 11. Are we wasting developer time writing tests?● No● Time spent writing tests is not taken from time spent coding ● ... but from time otherwise spent on manual testing and debugging● The cost of a bug keeps increasing until we fix it● Find bugs faster ● Avoid losing customer confidence ● Free QA to do exploratory testing so they find the hard-to-find bugs ● Spend less time trying to figure out what is causing the bug and how to fix it● Avoid spending time testing again
  12. 12. How do we get started?● When we have a lot of existing code without tests ● Create a set of system tests to get a safety net● When we are writing new code ● Write unit tests in conjunction with the new code● Set up a standard test environment for our specific application ● Test data: Automate the creation of standard testdata in a local database ● External dependencies: Write stubs to use in the tests
  13. 13. Maintainability● Stick to a pattern for your tests ● E.g. Given-When-Then● Focus on readability over code duplication in test code● Write reusable helper classes (builders) to simplify tests
  14. 14. What does a real-world project look like?● wizerize.com ● Web application: C# and JavaScript ● 3½ years of development, 3½ years in production ● 2-4 developers ● 40% test code, 60% production code (in lines of code) ● 71% code coverage of unit tests ● 872 unit tests – run in 1½ minute ● 72 system tests – run in 20 minutes ● No functional errors seen by end users in production (yet)
  15. 15. Where can I read more?● http://googletesting.blogspot.com/● http://testdrivendeveloper.com/● http://codesheriff.blogspot.com/● http://www.zealake.com/category/test/
  16. 16. But what about:● Stubs & mocks● Test data● UI testing● SQL testing● JavaScript testing● Web Service testing● Legacy code
  17. 17. What is good design?● One element of good design is loose coupling ● Use interfaces (for static languages) ● Inject dependencies public void Trigger()● Avoid using new: { var emailSvc = new EmailSvc(); emailSvc.SendEmail(); }● Inject dependencies instead: private IEmailSvc emailSvc; public Notifier(IEmailSvc emailSvc) { this.emailSvc = emailSvc; } public void Trigger() { emailSvc.SendEmail();
  18. 18. Stubs and mocks● When testing an object X, that depends on an object Y ● replace the real Y with a fake Y● Benefits ● Only test one thing (X) at a time NotifierTest ● Faster tests (Y may be slow) ● Simpler (Y may depend on Z etc)● Examples: IEmailSvc Notifier ● Time ● Database EmailSvcStub EmailSvc ● Email ● HttpContext
  19. 19. Stubs● Hand crafted● More effort to write● Easier to maintain● Can be more "black box" than mocks
  20. 20. Mocks● Mocks are automatically generated stubs● Easy to use● More "magical"● More effort to maintain● Will be more "white-box" than stubs● Example frameworks: ● Moq ● NSubstitute
  21. 21. Stubs - example public class EmailSvcStub : IEmailSvc { public int NumberOfEmailsSent { get; set; } public void SendEmail() { ++NumberOfEmailsSent; } } [Test] public void Trigger() { // setup var emailSvc = new EmailSvcStub(); var notifier = new Notifier(emailSvc); // invoke notifier.Trigger(); // verify Assert.That(emailSvc.NumberOfEmailsSent, Is.EqualTo(1)); }
  22. 22. Mocks - example [Test] public void Trigger() { // setup var emailSvc = Substitute.For<IEmailSvc>(); var notifier = new Notifier(emailSvc); // invoke notifier.Trigger(); // verify emailSvc.Received(1).SendEmail(); }
  23. 23. Test data● Each developer his/her own database● Standard test data ● Created before running tests● Test data builders ● Stubbed database ● Real database
  24. 24. Test data builder - example[Test]public void GetResponseMedia(){ // given var stub = new StubBuilder { Questions = new [] { new QuestionBuilder { Name = "MEDIA" }, }, Participants = new[] { new ParticipantBuilder { Name = "Lars", Votes = new [] { new VoteBuilder { Question = "MEDIA", Responses = new ResponseBuilder(new byte [] {1, 2, 3}) }, }}, }, }.Build(); var voteController = new VoteController(stub.Session); // when var result = voteController.GetResponseMedia(vote.Id, true) as MediaResult; // then Assert.That(result.Download, Is.True); Assert.That(result.MediaLength, Is.EqualTo(3)); Assert.That(TfResponse.ReadAllBytes(result.MediaStream), Is.EqualTo(new byte[] {1, 2, 3}));}
  25. 25. Web UI testing● Control a browser from the tests using a seperate tool● Tools ● Selenium ● WatiN ● Cucumber + capybara● Minimize system level testing ● Web UI tests are brittle and slow ● Hard to integrate into continuous integration● Maximize JavaScript unit testing
  26. 26. SQL testing● Test stored procedure, constraints, functions and triggers● Use your backend testing framework (like NUnit) ● Easy to integrate in your Continuous Integration process● Consider using a dedicated framework● Or write your own
  27. 27. JavaScript testing● Use a JavaScript unit testing framework ● QUnit ● jsTestDriver ● Jasmine
  28. 28. Web Service testing● Use your backend testing framework (like NUnit)● Use a JSON friendly version of WebClient: // when var votes = jsonClient.Get("Vote", "GetVotes", new { questionId = questionId }); // then Assert.That(votes.Length, Is.EqualTo(1)); var vote = votes[0]; Assert.That(vote.ResponseText, Is.EqualTo("3")); Assert.That(vote.ParticipantName, Is.EqualTo("Lars Thorup"));● Input converted from .NET anonymous type to JSON● Output converted from JSON to .NET dynamic type● https://github.com/larsthorup/JsonClient
  29. 29. Legacy code● Add pinning tests ● special kinds of unit tests for legacy code ● verifies existing behaviour ● acts as a safety net● Can be driven by change requests● Refactor the code to be able to write unit tests● Add unit test for the change request● Track coverage trend for existing code ● and make sure it grows