Topic Maps - Human-oriented semantics?

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A two-hour overview of the Topic Maps technology, standards, and applications.

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Topic Maps - Human-oriented semantics?

  1. 1. Topic Maps – semantics for humans?<br />WNRI Seminars on Semantic Technologies, 2010-12-15<br />Lars Marius Garshol<br /><larsga@bouvet.no><br />http://twitter.com/larsga<br />
  2. 2. Agenda<br />What are semantic technologies?<br />Introduction to Topic Maps<br />Topic Maps and classification<br />A short history of Topic Maps<br />The standards<br />Topic Maps and RDF<br />Example applications<br />Software<br />Learn more<br />
  3. 3. What makes a technology semantic?<br />
  4. 4. Semantics?<br />Semantics<br />the study of meaning (orig. the meaning of words)<br />Semantic technologies<br />describe not just data, but also the meaning of data<br />in traditional technology meaning is only in code and human interpretation<br />John Searle, "The Chinese Room"<br />
  5. 5. Non-semantic data<br />What is this?<br />How many entities are represented here?<br />What is entities and what is properties?<br />
  6. 6. The schema<br />People often say that the schema defines the semantics<br />But it's not really very semantic, is it?<br />XML is not a semantic technology<br />
  7. 7. Topic Maps example<br />Separates entities from properties<br />Relations are clearly visible<br />We know the names of all entities<br />Can query for all 人 and get all instances<br />The full meaning remains obscure<br />Types<br />人<br />subtype<br />subtype<br />男性<br />女性<br />出来事<br />type-instance<br />type-instance<br />源氏<br />夕顔<br />参加<br />参加<br />夕顔との出会い<br />
  8. 8. Semantic technology<br />Far richer description of concepts<br />arbitrarily complex description of classes and properties<br />Vocabularies can be reused across applications<br />Data can be automatically merged<br />Some of the meaning in the data can be modelled<br />
  9. 9. Semantic technologies<br />Topic Maps<br />ISO standard, much used in portals<br />emphasis on "human" semantics<br />RDF<br />W3C standard, foundation of the "semantic web"<br />heavy use of logic in the stack of standards<br />Other alternatives<br />many other technologies want to be seen as semantic; how many of them are is disputable<br />only widely-accepted standards really matter<br />
  10. 10. What are Topic Maps?<br />Uses for Topic Maps<br />Introduction<br />
  11. 11. What is Topic Maps?<br />A technology for knowledge integration<br />describes concepts and their relations<br />allows documents to be attached to the concepts<br />concepts can be matched across different topic maps<br />matching allows topic maps to be merged seamlessly<br />
  12. 12. What can Topic Maps be used for?<br />Primary usage<br />organizing information so you can find what you are looking for<br />common example: portal or intranet<br />less common: online publishing<br />However, Topic Maps is really just a way to organize information<br />can therefore be used for nearly anything<br />Other uses<br />e-learning<br />real knowledge management<br />decision support systems<br />...<br />
  13. 13. From documents to topics<br />The TAO of Topic Maps<br />How to make a topic map<br />
  14. 14. How to find the needle in this haystack?<br />
  15. 15. The Topic Maps approach<br />(index)<br />(content)<br />topic map<br />documents<br />Create a conceptual map of the information being organized<br />concepts and relations<br />connections to documents (landscape)<br />Like a book with an index<br />or landscape and a map<br />
  16. 16. Creating a topic map<br />Analyze the documents<br />Select the key concepts (topics)<br />Analyze the key concepts (topic types)<br />Identify their relationships (associations)<br />For each topic, connect relevant documents (occurrences)<br />Voila!<br />
  17. 17. 1. Document analysis<br />Key concepts<br />What is it?<br />Evaluation report from the MODE project<br />MODE, (Evaluation)<br />CV of Jane Doe<br />Jane Doe, (CV)<br />Budget for IT group<br />IT group, (Budget)<br />
  18. 18. 2.-3. Topics, with types<br />Person<br />Department<br />Project<br />Jane Doe<br />IT group<br />MODE<br />
  19. 19. 4. Adding associations<br />employed in<br />worked on<br />part of<br />worked on<br />Consumer<br />products<br />part of<br />employed in<br />Documentation<br />Roger Roe<br />Jane Doe<br />IT group<br />MODE<br />
  20. 20. 5. Adding occurrences<br />Jane Doe<br />CV<br />budget<br />evaluation<br />worked on<br />employed in<br />IT group<br />MODE<br />
  21. 21. 6. The TAO of Topic Maps<br />worked on<br />MODE<br />Jane Doe<br />Topics<br />represent things of interest<br />Associations<br />represent relations between topics<br />Occurrences<br />connect topics to information resources with relevant information<br />
  22. 22. How to find information?<br />Metadata as solution<br />Metadata as problem<br />Metadata<br />
  23. 23. Metadata<br />The obvious solution to the problem is to describe the documents<br />that is, to attach metadata to the documents<br />metadata in this context is “information about a document”<br />So how does this help?<br />it’s useful for managing the content<br />it provides a better starting point for search<br />it means better search results can be displayed<br />it helps the user determine whether or not a<br /> search hit is interesting<br />But is it what the user is looking for?<br />the user starts out wanting to know more about<br /> a subject<br />traditional metadata, however, focuses on the<br /> document<br />if aboutness is provided at all, it gets squeezed into a single field<br />Title: Recurrent Herpes Simplex Sciatica and its Treatment with Amantadine Hydro...<br />Author: D.A. Fisher<br />Date: 1982-05<br />Format: text/html<br />Keywords: sciatic neuralgia, aman...<br />
  24. 24. What’s wrong with keywords?<br />The main problem is that their use is uncontrolled<br />This leads to problems like<br />authors misspelling keywords,<br />authors using different keywords for the same thing, and<br />authors using keywords that make no sense<br />A secondary problem is that short of guessing, there is no way for the user to find out what keywords have been used<br />The main benefit is that it’s cheap and simple<br />
  25. 25. Taking control over the vocabulary<br />The obvious solution is to create a list of legal keywords<br />this is what’s known as a controlled vocabulary<br />in a controlled vocabulary keywords are called terms<br />this requires somewhere to keep the list, and a process for adding new terms<br />Benefits<br />gets rid of the misspelling problem<br />gets rid of the problem with authors using different terms for the same thing<br />Disadvantages<br />introduces some overhead<br />a flat list is difficult to manage<br />users can still search using the wrong terms<br />users will still have difficulty finding terms if the list is long<br />authors will have the same problem<br />
  26. 26. Organizing the terms<br />The solution is clearly to organize the terms somehow<br />In one sense we’re now back to the problem we had originally with documents<br />the solution is also the same: we need to describe the terms somehow<br />the difficulty is: what can you say about terms?<br />The good news is that there are many traditional and well-known ways to approach this<br />
  27. 27. Two worlds<br />amantadine hydrochloride<br />sciatic neuralgia<br />Title: Recurrent Herpes Simplex Sciatica and its Treatment with Amantadine Hydro...<br />Author: D.A. Fisher<br />Date: 1982-05<br />Format: text/html<br />Keywords: sciatic neuralgia, amantadine hydrochloride<br />?<br />?<br />?<br />Metadata<br />Subject-based classification<br />
  28. 28. Describing the terms<br />Tags<br />Taxonomies<br />Thesauri<br />Classification approaches<br />
  29. 29. Subject-based classification<br />There are many possible organizing principles for documents<br />By<br />author<br />time period<br />genre<br />etc<br />Subject-based classification classifies documents by their subject<br />the subject is what the document is about<br />that is, the subject matter of the document<br />Subject-based classification does not have any particular structure<br />it's just an approach, and there are many different ways to do it<br />
  30. 30. Folksonomies and tags<br />Tags have recently become popular on the web<br />used by web 2.0 sites like Flickr, Technorati, del.icio.us, ...<br />also much used in blogs to categorize the posts<br />Tags are effectively a controlled vocabulary of keywords<br />except the control is often extremely lax<br />The same benefits and problems<br />del.icio.us for example has tags like xtm, topic_maps, topicmaps, topic_map, and topicmap<br />
  31. 31. Taxonomies<br />BT<br />Organizes the keywords into a tree<br />the most general at the top, more specific as you go down<br />common structure used by Yahoo!, LOS, Dewey classification...<br />Requires relationships between terms<br />the relationships state that one term is more specific than another<br />http://www.dmoz.org<br />
  32. 32. A taxonomy example<br />Nervous system disease<br />Autonomous nervous system disease<br />Peripheral nervous system disease<br />Cauda equina syndrome<br />Diabethic neuropathy<br />Sciatic neuralgia<br />
  33. 33. Thesauri<br />USE<br />BT<br />BT<br />RT<br />SN<br />Thesaurus<br />Taxonomy<br />Folksonomy<br />An extension of taxonomies<br />come from the library world; much used in publishing<br />the main extension is that thesauri add more relationships<br />What thesauri contain:<br />BT the same relationship as in taxonomies<br />RT related term, which goes across the hierarchy<br />USE refers to a term that should be used instead of the current one<br />SN scope note, a definition of the term<br />
  34. 34. A thesaurus example<br />Nervous system disease<br />Autonomous nervous system disease<br />USE<br />Peripheral neuropathy<br />Peripheral nervous system disease<br />Cauda equina syndrome<br />Diabetic complications<br />Diabetic neuropathy<br />Sciatic neuralgia<br />RT<br />
  35. 35. Faceted classification<br />The term “faceted classification” has been used to mean many different things<br />originally invented by S. R. Ranganathan in the 1930s<br />Faceted classification<br />defines a number of facets or dimensions<br />defines a set of terms within each facet<br />sometimes these terms are arranged in a taxonomy<br />documents are classified against each facet separately<br />
  36. 36. Colon Classification<br />Ranganathan's original faceted classification system<br />Consisted of five facets:<br />Personality The main subject of the document<br />Matter The material or substance the document deals with<br />Energy The processes or activities described<br />Space The location described<br />Time The time period described<br />This has sometimes been referred to as “PMEST”<br />
  37. 37. An example of use<br />The Norwegian wine monopoly describes its products using these facets:<br />type: red wine, white wine, beer, ...<br />country of origin: France, Norway, ...<br />price<br />matches food: pasta, cheese, fish, beef, ...<br />bottle size<br />
  38. 38.
  39. 39. Ontology in Topic Maps<br />A Topic Maps model of some specific aspect of the world<br />Worked on<br />MODE<br />Project<br />Person<br />CV<br />Jane Doe<br />ontology<br />instances<br />worked on<br />CV<br />
  40. 40. Taxonomies and thesauri revisited<br />From the Topic Maps perspective taxonomies are an ontology<br />terms become topics (of type “term” or “concept”)<br />relations become associations (of various types)<br />scope notes become occurrences<br />However, in Topic Maps it’s possible to be more precise<br />Nervous system disease<br />Autonomous nervous system disease<br />USE<br />Peripheral nervous system disease<br />Peripheral neuropathy<br />Body part<br />Cauda equina syndrome<br />Disease<br />Diabetic neuropathy<br />Drug<br />Amantadine hydrochloride<br />Sciatic neuralgia<br />Peripheral neuropathy<br />Part of<br />Attacks<br />Treats<br />
  41. 41. Expressivity progression<br />Topic Maps<br />Taxonomies, thesauri<br />Flat list, tags<br />Expressivity<br />No model<br />Closed model<br />Open model<br />
  42. 42. Metadata revisited<br />Metadata can also be represented in Topic Maps<br />create topics for the documents<br />map fields to names, occurrences, or associations<br />Big pharma<br />Amantadine hydrochlorine<br />Sciatic neuralgia<br />attacks<br />about<br />author of<br />Peripheral nervous system<br />treated by<br />D.A. Fisher<br />This part is untrue!<br />produced by<br />works for<br />Recurrent Herpes Simplex and its...<br />Date: 1982-05<br />Format: text/html<br />
  43. 43. Benefits of Topic Maps<br />Richer, more expressive model<br />multiple paths to the information you seek<br />typed associations provide “signposts” along the path<br />Improved support for search<br />search for concepts, rather than just documents<br />associations can be used for filtering<br />Merges classification and metadata into a single model<br />greater expressivity (again)<br />simpler architecture: just one system to relate to<br />Maps directly to web portals<br />easy to build and maintain web portal based on the topic map<br />
  44. 44. Conclusion<br />Traditional findability solutions<br />metadata: describes documents<br />classifications: gather and loosely organize keywords/terms<br />Traditional solutions focus on documents<br />Users focus on subjects<br />Topic Maps<br />open model for describing anything<br />focus on subjects<br />easily supports both metadata and existing classifications<br />
  45. 45. What it actually looks like<br />Deeper into Topic Maps<br />
  46. 46. Advanced concepts<br />Association roles<br />Reification<br />Scope<br />Identity<br />
  47. 47. Associations have no direction<br />Puccini<br />Angeloni<br />pupil of<br />
  48. 48. Instead associations have roles<br />Puccini<br />Angeloni<br />pupil of<br />pupil<br />teacher<br />
  49. 49. Richer relationships<br />father<br />child<br />Lars Marius<br />Bjørg<br />Knut<br />parenthood<br />mother<br />
  50. 50. Roles, role players and role types<br />person<br />pupil<br />teacher<br />teacher-of<br />person<br />topic type<br />role type<br />role type<br />association type<br />topic type<br />association<br />role player<br />role player<br />role<br />role<br />puccini<br />angeloni<br />N.B. role == association role and role type == association role type<br />
  51. 51. Symmetric relationships<br />country<br />neighbor<br />neighbor<br />borders-with<br />country<br />topic type<br />role type<br />role type<br />association type<br />topic type<br />association<br />role player<br />role player<br />role<br />role<br />norway<br />sweden<br />
  52. 52. Reification<br />From latin “re” = “thing”<br />i.e. “thingification”<br />In Topic Maps, for “thing” read “topic”<br />So reification is about turning something into a topic<br />Specifically it is about turning topic map constructs that are not already topics (i.e., names, occurrences, associations, association roles, and topic maps) into topic<br />Useful for annotation of Topic Maps constructs<br />
  53. 53. Reification example<br />Ontopia<br />start date<br />2000<br />2007<br />LMG's employment<br />end date<br />employed by<br />Lars Marius Garshol<br />Obviously, this is no longer the case. But how can we express that?<br />
  54. 54. The semantics of reification<br />Many possible interpretations of what the reifying topic represents:<br />the same thing as the association<br />the association as Topic Maps construct<br />the assertion of this particular association<br />Topic Maps reification is case (a)<br />RDF reification is not formally defined, but is case (c)<br />
  55. 55. Scope<br />Every statement in a topic map has a scope<br />that is, a set of topics representing the context in which the statement is valid<br />the empty set is known as "the unconstrained scope"<br />Abugida<br />Alphasyllabary<br />Bright<br />Daniels<br />Tibetan script<br />
  56. 56. Applications of scope<br />Multilinguality<br />scope names and occurrences with language topics<br />Authority<br />scope statements with the authority that supports them<br />Provenance<br />scope statements with their source<br />Time<br />scope statements with the era in which they were true<br />
  57. 57. Multiple topics in scope<br />The context is the intersection of the topics<br />a statement scoped with "Thursdays" and "LMG" is true on Thursdays according to LMG<br />Implication: adding topics to the scope narrows the context of validity<br />given <br />a statement s in scope a, and <br />s' in scope a, b <br />we can see that s' is actually redundant<br />
  58. 58. Topics and subjects<br />A topic is a representation of a subject<br />topic: Topic Maps construct representing subject<br />subject: real-world thing<br />subject<br />topic<br />Patrick Durusau<br />"subject: anything whatsoever, regardless of whether it exists or has any other specific characteristics, about which anything whatsoever may be asserted by any means whatsoever" --ISO/IEC 13250-2:2006<br />
  59. 59. Subject identification<br />Topics can have globally unique identifiers attached to them<br />these identifiers really identify the subject of the topic, and not the topic itself<br />the identifiers are URIs<br />However, these are of two different kinds...<br />
  60. 60. Subject locators<br />A subject locator is a URI that points to the information resource which is the subject<br />Patrick Durusau<br />depicted-in<br />Photo of Patrick<br />taken-at<br />Leipzig<br />http://larsga.geirove.org/photoserv.fcgi?t121182<br />subject locator<br />http://larsga.geirove.org/photoserv.fcgi?t121182<br />same as URI of photo<br />
  61. 61. Subject identifiers<br />A subject identifier is a URI which refers to an information resource describing the subject<br />Patrick Durusau<br />depicted-in<br />http://psi.ontopedia.net/Patrick_Durusau<br />Photo of Patrick<br />
  62. 62. Merging<br />In Topic Maps, two topics must be merged if they have the same<br />subject identifier,<br />subject locator, or<br />reified construct<br />The rationale is that if this is the case they must represent the same subject<br />
  63. 63. Example<br />Patrick Durusau<br />depicted-in<br />Photo of Patrick<br />http://psi.ontopedia.net/Patrick_Durusau<br />taken-at<br />Leipzig<br />editor-of<br />ISO/IEC 13250-5<br />Patrick Durusau<br />editor-of<br />http://psi.ontopedia.net/Patrick_Durusau<br />ODF<br />
  64. 64. Example<br />editor-of<br />ISO/IEC 13250-5<br />Patrick Durusau<br />depicted-in<br />editor-of<br />Photo of Patrick<br />http://psi.ontopedia.net/Patrick_Durusau<br />taken-at<br />ODF<br />Leipzig<br />
  65. 65. On merging<br />Merging is not a special operation<br />happens every time Topic Maps data is loaded<br />Allows exchange of fragments<br />identifiers ensure that fragments are reassembled simply by being loaded<br />Allows reuse of data<br />define identifiers for vocabulary (pieces of ontology)<br />or for individual entities<br />
  66. 66. Examples of use<br />Subclassing<br />SIs for this are defined in the standard<br />can be interchanged between tools<br />Hierarchy definition<br />SIs for this were defined years ago; widely used today<br />Schema language<br />SIs defined in TMCL (about which more later)<br />Countries and languages<br />SIs defined by OASIS<br />...<br />
  67. 67. LOS<br />A common classification for public information in Norway<br />published by Norge.no (Norway.no)<br />http://norge.no/los/<br />Consists of<br />a taxonomy of subjects,<br />a taxonomy of geographic locations, and<br />a set of classified resources<br />Defines PSIs for the subjects and locations<br />Used by <br />Bergen Kommune<br />
  68. 68. Grep<br />The Norwegian National Curriculum<br />basically the official definition of what children should learn in school<br />published as a topic map by the Ministry of Education<br />uses PSIs for all elements<br />Currently starting to be used<br />NRK project used it<br />others are connecting to it, too<br />an aggregator service is being built<br />
  69. 69. Linked Open Data?<br />This is linked open data<br />using URIs to automatically connect statements from disparate sources<br />Represented in different ways<br />some use RDF<br />some use Topic Maps<br />and some, probably, use other things<br />Called "Global Knowledge Federation" in the TM community<br />the concept remains the same<br />interchange across technologies is possible<br />
  70. 70. HyTime<br />The Davenport project<br />ISO<br />A bit of history<br />
  71. 71. HyTime<br />An ISO standard for hypertext first published as ISO/IEC 10744:1992<br />very ambitious and complex<br />based on SGML (precursor of XML)<br />many kinds of hyperlinks<br />including links with any number of anchors, where each anchor is associated with a role type specifying its meaning...<br />contains a metamodel for representing content to allow detailed addressing into any form of resource<br />...<br />
  72. 72. Small beginnings<br />1991<br />The Davenport Group: project to merge back-of-book indexes to UNIX documentation from different publishers<br />First attempt known as SOFABED (failed)<br />1993<br />CApH was set up, to use HyTime to solve the problem<br />turned SOFABED into Topic Navigation Maps<br />1996<br />picked up by ISO committee responsible for SGML<br />
  73. 73. ISO and TopicMaps.Org<br />1998<br />Topic Maps standard submitted for final ballot<br />an SGML architectural form based on HyTime<br />SGML syntax today known as HyTM<br />W3C publishes XML<br />2000<br />ISO publishes ISO/IEC 13250:2000 (still in SGML)<br />TopicMaps.Org created to produce an XML version of Topic Maps<br />2001<br />XTM 1.0 published by TopicMaps.Org in March<br />
  74. 74. ISO<br />2001<br />work begins on data models for Topic Maps<br />an infoset-based model, close to XTM 1.0<br />a graph-based model, far more abstract<br />lots of politics, holding up all other work<br />first commercial engine released (Ontopia)<br />2002<br />ISO publishes ISO/IEC 13250:2002 (with XTM 1.0)<br />the first Norwegian portals start appearing<br />2006<br />ISO publishes ISO/IEC 13250-2:2006 – Topic Maps – Data Model<br />
  75. 75. A little ISO history<br />Topic Maps Data Model<br />The Topic Maps Standards<br />
  76. 76. The new ISO 13250<br />A multi-part standard, consisting of<br />Part 1: Overview of Basic Concepts<br />Part 2: Data Model<br />Part 3: XTM syntax<br />Part 4: Canonical XTM<br />Part 5: Reference Model<br />Part 6: Compact Syntax<br />Part 7: Graphical Notation<br />
  77. 77. Roadmap to the TM standards<br />ISO 18048<br />QUERY LANGUAGETMQL<br />ISO 13250<br />XTM SYNTAX<br />CXTM SPEC<br />CTM SYNTAX<br />GTM NOTATION<br />ISO 19756<br />CONSTRAINT LANGUAGETMCL<br />DATA MODELTMDM<br />REFERENCE MODELTMRM<br />
  78. 78. The Topic Maps Data Model (TMDM)<br />Created to define meaning and structure of topic maps<br />Syntaxes map to this structure, as do TMQL and TMCL<br />Defines the meaning of topic map concepts using prose<br />Defines “subject”, “topic”, “scope”, “association”, ...<br />Defines their structure using the information set model<br />Just like XML Infoset<br />Describes the kinds of things that exist in topic maps, and their properties<br />Adds constraints on the model<br />Rules for allowed values<br />Also defines when merging happens, and how<br />
  79. 79. How TMDM works<br />One information item type defined for each topic map construct<br />Complete list shown below<br />One set of properties defined for each construct<br />Example below: all topic map objects have item identifiers<br />
  80. 80. Association<br />Associations have the following properties:<br />[type]: topic defining the association type<br />[scope]: set of topics making up the scope of the association<br />[roles]: set of association role items<br />[reifier]: topic reifying the association<br />[source locators]: URIs pointing back to element(s) the association came from<br />[parent]: the topic map<br />Merge if equal values for [type], [scope] & [roles]<br />
  81. 81. Merging rules in TMDM<br />One merging rule defined for each information type<br />Equality rule says which properties to compare (as for association)<br />Merging rule says how to merge two equal information items<br />For topics, the equality rule is that two topics are equal if<br />same value in [subject identifiers] property of both, or<br />same value in [subject locators] property of both, or<br />same value in [source locators] property of both, or<br />some extra conditions<br />Merging topics is done by<br />creating a new topic item, whose properties contain the union of the old values,<br />then replacing all occurrences of the old items throughout the model with the new one<br />
  82. 82. XTM 2.0 syntax<br /><topicMap version="2.0" xmlns="http://www.topicmaps.org/xtm/"><br /><topic id="xtm"><br /> <subjectIdentifier href="http://psi.example.org/xtm/2.0"/><br /> <instanceOf><br /> <topicRef href="#syntax"/><br /> </instanceOf><br /> <name><br /> <value>XTM 2.0</value><br /> </name><br /> <occurrence><br /> <type><br /> <topicRef href="#status"/><br /> </type><br /> <resourceData>International Standard</resourceData><br /> </occurrence><br /></topic><br /></topicMap><br />
  83. 83. CTM syntax<br />http://psi.example.org/xtm/2.0 isa syntax;<br /> - "XTM 2.0";<br /> status: "International Standard".<br />
  84. 84. TMCL example<br />op:Image isa tmcl:topic-type;<br /> is-abstract();<br /> has-name(tmdm:topic-name, 1, 1);<br /> has-occurrence(ph:time-taken, 1, 1);<br /> plays-role(op:Image, ph:taken-at, 1, 1);<br /> plays-role(op:Image, ph:taken-during, 0, 1);<br /> plays-role(ph:depiction, ph:depicted-in, 0, *);<br /> # ...<br />
  85. 85. Topic Maps and RDF<br />
  86. 86. Things<br />A thing in the real world<br />S<br />A symbol in the computer domain<br />The heart of RDF and Topic Maps is the same:<br />symbols representing real-world things <br />Both RDF and Topic Maps consist of statements about these things<br />
  87. 87. Technical comparison<br />Topic Maps and RDF<br />are graph-based data models,<br />have well-defined identity tests and merging operators,<br />have XML-based interchange syntaxes (as well as human-friendly ones),<br />are standards, and<br />have standardized schema and query languages<br />Differences<br />RDF is lower-level than Topic Maps,<br />Topic Maps support reification, complex context, and n-ary relationships, and<br />Topic Maps distinguish different kinds of URI references<br />
  88. 88. Topic Maps vs RDF<br />OWL<br />TMQL<br />TMCL<br />SPARQL<br />RDFS<br />Topic Maps<br />RDF<br />XTM<br />CTM<br />RDF/XML<br />n3<br />
  89. 89. Timeline<br />MCF-XML<br />RDF Schema<br />PICS-NG<br />MCF<br />RDF WD<br />OWL<br />RDF Rec<br />'91<br />'92<br />'93<br />'94<br />'95<br />'96<br />'97<br />'98<br />'99<br />'00<br />'01<br />'02<br />'03<br />'04<br />ISO work starts<br />XTM to ISO<br />Standard finished<br />ISO 13250:2003<br />SOFABED model<br />ISO 13250:2000<br />XTM 1.0<br />Davenport Group<br />TopicMaps.Org<br />Topic navigation maps<br />
  90. 90. Assertions<br />RDF has one kind of assertion: the statement<br />subject, predicate, object<br />Topic maps have three kinds<br />(1) Names<br />(2) Occurrences<br />(3) Associations<br />“...”<br />“...”<br />http://www...<br />
  91. 91. Handling of identity<br />Topic Maps<br />subject locator<br />subject identifier<br />item identifier<br />RDF<br />uri<br />blank node<br />The distinction between a URI referring to a description<br />of the subject, and a URI referring to the subject cannot<br />be expressed in RDF.<br />
  92. 92. TMCL vs RDFS/OWL<br />TMCL<br />schema language<br />validation semantics only<br />very little reasoning or logic<br />designed to support validation and introspection<br />RDFS/OWL<br />ontology description languages<br />reasoning semantics only<br />strong basis in logic<br />OWL is essentially Description Logic<br />
  93. 93. Semantic Portals<br />eLearning<br />Business Process Modelling<br />Product Configuration<br />Information Integration<br />Metadata Management<br />Business Rules Management<br />IT Asset Management<br />Asset Management (Manufacturing)<br />...<br />Applications of Topic Maps<br />
  94. 94. forskning.no<br />Norwegian government portal to popular science and research information<br />basically an online popular science journal<br />owned by the Norwegian Research Council<br />Purpose:<br />To present science and research<br /> information to young adults<br />Intended to raise interest and <br /> recruitment<br />
  95. 95. Content of forskning.no<br />The main content is articles about science and research subjects<br />There is also a classification system used as a navigational structure<br />The site is entirely topic map-driven<br />Navigation structure is a topic map<br />Articles are represented as topics<br />Even images are topics...<br />
  96. 96. Medicine<br />Science<br />Odontology<br />Human body<br />Volcanoes<br />Clinical Med.<br />Hormones<br />The Brain<br />Neurology<br />Oncology<br />The Dual Classification<br />
  97. 97. The subject<br />Subjects<br />Fields<br />People<br />Articles<br />A Subject<br />
  98. 98. Article<br />Subjects<br />Fields<br />Next article<br />People<br />An Article<br />
  99. 99. Person<br />Title<br />Home page<br />Mentioned in<br />Employer<br />A Person<br />
  100. 100. The Project<br />Wide ontology; research covers everything<br />Ontology was created by reusing an existing thesaurus, automatically converted<br />A series of 4-5 workshops established the basic principles<br />Finally, the publishing application was built by Bouvet<br />software used is ZTM (Python-based, open source)<br />
  101. 101. Maintenance<br />Maintained by central editorial staff in Oslo<br />Articles written by distributed network of authors<br />Authors write and submit articles online<br />Articles enter workflow and are added by editors<br />Editors also add connections to topic map<br />
  102. 102. forskning.no admin interface<br />
  103. 103. forskning.no admin interface, 2<br />
  104. 104. forskning.no admin interface, 3<br />
  105. 105. City of Bergen<br />Second biggest city in Norway<br />250,000 inhabitants and 20,000 employees<br />spends roughly 3 million USD annually on the portal project<br />goal: to make all city services available through the portal<br />Strong technology platform<br />Oracle Portal + Oracle RDBMS<br />Escenic as CMS<br />Ontopia as Topic Maps engine<br />DB2TM for data integration<br />
  106. 106. Bergen: who does what?<br />Most of the site is produced by Ontopia<br />Some parts by Escenic<br />Some are independent<br />And some are service-specific portlets<br />Static<br />Escenic<br />
  107. 107. Bergen architecture<br />Service Catalog<br />Oracle Portal<br />Fellesdata<br />Ontopia<br />Dexter<br />DB2TM<br />TMSync<br />Agresso<br />Escenic<br />Ontopoly<br />LOS<br />Editors<br />
  108. 108. NRK/Skole<br />Norwegian National Broadcasting (NRK)<br />media resources from the archives<br />published for use in schools<br />integrated with the National Curriculum<br />In production<br />opened late 2008<br />Technologies<br />Ontopia<br />DB2TM conversion<br />MySQL database<br />Tomcat application server<br />
  109. 109. Curriculum-based browsing (1)<br />Curriculum<br />Social studies<br />High school<br />
  110. 110. Curriculum-based browsing (2)<br />Gender roles<br />
  111. 111. Curriculum-based browsing (3)<br />
  112. 112. One video (prime minister’s husband)<br />Metadata<br />Subject<br />Person<br />Related<br />clips<br />Description<br />
  113. 113. GREP<br />Norwegian national curriculum<br />published as a topic map<br />has global IDs on all topics<br />NRK/Skole clips attached to knowledge goals<br />global IDs are in the topic map<br />Therefore...<br />Grade<br />Subject<br />Section<br />Goal<br />GREP<br />Clip<br />NRK/Skole<br />
  114. 114. ndla.no<br />Portal organizing learning resources into the curriculum<br />to be integrated with NRK/Skole<br />
  115. 115. Hafslund<br />ERP<br />Billing<br />Archive<br />...<br />SDshare<br />SDshare<br />SDshare<br />SDshare<br />Topic Map<br />auto-tagging<br />
  116. 116. SDshare<br />ERP<br />SDshare<br />Server<br />Client<br />Fragments<br />
  117. 117. Using Ontopia<br />DB2TM converts to Topic Maps<br />a simple XML mapping file<br />this is enough to provide full sync<br />Generic SDshare implementation<br />listens for change events<br />produces corresponding feeds<br />ERP<br />DB2TM<br />Ontopia<br />SDshare<br />Server<br />
  118. 118. Hafslund – points to note<br />Extremely loose coupling<br />ontology can be freely changed<br />Very simple integration<br />in many cases just an XML configuration file<br />Very flexible architecture<br />adding new sources is trivial<br />Has more uses than just archiving<br />once the data is collected...<br />
  119. 119. E-learning<br />Topic maps are associative knowledge structures<br />They reflect how people acquire and retain knowledge<br />BrainBank is used by students to describe what they have learned<br />Initial users are 11-13 year olds who haveno idea what a topic map is…<br />They capture the key concepts, name them, describe them, and associate them with others<br />This helps them<br />Capture the essence,<br />Describe what they have learned,<br />Keep track of their knowledge, and<br />Lets the teacher help them<br />BrainBank was built using Ontopia<br />An application of the Web Editor Framework<br />Demonstrates user-friendliness of TM editing<br />
  120. 120. Business process modelling<br />A multinational petrochemical company uses Ontopia for managing business process models<br />The flexibility of the Topic Maps model allows arbitrary relationships to be captured easily<br />Processes are modelled in terms of<br />The steps involved, their preconditions, their successors, etc<br />Processes can be related through<br />Composition (one process is part of another),<br />Sequencing (one process is followed by another),<br />Specialization (one process is a special caseof a more general process)<br />
  121. 121. Product configuration<br />A Scandinavian telecom company uses Ontopia to manage product configuration<br />Products belong to families<br />Features belong to either products or product families<br />Features are grouped in feature sets<br />There are dependencies between features<br />etc.<br />The system models dependencies in <br /> a topic map<br />Product configuration engineers use this to configure products using a user-friendly interface<br />After each change, interface gives feedback on whether selection was valid<br />Features<br />Product<br />families<br />Versioning<br />System <br />data<br />Products<br />
  122. 122. Product configuration (2)<br />Feature 1<br />The features are arranged in a tree<br />trees vary in size (700-2500 features)<br />two kinds of parent-child relationships (mandatory or optional)<br />Configuration rules run across<br />three different kinds of rules<br />expressed as associations<br />In addition: variables<br />these have different values for different products<br />Feature 2<br />conflicts-with<br />requires<br />Feature 3<br />Feature 4<br />Feature 5<br />
  123. 123. Product configuration (3)<br />The network of dependencies is already quite complex<br />Now throw versioning into the mix!<br />Managing all this data is not easy<br />The system is driven by inference rules<br />These work on the topic map<br />Easily capture complex logic<br />Also integrates with product documentation<br />Very complex topic map<br />at the last count ~20,000 topics and ~1,000,000 associations<br />running complex queries on this really exercises the query engine<br />
  124. 124. Business rules management (1)<br />The US Department of Energy has used Ontopia to manage guidance rules for security classification<br />Information about the production of nuclear weapons is subject to thousands of rules<br />Rules are published in 100s of documents<br />Most documents are derived from more general documents<br />
  125. 125. Business rules management (2)<br />Guidance topics form a complex web of relationships that is captured in a topic map<br />Concepts are connected to if-then-else rules<br />This constitutes a knowledge base (KB)<br />KB used with an inference engine to automatically<br />classify information (documents, emails, ...), and<br />redact information (PDF, email, ...)<br />Benefits:<br />Model expressive enough to capture thecomplexity of the rules<br />Status as ISO standard ensures stability and longevity<br />Master<br />topic<br />Parent<br />topic<br />Child<br />topic<br />Guidance<br />topic<br />Derived<br />topic<br />Responsible<br />person<br />Concept<br />Workflow<br />state<br />
  126. 126. IT asset management<br />The University of Oslo is using the OKS to manage IT assets<br />Servers, clusters, databases, etc are described in a TM<br />This is used to answer questions like<br />Service X is down, who do I call?<br />If I take Y down, what else goes?<br />If operating system Z is upgraded, what apps are affected?<br />System driven by composite topic map<br />Partly autogenerated<br />Partly handcoded<br />Two applications provide accessto the knowledge base<br />Whitney: online<br />Houson: offline (for use in emergencies)<br />Houdini<br />Whitney<br /> Syntax control<br /> OKS schema validation<br /> Versioning with CVS<br />Navigator framework<br />UIOTM FW<br />OKS API<br />OKS Engine<br />RDBMS backend<br />XTM<br />usit.ltm(handcoded)<br />oracle.ltm(generated)<br />CVS<br />
  127. 127. Asset management: Manufacturing<br />The Y-12 plant at DoE is using the OKS to map its plant<br />The purpose is to get an overview of<br />equipment,<br />processes,<br />materials required,<br />parts already built,<br />etc.<br />
  128. 128.
  129. 129. Topic Maps software<br />
  130. 130. Two main kinds<br />Big application suites<br />complete frameworks for building solutions<br />engines at the core with end-user tools on top<br />Smaller, open source tools<br />many are just engines<br />some are more specific tools for a single purpose<br />
  131. 131. Ontopia<br />Open source Java-based suite of tools<br />engine + query engine<br />generic ontology designer + instance editor<br />conversion tools (RDBMS, RDF, XML, ...)<br />presentation frameworks (JSP, portlets, ...)<br />CMS integrations<br />automatic classification<br />graphical visualization<br />web service interfaces<br />browser<br />...<br />
  132. 132. Web3<br />Commercial .NET-based suite<br />engine + query engine<br />Sharepoint integration<br />built-in security model<br />web service interfaces<br />presentation framework<br />
  133. 133. Topincs<br />Web-based knowledge management tool<br />wiki-like, but TMCL-based<br />collaborative<br />complex presentation features<br />version 5.1 allows embedded programming in the TM<br />
  134. 134. Wandora<br />Open source Java-based application suite<br />core engine<br />presentation framework<br />extensive set of input converters<br />many export formats<br />ontology designer + instance editor<br />
  135. 135. topicWorks<br />Commercial Java-based application suite<br />core engine<br />sophisticated data navigator<br />Excel plugin<br />ready-made ontologies<br />
  136. 136. ZTM<br />Open source Topic Maps-based CMS<br />written in Python, on top of Zope<br />used for a large number of portals (e.g vestforsk.no)<br />very advanced CMS features<br />enables very rapid development<br />
  137. 137. Atom2<br />Commercial suite<br />high-performance engine + query engine<br />ontology designer + instance editor<br />presentation framework<br />CMS-like functionality<br />
  138. 138. TopicMapsLab<br />SesameTM<br />TMAPI implementation on top of Sesame triple store<br />tmql4j<br />TMQL query engine on top of TMAPI<br />Aranuka<br />object mapping library<br />Onotoa<br />graphical TMCL modelling tool<br />Maiana<br />social Topic Maps browser<br />MajorTom<br />virtual merging Topic Maps engine<br />...<br />
  139. 139. Various engines<br />TM++ C++<br />tmjs JavaScript<br />QuaaxTM PHP<br />Mappa Python<br />RTM Ruby<br />SharpTM C#<br />TM2JDBC Java<br />Isidorus Common Lisp<br />tinyTiM Java<br />...<br />
  140. 140. Sources<br />Learn more<br />
  141. 141. Papers<br />Topic Maps in Encyclopedia of Library Science<br />http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/papers/ELIS-TopicMaps.pdf<br />The TAO of Topic Maps<br />http://www.ontopia.net/topicmaps/materials/tao.html<br />Metadata? Thesauri? Taxonomies? Topic Maps!<br />http://www.ontopia.net/topicmaps/materials/tm-vs-thesauri.html<br />
  142. 142. Conferences<br />Software 2011 – Topic Maps track<br />http://www.dataforeningen.no/forside.168724..html<br />TMRA conferences<br />http://tmra.de<br />
  143. 143. Other<br />Topic Maps Snippets<br />http://topicmaps.bouvet.no/blog/<br />Planet Topic Maps<br />http://planet.topicmaps.org/<br />TopicMaps.org<br />http://www.topicmaps.org<br />TopicMaps Lab<br />http://www.topicmapslab.de<br />Index of Topic Maps software<br />http://www.garshol.priv.no/tmtools/<br />

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