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2015-04-25, Norbrygg hjemmebryggerhelg, Bergen
Lars Marius Garshol, larsga@garshol.priv.no, @larsga
Maltøl
01
Viking era beer
We have documentary evidence that
the vikings brewed beer
for example the Gulating law
There's much mor...
This is where an ethnographic survey
indicates farmhouse brewing was alive
in Norway in 1840. Gray dots indicate
unclear a...
The situation today
Brewing never stopped
came very close to dying in
some places, then revived
It really is the same type...
Maltøl - the world's oldest style?
People often say these beers have been brewed the same way since the Iron Age
that's no...
Maltøl?
The definition of beer is "made from malts," so why
"malt beer"?
In Norway "øl" used to mean simply "fermented dri...
Only in Norway?
Similar forms of brewing
have survived elsewhere,
too
Sahti is one example
Gotlandsdricka another
There ar...
01
Brewing maltøl
01
A generic maltøl
• I attended a course in maltøl brewing
• held in Sogndal by Vestlandsforsking
• A climate scientist a...
01
A word of caution
Farmhouse brewing is different
None of the usual rules apply any
more
Most modern equipment is typica...
01
The brewery
The ingredients*
One big garbage bag of juniper branches
50kg Munich malts, 20 kg pale ale malts, 4 kg crystal malts, 0.3k...
01
01
The mashing
Heat juniper infusion to 80C
Pour onto mash while stirring
Right amount of water when the
fork can no longe...
01
The runnings
Mash transferred into "rostabidnet"
(filter tun)
Then run off very slowly into a steel
bucket
stream the t...
The boil
Boil for an hour
over a wooden fire
Very likely the direct wood fire contributes flavour
it certainly contributes...
01
Straining
Strain out hops from the boil
Probably also removes some
gunk from the juniper
01
The cooling
The result
Probably around 8% ABV
hop IBU computed to be around 7
unknown quantity of juniper bitterness must be added to ...
The process
01
Brewing Vossaøl
Some things stay the same
We still only measure temperature (no OG/IBU...)
We're still using juniper infusion, rather than...
01
Quick recipe
For 150 liters of beer
50kg of pilsner malts
250g hops in the mash
200g hops 15 min before end of
boil
Jun...
01
Last year's brew
Only the dregs were left in the
serving tank
still, Sigmund let us have a taste
Aroma of juniper, oran...
01
Sigmund sieving the infusion.
01
Why you need a sieve
Mashing
Heat infusion to 80C
Stir carefully in tubs
start at about 69C
Add to rostabidnet
metal grating at bottom, juniper...
The boil
Takes 4 hours
boils away 50% of wort
Strong wood fire onto bottom of copper all the way
turns the colour from pal...
01
Sigmund's yeast
01
Pitching
• Wondered why Sigmund
insulated the fermenter
• "So it will stay warm enough,"
he says
• "How warm do you pit...
01
Yeast ring
01
10:09
01
14:35
01
The end result
01
Vossaøl
• I've tasted four
• Sigmund's
• One from Smalahovetunet
• One from Svein Rivenes
• Voss Bryggeri Vossaøl 1814
...
01
Sigmund's kveik
• Pure brewer's yeast
• no bacteria
• Consists of three very similar
strains
• Svein Rivenes's kveik wa...
01
Vossaøl can be reproduced with modern gear
Requires juniper and Voss kveik
Gas heating is better than electric
Takes a ...
01
The effect of the boil
01
Oppdal
01
Waiting for the beer
01
The brewer
• Harald Storli
• Beer has been brewed on the
farm since at least the 17th
century
• They've deliberately pr...
01
Såinnhus Norwegian barley
3 days in a sack in the brook
Torn apart by hand
Dried on slate shelves
Drying for 2-3 days
R...
01
The kettle
• Boil juniper for infusion
• 36kg of ground malts, then pour
boiling infusion on it
• pour until mashing fo...
01
Mashing
• Clean mashtun, transfer run off
wort back with ladle
• Take off 12 buckets of wort
• First and last bucket ar...
Fermentation
Once the yeast has come loose from branches, primary fermentation
is over
takes 16-24 hours
Transfer to woode...
01
Kveik, part 2
Other kveiks
Stranda
only one strain survived
possibly genetically similar to Voss
Muri gård, Olden (WLP 6788)
two nearly ...
Is it really pre-Pasteur yeast?
Consists of multiple, related strains
Strains from the same place are similar, but not the...
Taking care of the yeast
Collect after (or during) fermentation
keep slurry in glasses, or dry it
dried yeast keeps for ye...
01
Honndalsøl
• Got a bottle via a contact
• Absolutely blown away by the
flavour
• better than the top-tier Belgians we w...
01
Boiling juniper infusion
01
Recipe
• 50% Maris Otter pale, 50% pils
• 0.333kg malts per liter beer
• 2.2g noble hops per liter beer
• first-wort ho...
Process
01
01
Baking yeast
01
Results
Overall: surprisingly big differences
Stranda: lemon, a little acid, nuts, grain and straw
Idun Blå: pear, more fr...
01
The world of
yesterday
Photo removed, as it was copyrighted
http://digitaltmuseum.no/011013407004/gallery
The tasks of the brewer
Sow, tend, and harvest the barley
Separate barley from weeds, thresh it, then sort it by quality
P...
01
Types of beer
• Maltøl
• the main beer, from the first runnings
• Spissøl
• small beer, from later runnings
• an everyd...
Superstitions
Sacrifice wort to the spirit of the fireplace (årevetten)
Use steel to frighten away evil spirits
particular...
Beer for every occasion
Festarøl: to mark betrothal
Barnsøl: to mark a birth
Gravøl: to mark a burial
Frelsarøl: at the fr...
Sambæringsøl
Gulatingsloven påbød bøndene å gå sammen 3 og 3 om
å brygge øl
Skulle gjøres til allehelgensaften
En kristen ...
01
Drinking guilds
Associations of prominent men
Written rules of association
Annual fee to be a member
Primary function: ...
The decline of home brewing
Because of religious or anti-drink campaigning
Because beer got competitors
liquor, coffee, mi...
Oppskåka
The racking after primary fermentation
Also the traditional party for neighbours held at this
time
First glass go...
01
Stjørdalsøl
01
Såinnhus
Built by Roar Sandodden
Creator of Alstadberger
First commercial Norwegian maltøl
01
Inside
• Local barley from neighbours
• Soak for two days
• change water twice
• Grow in growing frame 4-5 days
• stir ...
01
01
Recipe
• 60% own malts
• rest is Maris Otter pale malts and crystal malts
• Hops: Admiral and Saaz
• Yeast: London Ale ...
01
Morten Granås
Såinnhus, just like Roar
Uses only own malts
Uses juniper
Uses Cascade hops
Idun bread yeast
3-3.5 kg mal...
Other regions
Hardanger
Poorly researched so far
have made contact with a couple of brewers, but no visits so far
Seems very similar to ...
Sogn
Aurland has/used to have raw ale brewers
Flåm has brewers, too
Much brewing around Sogndal
Vik still has brewers, but...
Sunnmøre
Raw ale seems to have been the norm
Now modernized in many places, but far from all
Some smoked ales
Kveik is sti...
Telemark
Very poorly researched
there are brewers several places
Step mash, starting with overnight cold mash
mashing for ...
The seven tastes of beer
(Telemark)
1. Beer flavour
2. Malt flavour
3. Hop flavour
4. Sweet flavour
5. Smoke flavour
6. Ju...
Use of herbs
Hops and juniper dominate totally
hops mainly to avoid infection
juniper provides most bitterness and flavour...
Where can you buy it?
Places selling maltøl
Granås Gård, Hegra, near Trondheim
Places serving maltøl
Smalahovetunet, Voss
Holo Gardstun, Flåm (sometimes)
Storli Gard, near Oppdal (sometimes)
Commercial versions
Alstadberger
Voss Vossaøl (one small batch)
Let me say that again
One of the most interesting families of beer styles on earth
Unlike anything else
at a time when peo...
01
Conclusion
Traditional brewing has survived
Looks very odd with modern eyes
but these people make good beer
centuries of trial-and-fa...
Tradition under threat
Seen as old-fashioned, weird, uncool
many places it's being replaced by modern brewing
Voss and Stj...
Norwegian ingredients
Malts
several projects to bring back Norwegian barley types for malts
much to be gained from Norwegi...
Help!
Do you know a farmhouse brewer?
Do you know someone who has kveik?
Do you have old recipes or written documentation?...
01
That's it!
Thank you for listening
If you found it interesting, my
blog has much more
http://www.garshol.priv.no/blog/b...
Recipes and more info
The Kaupanger beer: http://www.garshol.priv.no/blog/267.html
Brewing the Voss beer in Voss:
http://w...
Norwegian farmhouse ale
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Norwegian farmhouse ale

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An overview of farmhouse brewing in Norway, both as it exists today, and as it was historically. Extra information on the unique Norwegian yeast cultures that still survive.

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Norwegian farmhouse ale

  1. 1. 2015-04-25, Norbrygg hjemmebryggerhelg, Bergen Lars Marius Garshol, larsga@garshol.priv.no, @larsga Maltøl
  2. 2. 01 Viking era beer We have documentary evidence that the vikings brewed beer for example the Gulating law There's much more evidence from the following centuries archaeological finds laws on hop growing references in other writing So when did this tradition of brewing on the farms end?
  3. 3. This is where an ethnographic survey indicates farmhouse brewing was alive in Norway in 1840. Gray dots indicate unclear answers. Note that there was probably more... 184018501860187018801890190019101920193019401950
  4. 4. The situation today Brewing never stopped came very close to dying in some places, then revived It really is the same type of brewing, which has gone on continuously for centuries Equipment, process, and so on is all unrelated to modern home brewing
  5. 5. Maltøl - the world's oldest style? People often say these beers have been brewed the same way since the Iron Age that's not true at all we know there have been many changes but there has been a continuous evolution since the Iron Age; that part is true Some of the main changes are the introduction of hops the introduction of metal kettles (and phasing out of stones) started boiling the wort (some places) started reusing yeast probably changes in the use of herbs ...
  6. 6. Maltøl? The definition of beer is "made from malts," so why "malt beer"? In Norway "øl" used to mean simply "fermented drink" there was sirupsøl, einebærøl, maltøl, bjørkesevjeøl, ... Maltøl meant "the fermented drink from malts" later, it came to mean "traditional homebrew" as opposed to commercial beer and modern homebrew
  7. 7. Only in Norway? Similar forms of brewing have survived elsewhere, too Sahti is one example Gotlandsdricka another There are remnants in Georgia and Russia, too Quite possibly other places Most interesting: Lithuania
  8. 8. 01 Brewing maltøl
  9. 9. 01 A generic maltøl • I attended a course in maltøl brewing • held in Sogndal by Vestlandsforsking • A climate scientist at the institute is a farmhouse brewer • he's from Oslo, but was taught how to brew for his wedding in Sogndal 20 years ago • he'd offered to teach his colleagues, and me • I'm starting with this one, because it's the easiest one to brew • no ingredients you can't get hold of
  10. 10. 01 A word of caution Farmhouse brewing is different None of the usual rules apply any more Most modern equipment is typically a garden hose and a thermometer... Usually, hardly any measurements No carbonation No named styles Everyone makes one single beer
  11. 11. 01 The brewery
  12. 12. The ingredients* One big garbage bag of juniper branches 50kg Munich malts, 20 kg pale ale malts, 4 kg crystal malts, 0.3kg chocolate malts Safale ale yeast (brewer didn't know which) 270 grams of hops (probably noble hops) 80% at start of boil 15% 15 minutes before the end 5% 5 minutes before the end * for 150 liters of wort
  13. 13. 01
  14. 14. 01 The mashing Heat juniper infusion to 80C Pour onto mash while stirring Right amount of water when the fork can no longer stand Mash should reach 72C Then cover up, and leave it for two hours
  15. 15. 01 The runnings Mash transferred into "rostabidnet" (filter tun) Then run off very slowly into a steel bucket stream the thickness of a woolen thread First bucket poured back on Every bucket drawn off is replaced by a bucket of infusion Stop when sweetness goes out of the wort
  16. 16. The boil Boil for an hour over a wooden fire Very likely the direct wood fire contributes flavour it certainly contributes colour
  17. 17. 01 Straining Strain out hops from the boil Probably also removes some gunk from the juniper
  18. 18. 01 The cooling
  19. 19. The result Probably around 8% ABV hop IBU computed to be around 7 unknown quantity of juniper bitterness must be added to this Interesting flavour roasty oily banana with major juniper character juniper not rough, but clean and clear hardly any CO2 Overall I would say a very good beer
  20. 20. The process
  21. 21. 01 Brewing Vossaøl
  22. 22. Some things stay the same We still only measure temperature (no OG/IBU...) We're still using juniper infusion, rather than water Copper kettle, wood fire, mashing in tubs, running off from "rostabidnet" etc etc all exactly the same But we're making a totally different beer because the ingredients are different
  23. 23. 01 Quick recipe For 150 liters of beer 50kg of pilsner malts 250g hops in the mash 200g hops 15 min before end of boil Juniper infusion, obviously Ferment with Voss kveik
  24. 24. 01 Last year's brew Only the dregs were left in the serving tank still, Sigmund let us have a taste Aroma of juniper, orange peel, Christmas spice what the hell? how do you get that from pilsner malts and noble hops?
  25. 25. 01 Sigmund sieving the infusion.
  26. 26. 01 Why you need a sieve
  27. 27. Mashing Heat infusion to 80C Stir carefully in tubs start at about 69C Add to rostabidnet metal grating at bottom, juniper branches over Sigmund covers it up, then insulates (see photo) then leave for 6 hours Next: the runnings, exactly as before
  28. 28. The boil Takes 4 hours boils away 50% of wort Strong wood fire onto bottom of copper all the way turns the colour from pale yellow to deep red/brown Use sieve to remove protein scum this is called "the headache" in Voss
  29. 29. 01 Sigmund's yeast
  30. 30. 01 Pitching • Wondered why Sigmund insulated the fermenter • "So it will stay warm enough," he says • "How warm do you pitch?" • "39-40C," he says • His brother pitches at 43-44C
  31. 31. 01 Yeast ring
  32. 32. 01 10:09
  33. 33. 01 14:35
  34. 34. 01 The end result
  35. 35. 01 Vossaøl • I've tasted four • Sigmund's • One from Smalahovetunet • One from Svein Rivenes • Voss Bryggeri Vossaøl 1814 • All similar in flavour • orange peel/Christmas spice • one of the most aromatic yeasts there are • Really makes you wonder what the other kveik strains are like!
  36. 36. 01 Sigmund's kveik • Pure brewer's yeast • no bacteria • Consists of three very similar strains • Svein Rivenes's kveik was also analyzed • consisted of five strains • very similar to Sigmund's, but not the same
  37. 37. 01 Vossaøl can be reproduced with modern gear Requires juniper and Voss kveik Gas heating is better than electric Takes a long time to brew
  38. 38. 01 The effect of the boil
  39. 39. 01 Oppdal
  40. 40. 01 Waiting for the beer
  41. 41. 01 The brewer • Harald Storli • Beer has been brewed on the farm since at least the 17th century • They've deliberately preserved the old way of doing it • He's taught his daughter-in-law how to make it • so that it won't die out
  42. 42. 01 Såinnhus Norwegian barley 3 days in a sack in the brook Torn apart by hand Dried on slate shelves Drying for 2-3 days Removes shoots and tendrils
  43. 43. 01 The kettle • Boil juniper for infusion • 36kg of ground malts, then pour boiling infusion on it • pour until mashing fork will no longer stand • cover with blanket, leave 3.5-4 hours • Transfer mash to "stetta", start runoff • false bottom and juniper branches in bottom for sieving
  44. 44. 01 Mashing • Clean mashtun, transfer run off wort back with ladle • Take off 12 buckets of wort • First and last bucket are boiled with hops in the kettle • pharmacy hops • Cool as best you can • Squeeze Idun bread yeast onto juniper branches, stick in mashtun
  45. 45. Fermentation Once the yeast has come loose from branches, primary fermentation is over takes 16-24 hours Transfer to wooden casks add 2 tablespoons of sugar pr 50 liters of wort After two days of secondary, put bung into cask, seal with wheat flour Enjoy within 3 weeks
  46. 46. 01 Kveik, part 2
  47. 47. Other kveiks Stranda only one strain survived possibly genetically similar to Voss Muri gård, Olden (WLP 6788) two nearly identical strains Hornindal had bacteria in it 8 different strains, some of them not related to one another
  48. 48. Is it really pre-Pasteur yeast? Consists of multiple, related strains Strains from the same place are similar, but not the same Aroma is unlike all other yeast Pitch temperature of 40C...
  49. 49. Taking care of the yeast Collect after (or during) fermentation keep slurry in glasses, or dry it dried yeast keeps for years, can even be frozen Before using, taste it if it tastes bad, throw it away, and get new brewers will get new yeast from brewers who make good beer Thus, breeding of good yeast
  50. 50. 01 Honndalsøl • Got a bottle via a contact • Absolutely blown away by the flavour • better than the top-tier Belgians we were tasting at the same time • Soft, smooth, mellow flavour • fruit, mushrooms, umami • really, really unusual • Decided to try to brew it
  51. 51. 01 Boiling juniper infusion
  52. 52. 01 Recipe • 50% Maris Otter pale, 50% pils • 0.333kg malts per liter beer • 2.2g noble hops per liter beer • first-wort hopping • Boil juniper infusion • let it cool a little (to ~80C) • then mash with juniper branches • Cool to 30C, pitch the yeast
  53. 53. Process
  54. 54. 01
  55. 55. 01 Baking yeast
  56. 56. 01
  57. 57. Results Overall: surprisingly big differences Stranda: lemon, a little acid, nuts, grain and straw Idun Blå: pear, more fruit, oil, peas. Kind of slack Hornindal with bacteria: amazing, like nothing else. Fruit, milky caramel, honey. Very difficult to describe. Soft, soft, soft. Hornindal without bacteria: surprisingly different. Thinner. Citrus. Much less flavour. Muri: earthy on the nose, fruity in the mouth. Burnt rubber. Thin.
  58. 58. 01 The world of yesterday Photo removed, as it was copyrighted http://digitaltmuseum.no/011013407004/gallery
  59. 59. The tasks of the brewer Sow, tend, and harvest the barley Separate barley from weeds, thresh it, then sort it by quality Produce malts Pick and dry the hops Repair, tend, and clean wooden brewing vessels Brew
  60. 60. 01 Types of beer • Maltøl • the main beer, from the first runnings • Spissøl • small beer, from later runnings • an everyday drink in eastern Norway • Rostdrikke • even weaker beer • not clear how common it was
  61. 61. Superstitions Sacrifice wort to the spirit of the fireplace (årevetten) Use steel to frighten away evil spirits particularly when fermenting Yeast scream to wake the yeast (gjærkauk) Quiet while the beer is fermenting Strict rules about the naming of things
  62. 62. Beer for every occasion Festarøl: to mark betrothal Barnsøl: to mark a birth Gravøl: to mark a burial Frelsarøl: at the freeing of a slave Juleøl: to mark Yule Kjøpskål: to mark a sale ...
  63. 63. Sambæringsøl Gulatingsloven påbød bøndene å gå sammen 3 og 3 om å brygge øl Skulle gjøres til allehelgensaften En kristen skikk i Gulatingsloven Olav Tryggvason kristnet den ca ~1000 Eilert Sundt fant restene av disse skikkene på Møre 1850 Kulturhistorisk museum, UiO, C32781 Hornet er fra Telemark
  64. 64. 01 Drinking guilds Associations of prominent men Written rules of association Annual fee to be a member Primary function: annual beer party And mutual assurance Became very powerful Abolished with reformation
  65. 65. The decline of home brewing Because of religious or anti-drink campaigning Because beer got competitors liquor, coffee, milk, juice, ... Because it was too much work Because buying your drink was more fashionable
  66. 66. Oppskåka The racking after primary fermentation Also the traditional party for neighbours held at this time First glass goes down immediately, second glass can go slower Rituals around feedback to the brewer
  67. 67. 01 Stjørdalsøl
  68. 68. 01 Såinnhus Built by Roar Sandodden Creator of Alstadberger First commercial Norwegian maltøl
  69. 69. 01 Inside • Local barley from neighbours • Soak for two days • change water twice • Grow in growing frame 4-5 days • stir thoroughly 3x per day • Dry as shown in photo • alder wood, chopped fine
  70. 70. 01
  71. 71. 01 Recipe • 60% own malts • rest is Maris Otter pale malts and crystal malts • Hops: Admiral and Saaz • Yeast: London Ale III • No juniper! • he used to use it, but dropped it • Decoction mash • take out some of the mash, heat it, pour back • Boils the wort • however, many people in Stjørdalen still brew raw ale
  72. 72. 01 Morten Granås Såinnhus, just like Roar Uses only own malts Uses juniper Uses Cascade hops Idun bread yeast 3-3.5 kg malts per liter of wort
  73. 73. Other regions
  74. 74. Hardanger Poorly researched so far have made contact with a couple of brewers, but no visits so far Seems very similar to Voss pale malts long boils kveik juniper infusion boiled for 2-3 hours, until it turns brown
  75. 75. Sogn Aurland has/used to have raw ale brewers Flåm has brewers, too Much brewing around Sogndal Vik still has brewers, but probably no kveik Jølster has still has brewers Other places, too, but not properly researched yet Nordfjord/Stryn/Hornindal is another raw ale area kveik definitely lives there
  76. 76. Sunnmøre Raw ale seems to have been the norm Now modernized in many places, but far from all Some smoked ales Kveik is still alive More research needed
  77. 77. Telemark Very poorly researched there are brewers several places Step mash, starting with overnight cold mash mashing for many hours Normal to add sugar for strength Wort is boiled Is there kveik? Unknown
  78. 78. The seven tastes of beer (Telemark) 1. Beer flavour 2. Malt flavour 3. Hop flavour 4. Sweet flavour 5. Smoke flavour 6. Juniper flavour 7. Mersmak If you keep the beer for too long, you'll get the eighth flavour: gniarsmak
  79. 79. Use of herbs Hops and juniper dominate totally hops mainly to avoid infection juniper provides most bitterness and flavour Herbs very rarely used 1850-1950 may have been more common before that St John's Wort (perikum), yarrow (pors), Achillea (ryllik) carraway (karve) seems like it was still in use
  80. 80. Where can you buy it?
  81. 81. Places selling maltøl Granås Gård, Hegra, near Trondheim
  82. 82. Places serving maltøl Smalahovetunet, Voss Holo Gardstun, Flåm (sometimes) Storli Gard, near Oppdal (sometimes)
  83. 83. Commercial versions Alstadberger Voss Vossaøl (one small batch)
  84. 84. Let me say that again One of the most interesting families of beer styles on earth Unlike anything else at a time when people all over the world are seeking interesting beers The only place on earth you can buy it is a farm outside Trondheim in plastic PET bottles when the farmer is home
  85. 85. 01 Conclusion
  86. 86. Traditional brewing has survived Looks very odd with modern eyes but these people make good beer centuries of trial-and-failure actually works Brewers make only one style don't have biochemical knowledge to play around traditionally only had their own ingredients, so no choice
  87. 87. Tradition under threat Seen as old-fashioned, weird, uncool many places it's being replaced by modern brewing Voss and Stjørdalen are the main holdouts Internationally Estonia has seen an upswing Finnish sahti is safe Gotlandsdricka seems well entrenched Lithuanian tradition is strong, but dying
  88. 88. Norwegian ingredients Malts several projects to bring back Norwegian barley types for malts much to be gained from Norwegian malting methods Hops played such a minor role in the beer, that we shouldn't hope for too much Yeast very, very, very interesting. NTNU project interesting Juniper and herbs definitely interesting
  89. 89. Help! Do you know a farmhouse brewer? Do you know someone who has kveik? Do you have old recipes or written documentation? Please let me know!
  90. 90. 01 That's it! Thank you for listening If you found it interesting, my blog has much more http://www.garshol.priv.no/blog/beer/ See also my book about Lithuanian beer traditions http://www.garshol.priv.no/download/lithuania n-beer-guide/
  91. 91. Recipes and more info The Kaupanger beer: http://www.garshol.priv.no/blog/267.html Brewing the Voss beer in Voss: http://www.garshol.priv.no/blog/291.html Brewing the Voss beer at home: http://www.garshol.priv.no/blog/302.html Raw ale at Storli: http://www.garshol.priv.no/blog/297.html Alstadberger: http://www.garshol.priv.no/blog/298.html

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