Hops - the green gold


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A brief presentation about the use of hops in beer.

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Hops - the green gold

  1. 1. Hops – the green gold2013-04-30Lars Marius Garshol, larsga@bouvet.no, http://twitter.com/larsga1
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  3. 3. Why do we put hops in beer?3• To balance the sweetness– the malt adds lots of sugar– not all of that is turned into alcohol– bitterness from the hops keeps beer from beingunbalanced sweet like a soft drink• To guard against infection– hops kill bacteria• Because we like the flavour– hops can add aroma
  4. 4. The beer brewing process41. Mashing– put malts in hot water, to extract sugar2. Boiling– boil malt extract for a long time– add hops during boil3. Fermentation– the yeast goes to work4. Conditioning– resting period to let the beer mature
  5. 5. The hoppiest beer• The classic hoppy beer is India Pale Ale– originally created in the 1790s– contained lots of hops– exported in great quantities to India for Britishofficers, hence the name• Reinvented in the 1980s by US craftbrewers– dominated by resiny/citric flavours– very powerful aroma– very bitter• Even more hoppy: Imperial IPA/Double IPA– originally created byVinny Cilurzo– doubled the malt bill by mistake, decided tobalance by doubling the amount of hops5
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  8. 8. Hophead8From Urban dictionary:“Someone who enjoys really hoppy beers, ordrinks hoppy beers exclusively. Most likelythis person is a beer-geek or craft-brewdrinker.Hops are what give beer the Citrusy, Piney, or sometimeswhat bring out the Herbal or Fruity flavors.Man, that Stone Ruination IPA turned me into a true Hop-head.”
  9. 9. What are hops?9• A climbing plant– latin: Humulus Lupulus– belongs to the cannabis family• The useful part is the flower– also known as “hop cone”• Hoppy, bitter beers often seen as macho, but:– only female hop plants produce cones,– hops contain lots of estrogen (female hormone),– many women are hop-heads
  10. 10. How to grow hops10
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  12. 12. A difficult crop• Hops are prone to disease– downy mildew,– powdery mildew,– pests,– etc etc etc• Norwegian saying– “hop plants need to see their owner every day”• Hops also keep poorly– aroma fades quickly– antiseptic qualities also fade fairly fast12
  13. 13. London hop prices, 1790-184213http://barclayperkins.blogspot.no/2008/10/price-of-hops-1790-1842.html
  14. 14. 14UK GermanyUS New ZealandCzech RepublicWorld’s 5 Biggest Producers:1. Germany2. USA3. Ethiopia4. China5. Czech Republic
  15. 15. The rise of West Coast hops• 1956– US agricultural researchers attempt to make a hopresistant to downy mildew– cross English Fuggle and Russian Serebrianker– create the Cascade hop– macro brewers don’t want it; too aromatic• Then– the craft beer explosion happens– to a large extent driven by hoppy west coast IPAs• Result– many new hop varieties created on the west coast– many of these have clear family resemblance– often called “C-hops”15
  16. 16. Hop varieties• Cascade– floral citrus/grapefruit aroma• Centennial– like Cascade, citrus/lemon and flowers• Chinook– mostly a bittering hop– spicy, pine needles, grapefruit• Citra– very new hop: 2007– became an almost instant hit, very popular– citrus, tropical fruit, kiwi• Amarillo– lovely, lovely aromas– floral, spicy, tropical fruit (mango) and oranges• Columbus– herbal and earthy, citrus if fresh16
  17. 17. Beer by the numbers• International Bitterness Units (IBU)– a measure of how much alpha and beta acid is inthe beer– or, if you will, how bitter it is– except, the sensation of bitterness depends onmore factors• BU/GU– alpha/beta acid to sugar ratio– attempts to measure sensation of bitterness17
  18. 18. This evening’s beers18Brewer Beer ABV IBU BU/GU HopsAndersVolle Lys IPA 6.9 73 1.12 Chinook, ColumbusAndersVolle Sprint IPA 6.2 58 1 Amarillo, (Columbus)AndersVolle Black IPA 5.8 82 1.32 Chinook, Columbus, Citra,CascadeKonradBeiskeAmericanpale ale4.6 38 0.69 Centennial, CascadeKnutSkomedalmead 7-8 0 0.0 -