An Introduction To The Dick & Carey Instructional Design Model

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The nine basic steps (excluding Summative Evaluation) represent a set of procedures, which is referred to as the systems approach because it is made up of interacting components, each having its own input and output, which together produce predetermined products using the ADDIE process.

An Introduction To The Dick & Carey Instructional Design Model

  1. 1. Larry Weas iPay TechnologiesLearning & Development
  2. 2. Larry D. Weas, Northern Illinois University MAJOR: Pursuing an Ed. D. in Instructional Technology specializing in eLearning, social learning, and Instructional Systems Design (ISD) RESEARCH INTEREST: A Qualitative Study… The Multi-Generational Workforce: Exploring the effectiveness of adult learning styles using technology in corporate training instruction for the workplace lweas@niu.edu
  3. 3. • Training: Dick & Carey Instructional Design Model• Learning: An ADDIE Activity• Business: Sample of Using the Dick & Carey Model• Questions: Summary & Comments
  4. 4. ADDIE LearningEach step has an outcome that feeds into the next step in the sequence. Inidentifying the five processes of the ADDIE model the five steps are: 1.Analysis: where identification of goals, objectives, audience needs and other factors are determined that will affect the creation, development, delivery, and assessment of the project. 2.Design: where the forming of the learning objectives is planned and plotted, as well as the design tool that will be used to create the project. 3.Development: where the creative construction of the content and learning materials comes into existence through creating instruction for the objectives. 4.Implementation: where the learning plan is put into action and the procedure for deploying the module is facilitated for the learners. 5.Evaluation: where the culmination of formative (ongoing) evaluation and summative (end result) evaluation occurs, methods for determining the effectiveness of the training, whether the learning gaps have been addressed, including feedback, questionnaires and reviews for revision.
  5. 5. A Systematic Approach to Designing Instruction…ADDIEThe nine basic steps (excluding Summative Evaluation) represent a set of procedures, which isreferred to as the systems approach because it is made up of interacting components, each havingits own input and output, which together produce predetermined products using the ADDIE process.A second reason for the success of the systems approach is the careful linkage between eachcomponent, especially the relationship between the instructional strategy and the desired learningoutcomes.
  6. 6. Conducting Front-End Analysis to Identify Instructional Goal(s)…The first step in the model is to determine what it is that you want learners to be able to dowhen they have completed your instruction.The instructional goal may be defined from the following:• a list of goals• a performance analysis• a needs assessment• a practical experience with learning difficulties of students• an analysis of people who are doing a job -or-• some other requirements for instruction
  7. 7. Conducting a Goal Analysis of Skills, Knowledge, and Attitudes…After you have identified the instructional goal, you will determine step-by-step what peopleare doing when they perform that goal.The final step in the instructional analysis process is to determine what skills, knowledge, andattitudes , know as entry behaviors, are required of learners to be able to begin the instruction.• Producing a diagram -or- chart that depicts the relationships among all of the skills that have been identified• Organized the skills, knowledge, and attitudes in a logical way (Hierarchical Learning)
  8. 8. Analyzing Learners and Contexts…In addition to analyzing the instructional goal, there is a parallel analysis of the learners, thecontext in which they will learn the skills, and the context in which they will use them.Learners’ current skills, preferences, and attitudes are determined along with the characteristicsof the instructional setting and the setting in which the skills will eventually be used.• This, crucial information shapes a number of the succeeding steps in the model, especially the instructional strategy• Consider the target population when developing instruction• Consider the contextual characteristics of the instructional setting
  9. 9. Writing Performance Objectives…Based on the instructional analysis and the statement of entry behaviors, you will write specificstatements of what the learners will be able to do when they complete the instruction.These statements, which are derived from the skills identified in the instructional analysis:• will identify the skills to be learned• the conditions under which the skills must be performed• and, the criteria for successful performance
  10. 10. Developing Assessment Instruments…Based on the objectives you have written, you will develop assessments that are parallel to andmeasure the learners’ ability to perform what you described in the objectives.Major emphasis is place on relating the kind of skills described in the objectives to what theassessment requires. Given a variety of the following testing and measurement instrument:
  11. 11. Developing an Instructional Strategy…Based on the information from the five preceding steps, you will identify the strategy that youwill use in your instruction to achieve the terminal objective. The strategy will emphasizecomponents to foster student learning include:• Pre-instructional activities• Presentation of content• Learner participation• Assessment, and follow-through activitiesThese components are used to develop -or- select materials and plan for interactive classroominstruction, mediated instruction, and distance learning using a technology for delivering.
  12. 12. Developing Instructional Materials…In this step you will use your instructional strategy to produce the instruction. This typicallyincludes guidance for learners, instructional materials, and assessments.When we use the term instructional material we are including all forms of instruction such as:
  13. 13. Designing and Conducting Formative Evaluations…Following the completion of a draft of the instruction, a series of evaluations is conducted tocollect data that are used to identify how to improve the instruction. The three types offormative evaluations are referred to as:• One-to-One Evaluation• Small-Group Evaluation• Field-Trial EvaluationEach type of evaluation provides the designer with a different type of information that can beused to improve the instruction. Similar techniques can be applied to the formative evaluationof existing materials or classroom instruction.
  14. 14. Revising Instructional Materials…The final step in the design and development process (and the first step in a repeat cycle) isrevising the instruction. Data from the formative evaluation are summarized and interpreted toidentify difficulties experienced by learners in achieving the objectives and to relate thosedifficulties to specific deficiencies in the instruction.It is used to re-examine the validity of instructional analysis and the assumptions about theentry behaviors and characteristics of learners. It may be necessary to reexamine statements ofperformance objectives and test times in light of collected data.The instructional strategy is reviewed and finally all of these considerations are incorporatedinto revisions of the instruction to make it a more effective instructional tool.
  15. 15. Designing and Conducting Summative Evaluations…Although summative evaluation is the culminating evaluation of the effectiveness ofinstruction, it generally is not part of the design process.It is an evaluation of the absolute and/or relative value or worth of the instruction and occursonly after the instruction has been formatively evaluated and sufficiently revised to meet thestandards of the designer.Since the summative evaluation does not involve the designer of the instruction but insteadinvolves an independent evaluator. This component is not considered and integral part of theinstructional design process per se.
  16. 16. Design? Develop? Implement?Analyze? Evaluate? Results!
  17. 17. Conducting Front-End Analysis to Identify Instructional Goal… Writing Performance Objectives…The first step in the model is to determine what it is that you Based on the instructional analysis and the statement of entrywant learners to be able to do when they have completed your behaviors, you will write specific statements of what theinstruction. learners will be able to do when they complete the instruction.Conducting a Goal Analysis of Skills, Knowledge, & Attitudes… Developing Assessment Instruments…After you have identified the instructional goal, you will Based on the objectives you have written, you will developdetermine step-by-step what people are doing when they assessments that are parallel to and measure the learners’perform that goal. ability to perform what you described in the objectives.Analyzing Learners and Contexts… Developing an Instructional Strategy…In addition to analyzing the instructional goal, there is a parallel Based on the information from the five preceding steps, you willanalysis of the learners, the context in which they will learn the identify the strategy that you will use in your instruction toskills, and the context in which they will use them. achieve the terminal objective. Revising Instructional Materials…Developing Instructional Materials… The final step in the design and development process (and the first step in a repeat cycle) is revising the instruction.In this step you will use your instructional strategy to producethe instruction. This typically includes guidance forlearners, instructional materials, and assessments. Designing and Conducting Formative Evaluations…Disseminated among the stages of ADDIE… Following the completion of a draft of the instruction, a seriesImplementation in the ADDIE group is disseminated among the of evaluations is conducted to collect data that are used tostages of Dick & Carey, in that it is within every phase of the identify how to improve the instruction.model. ©Weas,2012
  18. 18. Dick, W. & Carey, L. (2005). The systematic design of instruction. Boston, MA:Allyn and Bacon.Hanna Barbera Cartoon Characters website. Retrieved from website August2012, http://www.wingnuttoons.com/Hanna_Barbera.htmlRichey, R. K. (2011). The Instructional Design Knowledge Base. New York:Routledge.Weas, L. D. (2012). An Introduction to the Dick & Carey Instructional DesignModel. Presented at the 2012 Educator’s Conference, Monett, MO.

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