Internet Safety 2.0


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A presentation by co-director Larry Magid to the Internet Goverance Forum in Hyderabad, India -- December 5, 2008

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine

Internet Safety 2.0

  1. 2. Youth Safety on the Social Web Larry Magid & Anne Collier Co-directors Revised 10/08 © 2008
  2. 3. It’s not your father’s Internet Web 1.0 = downloading Web 2.0 = downloading + uploading + interacting + media sharing + + + +
  3. 4. What is the social Web? <ul><ul><ul><li>-- Also known as ‘Web 2.0’-- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User-produced, youth-driven </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple devices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uploadable, downloadable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to control </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Social networking is whatever… <ul><ul><ul><li>… anyone wants it to be! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alternate reality game + diary + teen’s bedroom + school lunchroom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A place to learn digital-media skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A “hangout” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 6. SNS not going away <ul><ul><ul><li>Not just MySpace, Facebook, YouTube, Bebo, Hi5, Twitter, Plurk, Second Life, Lively … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1,000s, of social sites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corporations adopting SN in workplace </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Niche” sites - hikers, travelers, sports fans… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly mobile - phones, gameplayers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Global …. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Teens as producers <ul><li>64% of online teenagers ages 12 to 17 engage in at least one type of content creation, up from 57% in 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>35% of teen girls blog / 20% of boys </li></ul><ul><li>54% of girls post photos / 40% of boys </li></ul><ul><li>Boys twice as likely to post video (19% vs. 12%) </li></ul>Source: Pew Internet & American Life - 12/07
  7. 8. <ul><li>72% use sites to socialize with their real-life friends. </li></ul><ul><li>Few teens report (or admit to) using the sites to directly engage those they are romantically interested in. </li></ul><ul><li>Only a modest number (17%) of social-networking teens say they use the sites to flirt. </li></ul>It’s mostly about real life Source: Pew Internet & American Life survey January 2007
  8. 9. Teens do have a clue when it comes to safety & privacy <ul><li>66% of teens who have created a profile say that their profile is not visible by all Internet users. They limit access to their profiles. </li></ul><ul><li>21% say their profile is not currently visible. </li></ul><ul><li>Just 1% of social-network users say they do not know who can see their profile. </li></ul>Source: Pew Internet & American Life survey January 2007
  9. 10. Major Sites MySpace : Social self-expression tool. Major profile design flexibility. Multi-featured, multiple channels (music, film, etc.). Whatever user wants it to be. Strong on safety but challenging history. Facebook : Social utility - personal info exchanging. Network-centric. More structured profiles. Mini apps for self-expression. Started with college students, now high-schoolers and professionals. YouTube : Video postings & viewing, hugely popular (5.3 billion videos streamed, 9/08). Strong rules but enforced only after complaints. MyYearbook : High school-oriented digital yearbook plus usual social networking features. Bebo : Social networking and media-sharing. Among top 3 in UK. Hi5 : 80% of users outside U.S. - multiple languages
  10. 11. Other sites & services Twitter & Plurk: Micro-blogging - 140 characters or less. Kind of like blended chat & IM. Twitter mostly adults, Plurk a little younger. JuicyCampus : Gossip site, total anonymity, no rules. Stickam : Social video-streaming site with live webcam chat. Ning: Allows users to create their own social networks, or mini-MySpaces. Second Life & other virtual worlds : Users create avatars that interact in a virtual world. Hulu: Fast-growing video-sharing site (153 million video streams, 9/08); popular for viewing whole shows online.
  11. 12. What are they doing in there? <ul><li>Good or “normal”… </li></ul><ul><li>“ Social producing” </li></ul><ul><li>Learning social rules </li></ul><ul><li>Decorating profiles (self-expression) </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring identity </li></ul><ul><li>Writing blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Writing software code </li></ul><ul><li>Risk assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Discovering music </li></ul><ul><li>Producing & editing videos </li></ul><ul><li>Discussing interests </li></ul><ul><li>Social/political activism </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping in touch with friends long-term </li></ul>
  12. 13. What else are they doing in there? <ul><li>Neutral or negative… </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking validation </li></ul><ul><li>Competing in a popularity contest </li></ul><ul><li>Venting </li></ul><ul><li>Showing off </li></ul><ul><li>Embarrassing themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Pulling pranks </li></ul><ul><li>Getting even </li></ul><ul><li>Harassing </li></ul>
  13. 14. Teens are alive today, thanks to social-networking sites…
  14. 15. Question: What proportion of teens have been approached online by a predator? <ul><li>1 in 20 </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 10 </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 7 </li></ul><ul><li>1 In 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Almost half </li></ul>
  15. 16. It’s a trick question
  16. 17. The report said,“one in seven youth received an unwanted sexual solicitation” 1 ) These solicitations did not necessarily come from “online predators ”. When they believed they knew, they said about half were other youth. 2) These solicitations were not necessarily devious or intended to lure. Most were limited to brief online comments or questions in chatrooms or instant messages. Many were simply rude, vulgar comments like, “What’s your bra size?”. 3) Most recipients did not view the solicitations as serious or threatening . Two‐thirds were not frightened or upset by what happened. 4) Almost all youth handled unwanted solicitations easily and effectively. Most reacted by blocking or ignoring solicitors, leaving sites, or telling solicitors to stop December 2007
  17. 18. Question Do you agree that the growth in young people’s use of the Internet correlates with a rise in sexual abuse against children?
  18. 19. Answer *Source: Nat’l Child Abuse & Neglect Data System -- Finkelhor & Jones, 2006) 51% decline from 1990 to 2004 Rate per 10,000 Children (<18)
  19. 20. Is posting necessarily dangerous? <ul><li>&quot;Sending and posting personal information online may not increase one's risk for Internet victimization as much as meeting people online in lots of different ways, talking about sex with people known only online, and harassing others (i.e., making rude or mean comments, intentionally embarrassing or harassing others) online&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>--Michele Ybarra February 2008 issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine . </li></ul>
  20. 21. What causes risk? <ul><li>Aggressive behavior in the form of making rude or nasty comments increased the odds of being victimized 2.3 times </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently embarrassing others increased the risk almost 5 times </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting people in multiple ways increased the odds 3.4 times </li></ul><ul><li>Talking about sex online with strangers doubled the risk </li></ul><ul><li>--Michele Ybarra February issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine . </li></ul>
  21. 22. Deception rarely involved <ul><li>Most teens are aware of the approximate age and intentions of the adults who contact them. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 5% of offenders pretend to be teens. </li></ul><ul><li>In some cases, the kids are being aggressive and sexually suggestive and pose in ways to make themselves look older than they are. </li></ul><ul><li>--Janis Wolak, University of New Hampshire’s Crimes Against Children Research Center (paraphrase, not exact quote) </li></ul>
  22. 23. Cyberbullying <ul><li>The risk that affects the most children </li></ul><ul><li>2 separate studies: About 33% of US teens have been harassed or bullied* </li></ul><ul><li>Online harassment (more common) vs. bullying </li></ul><ul><li>Cyberbullying : repeated aggression; associated with real life; power imbalance </li></ul><ul><li>* 2006 study by criminology Profs. Patchin and Hinduja; similar findings in Pew/Internet 2007 study </li></ul>
  23. 24. Signs of cyberbullying <ul><li>Loss of friends </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t want to go to school </li></ul><ul><li>Covers screen or turns off device when others come into room* </li></ul>* can also be a sign of an inappropriate online relationship
  24. 25. Hard to escape cyberbullies <ul><li>Almost always peer-to-peer </li></ul><ul><li>Follows you home and even on the way home – 24/7 </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult for parents to know it’s going on </li></ul><ul><li>Can escalate to serious situation </li></ul>
  25. 26. What to tell kids facing cyberbullying <ul><li>Don’t react (often the bully’s goal) </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t retaliate </li></ul><ul><li>Block the bully </li></ul><ul><li>Save the evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Talk to a trusted adult </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Bullying by phone </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile social networking </li></ul><ul><li>Social mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Media-sharing by phone </li></ul><ul><li>Smart phones - Web access, applications, easier text entry </li></ul>Mobile phone risks
  27. 28. A single approach doesn’t work <ul><li>A small % of teens get into trouble online </li></ul><ul><li>Roughly the same % of teens get into trouble offline -probably the same teens </li></ul><ul><li>Internet safety education messages need to be tailored to audience. One-size-fits-all messages don’t work. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Keys to finding solutions <ul><li>Understanding that the teenage brain is “a work in progress.” Brain takes 25 years to develop </li></ul>
  29. 30. It’s about LIFE <ul><li>The Internet increasingly mirrors all of human life, so... </li></ul><ul><li>Problems on it are not about tech </li></ul><ul><li>Tech can aggravate problems </li></ul><ul><li>Youth most at risk online are those at risk offline </li></ul>
  30. 31. Digital Citizenship
  31. 32. To summarize <ul><li>The social Web… </li></ul><ul><li>is good and bad for teens </li></ul><ul><li>is a fact of life - not going away </li></ul><ul><li>is user-driven (no control) </li></ul><ul><li>Social Web safety requires… </li></ul><ul><li>Growing understanding of benefits, risks </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple forms of expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative, long-term response </li></ul>
  32. 33. Thank you & please visit our forum at Anne Collier Co-director, [email_address] Larry Magid Co-director, [email_address]