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# Wheres thefire

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### Wheres thefire

1. 1. Where’s The Fire by Larry Rice All
2. 2. Introduction As a Cartographer you will be making maps from photos taken by satellite and airplane so that you can: • name specific locations on the map, • estimate how much of the ground area has been burnt by fire (or where there is fire), and • plan how you will fly your plane closer to the ground to take multiple smaller photos that will combine to show more detail. • Fly the plan, take the photos• Your work will be used by the community to estimate risk to residents, where to fight the fire, and to plan the recovery of natural resources. All
3. 3. Topics CoveredMapping Basics Unit conversionsEstimating Map Areas Compass DirectionsDigital Camera Basics Flight AlgorithmAerial Photos Flight Plan
4. 4. Mapping Basics All
5. 5. Lines for A Grid A vertical A map grid is made up Line is of multiple vertical up-down lines, equally spaced (parallel) And multipleA horizontal line equally-spaced is left-right horizontal lines (parallel) When combined, these are perpendicular 4thHands-on: make vertical, horizontal, parallel, and perpendicular lines on paper Grade
6. 6. Labels on a Map And a map may have titles explaining areas or points of interestNotice that our map, as with most all maps, has severallabels and symbols... The Compass Rose shows which way is north, always up on maps, and it sometimes shows other directions: south, west, east. The scale shows us how far a distance on a map There are many other is, in this case, 2.5 Km types of compass rose, (Kilometer) is as far as for example... the white line is long... AllHands-on: Draw map labels and titles on photos or in GIS software
7. 7. How Big is the PhotoBefore we draw our grid,we need to pick an origin, the starting point, and determine the This is 20 dimensions (width and Km highheight) of our photo-map, 8 x 2.5km using the scale. Km is Kilometer This is 30 Km wide The Origin is often the 12 x 2.5km bottom left corner AllHands-on: use scale on map to determine dimensions or distance between things
8. 8. A quick Check on Terminology A E __ Vertical Line __ Horizontal Line __ Compass Rose G __ Scale F __ Label D __ PerpendicularB C __ Parallel AllHands-on: Identify on an actual map
9. 9. Laying out a Grid We can now draw different grids. (Remember, this photo map is 20Km high by 30Km wide) A large grid has A medium grid has A small grid has3 horizontal, 4 vertical lines 3 horizontal, 7 vertical lines 9 horizontal, 13 vertical lines (10Km apart) (5Km apart) (2.5Km apart) You should note that each area drawn is a square, all sides are of equal length and are perpendicular, since all grid lines are equally spaced. All Hands-on: Draw differing grids on actual maps
10. 10. Coordinates for the Grid We will now select our Origin to be the upper left corner NumbersSo we can now useletters going down to label the 1 2 3 vertical direction,numbers going left The Grid to label the A A1 A2 A3 location name horizontal becomes the direction, these letter-number can be shown on B B1 B2 B3 combination two sides or all four sides Letters All
11. 11. Can you Label a Different Sized Grid ? _ _ _ __ Using the same __ method, type in the __ label and each grid _ __ location AllHands-on: add labels on grids created previously
12. 12. Estimating Map Areas All
13. 13. Estimating Fire Damage To estimate how much forest is damaged by fire, we will use different shapes that each have an area of 10 square miles Use any number of shapes to cover all the areas in the photo map that are dark red. You can rotate the shape to The area burned is aboutcomplete the puzzle. Once all 150 square milesdark red is covered, count how (15 shape x 10 square miles each) many shapes have been used, did you get 15 to 20 ? 4thHands-on: Complete area estimate on actual maps / photos with cut-out shapes Grade
14. 14. Chart the AreasYou have made pie charts before, canyou complete this chart, showing howmuch area is burned (dark red), forest(green), rock (dark brown), and other. ________ ______ Fire Damage _______ 4th Hands-on: Draw Pie chart on paper Grade
15. 15. Estimating Fire Damage To estimate how muchforest is damaged by fire,we will count the number Mostly of squares that include all dark red mostly bright red areas(3 here), then divide it by the total squares in the grid, in this case 6 Three of the six squares 2/6=1/3If the photo map is 20Km by 30Km, then the area 33% of the area is burned covered by the map is is our estimate, this is about the product of these, or 200 Square Km (Km2) 600 Square Km 7th Grade, High School
16. 16. Estimating Fire Damage We can get a more detailed, or moreaccurate, estimate byusing a smaller grid, inthis case our grid with 8 vertical labels and 12 horizontal labels, 27 of the 96 squares this map has 8 x 12 27 / 96 = squares, 96 total 28% of the area is burned is our estimate here, a little less than 33% from before 7th Grade, High School Hands-on: On paper grids made previously
17. 17. Can you complete anEstimate of the Fire Damage Given this grid, what is your estimate of the fire-damaged area? Is it close to the previous estimates? __ of the 24 squares __ / 24 = __% of the area is burned, this is __ Km2 7th Grade,Hands-on: On paper grids made previously High School
18. 18. Digital Camera Basics 7th Grade, High School
19. 19. Photo & Viewing Sizes Photos, TVs, DVDs and other displays are generally not square Media Horz Vert in size, they all have a specific ratio, horizontal to vertical, sometimes called an aspect ratio. This is noted as a ratio, DVDs 16 9 Horizontal:Vertical Digital Photos usually have a 35mm Camera 3 2 4:3 ratio Digital Cameras, Vertical 4 3 Monitors, TVs Horizontal 7th Grade,Hands-on: Measure distances on TV, computer monitor, DVD being played High School
20. 20. Pixel Resolution Camera Horz Vert The MegaPixel (MP) rating on a digital camera is a specification Rating Pixels Pixels of the number of pixels created / captured by the camera, Mega 12 MP 4000 3000 referring to 106 With the aspect ratio at 4:3, the pixel dimension of the longest 6 MP 2828 2121 side of a digital photo is 4 3 MP 2048 1536 3 * MP Please note, a doubling of the MP rating only results in a 40% increase in pixels (resolution) 7th Grade,Hands-on: make calculations with calculator High School
21. 21. Check your Understanding What are the pixel dimensions of an 8 MegaPixel digital camera? _____ X _____ 7th Grade,Hands-on: make calculations with calculator High School
22. 22. Camera Lenses Area in Photo Lense Angle Film or CCDs The angle of photo captured The digital from a camera is camera we will dependent upon Some example angles by lense size include: use changes the length of lense length the lense focal Lense Size (mm) 20 35 45 50 55 100 through zoom, length, measured from 45mm to Horizontal Angle 83 53 45 39 36 20 55mm, we will in mm use 50mm for Reference: Lense angle chart this activity, a common sized lense.Hands-on: for multiple zoom settings on the digital camera, measure 7th Grade,multiple distances and photo width, calculate angles, make summary High School
23. 23. Aerial Photo ResolutionIn order to see fire areas in a photo, endangered Camera Horz Vertspecies, or invasive species, we need to create aerial Rating Pixels Pixelsphotos with a minimum resolution. There should be atleast one pixel for every foot on the ground. It would 12 MP 4000 3000be best if we have photos that have 10 or more pixelsper foot. The MP resolution of the camera effects this, 6 MP 2828 2121remember the table we had before. 3 MP 2048 1536 Pixels Horz Vert perIn order to determine how high to fly our plane with Distance Distance footthe digital camera, we need to determine how mucharea should be covered by the camera on the ground. 1 4000 ft 3000 ftIf we use a 12 MP camera, there are 4000 x 3000 4 1000 750pixels captured, if we need 1 pixel per foot, then thearea on the ground should be 4000 ft x 3000 ft, easyyes? How about four pixels per foot (divide distance by 12 333 2504), twelve pixels per foot (divide distance by 12), what 7th Grade,is the ground area for these? High School
24. 24. Aerial Photo Resolution Camera Horz Vert Rating Pixels PixelsCan you complete a table for a 3 MP camera ? 12 MP 4000 3000 6 MP 2828 2121 Pixels 3 MP 2048 1536 Horz Vert per Distance Distance foot 1 4 12 7th Grade, High School
25. 25. Flying Height CalculationsGiven the table you completed for a 3 MP Trig provides several functions to help incamera with a 50 mm lense. We will determining the length of sides on a rightcalculate the distance above the ground triangle, given an internal angle is known.the Plane needs to fly in order to get 12 So we create a right triangle between thePixels per foot resolution. This will take camera and the ground. This bisects thesome Trigonometry...specifically Tangent lense angle (39/2) and the width of the photo area on the ground (512/2). Tan (19.50) = 256 / Height 390 19.50 Height 256 ft Height = 256 /Tan-1(19.50) = Height 240 Feet Please note, since two internal angles are known for this right triangle, the third angle can be found, all three angles in a triangle sum to 180. That angle is 70.50. 512 FtHands-on: make calculations with calculator, Sine, Cosine, and Tangent High School
26. 26. A Check on Understanding Can you calculate the height above ground for this 3 MP camera with a Pixels Height 50 mm lense, given pixel Horz Vert per above resolutions of 4 per foot Distance Distance foot Ground and 1 per foot. 1 2048 1536 2891 4 1024 768 722 12 512 384 240Hands-on: make calculations with calculator (TI83 or HP50, for example) High School
27. 27. Unit Conversions 7th Grade, High School
28. 28. Units and Conversions Unit conversions can be So far we have used made within the English or several types of unit metric systems: measurements: KiloMeters, Milimeters, Feet, and 1000 meters = 1Km Pixels. We will also be 1000 mm = 1 Meter using Miles, so we need to In these cases, move the Show some review how to make decimal three places. example distance unit conversions conversions and between Metric (meters, Within the English system have student Km, mm) and English it is a bit more difficult, complete some (Miles, feet). conversion factors must be conversions. used, for distance 5280 ft = 1 mile, use the conversion factor of 5280 ft/Mi.References: Unit Conversion, Metricprefixes and Metric Conversions 7th Grade, High School
29. 29. Aerial Photos All
30. 30. Photo RC Plane Flight PlanTo plan a flight path of an RC plane we will firstassume a 3MP camera with a 50mm lense, this is acommon digital camera you can buy in most anyelectronics store.We require a resolution of 3 pixels per foot on theground so that we have photos with sufficient detailfor analysis (10X the detail of satellite photos).This means we must fly the RC plane 250 feet abovethe ground while taking the photos. The photos willtherefore cover a path of about 500ft wide by 375ft.We will be flying over two new areas: Bone CreekReservoir and Crawford Wildlife area. Both satellitephotos are 1 mile in one dimension, about 5000 feet. Onone we will calculate the area of water and on theother the forested area (no fires in either).Above numbers are rounded for ease of calculation. All
31. 31. What is an ArrayThe map grid we completed previously can also be thought of as an array. 3 An array is pattern ofshapes (squares in this case), number of shapes high by wide: A 2 x 3 Array Our RC plane photos arerectangles, not squares. The 2 ratio of width to height is4:3. We will create an array of photos using these rectangles. All
32. 32. What is the Flight Path? 375’ 500’ Can you create an RC Plane array of photos over this area? You can fly the plane in two directions, one up / down 3750’ (North / South), the other left / right (West / East). The full area needs to be covered, so the photo array from the plane would be 10 x 10 or 8 x 14 5000’ Which is better (less photos, less flying, more accurate) ?Hands-on: Grade 4 - place photo-sized cutouts in two patterns over the Allphoto map. Grade 7, High School - measure photo map and calculate array.
33. 33. How much area is covered by forest ? 66 photos x 500’ x 375’ = 12.4 Million Sq. Ft. 10 x 10(100 Photos) (Best) 8 x 14 (112 Photos) All
34. 34. What is the Best Flight Path? 375 500 5000’ Can you determine how many photos need to be taken for this area, to determine the area of water at the reservoir? 6700’ 10 x 18 (180 photos ) (west <-> East Flight Path) or 14 x 14 (196 Photos) (South <-> North Flight Path) All
35. 35. Compass Direction All
36. 36. Angles on a Compass 3600 / 00 Example: ENEZero is at the “East North East”top, angles in at 150 increments 3150 NNW N 450degrees going NNEclockwise, 360 NW NEdegrees total WNW ENE 2700 W E 900 WSW ESE SW SE 225 0 SSW S SSE 1350 4th Grade? 7th Grade, 1800 High School
37. 37. How about another Direction? How about flying at a diagonal, 5000’ could this require less photos, flying, and be more efficient ? What angle (or compass direction) would be best? 6700’ Can you do better than 6 paths, 72 photos, at 75 degrees, ENE ? 4th Grade?Hands-on: Grade 4 - place photo-sized cutouts in a pattern, at an 7th Grade,angle. Measure the angle. Convert the angle to compass direction. High School
38. 38. Flight Algorithm 7th Grade, High School
39. 39. What is the Flight Algorithm? An algorithm is a specific set of instructions for carrying out a procedure or solving a problem, sometimes named a method, procedure, or technique (Wolfram). As you can see from the last two examples, the method to create the smallest flight array could be on the longest or shortest dimension, dependent upon the product of the array dimensions. And the number of photos needs to cover an equal or greater area, not less (round up of the number). So how would you explain the steps? 7th Grade,Hands-on: Can this be done electronically? Possibly only on paper? High School
40. 40. Your Procedure ? Step 1: divide Ls by Lp, round up answers to the nearest integer. Divide Ws by Wp, round up the answer to the nearest integer.Ws Step 2: State the Array ratio. Step 3: Reverse the calculations (Ls / Wp and Wz / Lp), a flight path perpendicular to Ls the first calculation. Step 4: Select the lowest product of each, lowest total number of photos. Wp Lp 7th Grade,Hands-on: Can this be done electronically? Possibly only on paper? High School
41. 41. Flight Plan 7th Grade, High School
42. 42. Flying the RC Plane The final calculations to be made for the flight plan are time required to fly one path, all paths, with turns and time between photos. We will assume the RC plane flys at 15 MPH and a single- 3750’ engine plane flys at 75 MPH (5X faster). 5000’ Unit conversions will be required to find travel times. 5280 ft/mi and 3600 s/hr (60 s/min X 60 min/hr) are to be used. 15 MPH x 5280 ft/mi = 22 ft/s, RC Plane 3600 s/hr 5000’ 75 MPH x 5280 ft/mi = 110 ft/s, Plane 3600 s/hr6700’ 375 7th Grade, 500 High School
43. 43. Flying the RC Plane To fly 3750’ - The RC plane would take 3750 ft / 22 ft/s = 170 sec = 2.8 minutes to fly one pass. With 10 paths, this would take 28 minutes to fly (not counting the turns). Photos would need to 3750’ be taken every 375 feet, or every 17 seconds (375 ft / 22 ft/s).5000’ - The single-engine plane would take 3750 ft / 110 ft/s = 34 sec = 0.57 minutes to fly one path. With 10 paths, this would take 5.7 minutes to fly (not counting turns). Photos would need to be taken every 375 feet, or every 3.4 seconds (374 ft / 110 ft/s). 7th Grade, High School
44. 44. Flying the RC Plane When we include the turns, 9 total, we need to determine the distance for the turn. Assuming it is circular, the diameter is 500 ft, Circumference = diameter x pie, 1/2 the circumference is used for 3750’ the turn, so the turn is 250 ft x Pie = 785 ft, for 9 turns, 785 ft x 9 = 7070 ft total distance in turns. 5000’ For the RC plane (22 ft/s), the turns will add 320 seconds (7070/22) or 5 minutes. Total time is 28 + 5, 33 minutes total flying time (check the RC battery). Turn For the plane (110 ft/s), the turns will add 64 seconds, or 1.1 minute. Total flying time is 5.7 + 1.1,500’ or 6.8 minutes total. 7th Grade, High School
45. 45. Check your Calculations Can you determine the total flying time for this photo, both the RC plane and single-engine plane. 5000’ How many seconds between photos? 6700’ 375 500 7th Grade, High School
46. 46. Topics CoveredMapping Basics Unit conversionsEstimating Map Areas Compass DirectionsDigital Camera Basics Flight AlgorithmAerial Photos Flying Plan
47. 47. Final Project 12 MilesFor the satellite photo of Pittsburg,determine the following RC plane plandetails, given a 12MP camera with a55mm lense and 12 pixels per foot 8 Milesresolution:Grade 4- Create labels for the photo- If the RC plane flys over the areaand takes a photo 1 square mile, what Grade 7 & High Schoolis the minimum number of photos - Determine minimum photos to be takenrequired for the full photo. (array) for the full area, just the city, flying-Show the path you would fly to direction, % area is city (buildings and houses),cover just the city area with pictures farming, size of the city, total flight times.- How big is Pittsburg in square miles High School- Draw a pie chart of the types of - How high should you fly the RC planeareas in the map (City - How often, number of seconds, should you(buildings/houses), farming, forest) take photos over the area - Total flight time for RC and single-engineHands-on: Assemble and fly the RC plane over an area, take photos by plan (cameraMP and lense, flight direction, height, time between photos, distance between paths)
48. 48. Summary As a Cartographer you are now able to make maps from photos taken by satellite and airplane to: • name specific locations on the map, • estimate how much of the ground area has been burnt by fire (or where there is fire), and • plan how you will fly your plane closer to the ground to take multiple smaller photos that will combine to show more detail. • Fly the plan, take the photos• Your work will be used by the community to estimate risk to residents, where to fight the fire, and to plan the recovery of natural resources. All
49. 49. Where’s The Fire by Larry Rice All