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Lecture 1: Human-Computer Interaction Course (2015) @VU University Amsterdam

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Lecture 1: These are the lectures for the HCI2015 Course, given at the VU University Amsterdam (bachelor level)

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Lecture 1: Human-Computer Interaction Course (2015) @VU University Amsterdam

  1. 1. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Lora Aroyo Web & Media Group Introduction to HCI Chapters 1, 2
  2. 2. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 2 Lectures Basic design & usability concepts Examples of good & bad designs Get insights of social dynamics, privacy, accessibility Lab sessions Exercise in practice how to gather information about users’ needs & how to design and test it Assignments Apply your knowledge in a concrete use case Challenge your creativity Course Elements
  3. 3. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Which means … To be able to DESIGN: How the user interaction and experience should work and look? To be able to SELECT: What user interaction design is best for a given purpose in a context? To be able to EVALUATE: How good a specific user interaction is? Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 3
  4. 4. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 HOW PEOPLE INTERACT WITH COMPUTERS?
  5. 5. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Dashboards Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 5
  6. 6. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 6
  7. 7. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 7
  8. 8. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Wearables Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 8
  9. 9. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Sensing Affect Blood Volume Pressure (BVP) earring Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) rings and bracelet Interactive Pillow as a TV remote control Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 9
  10. 10. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Speech, Mobile & Augmented Interaction Lora Aroyo, Web & Media GroupLora Aroyo, Web & Media Group “Minority Report” (2002) “Avengers” (2012) “Star Trek: In to the Darkness” (2013) “Star Trek: TOS” (1967) “Her” (2014)
  11. 11. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Virtual Reality Reality Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 11
  12. 12. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Interactive Workspaces Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 12 Stanford Interactive Workspaces Project BendDesk Mimio
  13. 13. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 WHY HCI?
  14. 14. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Typical Frustrations Can’t figure out how to do simple things Many not frequent use functions Many hidden functions Operations outcome not visible Can’t remember combinations of digits * # how do we know whether it worked how can we remember that this option is ON Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 14 http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=5184957822303751144 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=keMmM3P4BRM
  15. 15. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 …elections The sample ballot looked different Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 15 Human-Computer Interaction Course 2013: Lecture 1
  16. 16. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 … Additional Context Limitations •  People vote infrequently •  Rushed, uncomfortable circumstances •  Elderly Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 16
  17. 17. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Good UI Design is Important •  Examples of bad UI are easy – Try to find examples of good UI •  Good UI (very subjective): – Easy, natural & engaging interaction – Users can carry out their required tasks – Accounts for human limitations •  Usefulness is often context-dependent! Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 17
  18. 18. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 FEATURES OF MODERN HCI CHAPTER 1
  19. 19. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 UCD Principles & Activities •  User involvement in development stages •  Design iteration •  Multi-disciplinary design teams –  psychology, ergonomics, engineering & graphic design •  Understand & specify context of use •  Specify user & organization requirements •  Produce prototypes: design solutions •  Evaluate designs with users against requirements Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 19
  20. 20. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Link to Software Engineering •  Separate but related concerns: systems vs. user •  Some overlap in techniques –  Use cases –  Iterative file cycle •  Multi-disciplinary nature of HCI Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 20
  21. 21. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Traditional Life Cycle Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 21
  22. 22. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Evaluation-Centered Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 22 Equally supportive of –  top-down & bottom-up –  inside-out & outside-in development
  23. 23. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Simplified Iterative Model Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 23
  24. 24. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1
  25. 25. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 GATHERING INTERACTION REQUIREMENTS CHAPTER 2
  26. 26. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Data Gathering Guidelines •  Set clear goals for the data collection –  Identify stakeholders’ needs •  Evaluate cost/benefit for your effort –  understand the tradeoffs –  use a combination of techniques –  balance specific goals and openness •  Run a pilot trial •  Record well – you won’t remember it well Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 26
  27. 27. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 •  Interviews & Focus groups •  Question-based surveys •  Contextual analysis Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 27 Data Gathering Methods Complementary combination to balance strengths & weaknesses of each method
  28. 28. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Interviews •  Degrees of structuring for different purposes –  structured - like a guided questionnaire –  semi-structured - basic script guides the conversation –  open-ended - still has a goal and focus; good in the initial stages •  Phone/skype, face-to-face –  one individual at a time –  avoids biases from other people •  Develop trust –  explain your goals to the interviewee –  feedback and results to the interviewee •  Focus groups –  group of users to discuss a preliminary given issue –  facilitated –  interviews with 2 or more Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 28
  29. 29. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 •  Both are: –  appropriate at almost any stage of the design –  conducting them earlier – better impact –  conducting them later – gather specific reactions to actual design –  optimal timing – early with mock-ups –  collect subjective data –  help understand the work practices –  finding out users’ tasks, roles, problems •  Focus groups are: –  difficult for geographically isolated –  difficult when target population is small –  alternative – online/phone interviews Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 29 Focus Groups & Interviews
  30. 30. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 31-May-15 + Ideas of one can trigger ideas in others + Time and cost efficient + Incorrect facts can be corrected + Non-controversial issues – quickly resolved + Controversial issues quickly identified + Reach a not foreseen level of detail –  Watch out for ‘groupthink’ and ‘sidetrack’ –  Ensure balance between talkers and shy users –  Sometimes difficult to coordinate Pros & Cons of Focus Groups
  31. 31. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 31-May-15 •  6 to 12 participants - typically around 10 •  Breaks with questionnaire or individual activities •  3 to 5 groups •  Heterogeneous groups –  good mix of people –  each group – representative sample of target audience –  watch out for too heterogeneous groups – people who do not have much in common •  Homogeneous groups –  each group is different demographics Select and Organize Groups
  32. 32. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 31-May-15 •  One external, professional facilitator –  Encourage discussion –  Getting everyone to participate (no viewpoint lost) –  Get people respond on one another’s input –  Foster arguments (reveal controversial issues) –  Prevent arguments getting out of hand •  Observation room •  2 to 3 observers mixed in the group Group Facilitation
  33. 33. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 •  Avoid suggestive questions •  Clarify reason of question •  Phrase questions in terms of probes –  e.g, “why …” •  Pay attention to non-verbal aspects •  Be aware of personal biases •  Give summaries in your own words at intermediate points Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 33 During a Focus Group Session
  34. 34. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 •  Good for: –  demographics –  evaluation of specific features or properties •  Questionnaires and surveys –  unambiguous questions –  gathering more precise information –  on-line questionnaires •  Question types (closed & open questions) •  Scales (for precision & effort needed to decide on a response) •  Qualitative vs. quantitative data Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 34 Question-based Surveys
  35. 35. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 •  Closed questions: –  select an answer from a set of alternative replies –  may require just “yes” or “no” –  some form of a rating scale associated •  Open questions: –  typically start with phrases such as: •  “What do you . . . ,” •  “How do you . . . ,” •  “What ways . . . .” –  provide richer data than closed questions –  more time consuming to analyze •  decide on some grouping and classifying Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 35 Questions
  36. 36. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Simple rating scale, e.g. checklists - easy to analyze (count the number of responses in each category) Complex rating scales - a multipoint rating scale semantic differential (users select a point along a scale) Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 36 Question Scales (1/2)
  37. 37. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 •  Semantic differentials –  with seven points, five-point or three-point scales –  best results if the two end points are very opposed •  Likert scale (attitudinal scale) –  a set statements with semantic differential –  measure user’s attitude, preferences, and subjective reactions –  measure the strength of users opinion - by counting the number of responses at each point in the scale –  typically 5-point scale: strongly disagree ! strongly agree –  calculating a numeric value (adding ‘+’ and ‘-’ scores divided by the number of users) - can be misleading Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 37 Question Scales (2/2)
  38. 38. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 How easy was the system to use? Easy Difficult 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The system was easy to use Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 38 Semantic Differential & Likert scale
  39. 39. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 •  Avoid complicated questions •  Clear and unambiguous questions •  Avoid negative questions •  Alternate open and closed questions •  As few questions as possible (~ 2 A4) •  Additional info, e.g. “any other comments” option •  Pilot the questionnaire before giving it to users –  test whether the questions gather the need info –  decide on statistics to apply before finalizing the questionnaire –  balanced mix of closed and open questions –  balance positive and negative questions Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 39 Questionnaire Tips
  40. 40. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Examples of Questions Do you think this is a good interface? fair, good, valuable, useful Do you use mouse or keyboard more? 1 2 3 4 5 Yes No When you used the second interface was it responding good to you? Which of the following is not a problem in using the system? Which of the following you are least likely to consider a favorite: drop-down menus, adaptive menus, scrolling? How many times a week do you use Internet? How often do you use internet? Do you use internet? If yes, how often? Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 40
  41. 41. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 IN SUMMARY
  42. 42. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Message 1: Many of the human error and machine misuse are design errors Designers help things work with good conceptual model Designers decide on a range of users as the design audience Design is difficult! Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 42
  43. 43. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Because users usually …. •  have lousy memory •  don’t always see everything •  get confused of too many things •  get tired and bored •  don’t pay attention always •  get easily distracted Designers need to take all this into account Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 43
  44. 44. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 … and machines will always offer more new form factor larger memories / faster systems miniaturization ↓ power requirements deeply connected new display & input technologies embedding of computation into appliances pervasive specialize computer hardware à new functions ↑ networked + distribute computing broadened user base ↑ adopting of computers & access by those currently denied Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 44
  45. 45. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Message 2: You are NOT the USER if you are DESIGNER and you always need different glasses Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 45
  46. 46. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 •  Design model –  conceptual model on which the design of the system is based •  User’s model –  model that the user develops on the basis of experience with the system •  System image –  all aspects of the system that the user experiences Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 46 Message 3:
  47. 47. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 COURSE ORGANIZATION
  48. 48. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Rules of the game Electronic communication Discussion Board: questions & discussions on course content hci-org@few.vu.nl: admin Before sending email check rules on BB Work in groups of 4 Attend Lab sessions: rules on BB Submit Assignments: see schedule Submit Lab exercises: end of day Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 48
  49. 49. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Book (required) User Interface Design & Evaluation Debbie Stone, Caroline Jarrett, Mark Woodroffe, Shailey Minocha Morgan Kaufmann, 2005. ISBN 978-0-12-088436-0 Parts available @ Google Books: http://books.google.com/books? id=VvSoyqPBPbMC&printsec=frontc over&source=gbs_slider_thumb#v= onepage&q=&f=false Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 49
  50. 50. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 HCI book structure •  Part 2: requirements •  Part 3: design •  Part 4: evaluation Sequence is an artefact! Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 50
  51. 51. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Additional book (optional) How to design & Report Experiments by Andy Field and Graham Hole Published by SAGE, 2003. ISBN 978-0-7619-7382-9 Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 51
  52. 52. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 More books (optional) Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 52
  53. 53. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Grading •  60%: Assignments •  30%: Exam •  10% Lab exercises –  No grade for Lab exercises. 1,5 points - when the answers show that an appropriate amount of work has been done. 0.75 points - if the work is poor but not altogether bad. •  To pass: –  submit solutions to all Lab exercises –  submit all assignments –  score of written exam => 5.5 –  total weighted grade => 5.5 Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 53
  54. 54. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Schedule •  Schedule covers 3 weeks (!) •  2 Lectures a week •  2 Lab sessions a week •  Assignments: choice of predefined domains •  Exam •  Make sure of your (group) planning (ahead) Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 54
  55. 55. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2015: Lecture 1 Enjoy the course! Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 55

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