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A	Pragmatic	Approach	
to	Understanding	and	Utilizing	Events	
in	Cultural	Heritage
Lora	Aroyo,	Chiel van	den	Akker,	Marnix ...
• Lora	Aroyo
• Marnix van	Berchum
• Victor	de	Boer
• Willem	Robert	van	Hage
• Lizzy	Jongma
• Gerard	Kuys
• Susan	Legene
• ...
In	this	panel	…
Challenges related	to	
– Event	as	an	object	of	study
– Event	as	utility	for	context	and	interpretation
Fro...
online	access	to	museum	collections
the	interpretation	of	objects	in	online	museum	collections	is	supported	by	enriching	
the	museum	collection	meta-data	with...
Where	is	the	Event	in	the	Museum?
§ biography	of	artifacts	(provenance)
§ artifacts	were	used	in events	or	they	depict	eve...
Two	conceptions	of	digital	humanities
Slide: Guus Schreiber
DHBenelux	2017,	Utrecht	5	July	2017
Lodewijk	Petram,	Marnix	van	Berchum
Historical	events:	two	cases
2
1) personal attributes or events?
• what information is inherent to a person, what can be
modelled differently?
Inherent...
3
• why did people move?
• explanatory data:
• micro (life events)
• meso (city or region)
• macro (national)
2) 18th cent...
Micro-level events
Micro-level events
• Pieter Dy: vader overlijdt in 1816 (op Texel).
(In hieropvolgende periode verhuist Dy naar
Den Helder...
Meso-level events
Nieuwe Nederlandsche
Jaerboeken
Macro-level events
Clio-Infra
An Events Model for
Archives
Should we model all
of the world all over
time?
Gerard Kuys, July, 5, 2017
2
Gerard Kuys, July, 5, 2017
Peeling the onion: from source to interpretation
Archief-
stukArchief-
stukArchief-
stuk
Arch...
Basic structure
3
Interpretation 1
Interpretation 2
Interpretation 3
Interpretation 4
Interpretation 5
Digital representat...
Set of events may differ depending on interpretation
4
Interpretation 1
Interpretation 2
Interpretation 3
Interpretation 4...
What kind of subjects in archives?
5
* Commissions and assignments, personnel registries
* Civil and Military Courts, capt...
What kind of events with such subjects?
6
* Career event
* Prosecution event, being made prisoner in times of war
* Gettin...
Events: What kind of data?
• Commissieboeken in Raad van State archive (1581 – 1795)
• Central Commission Film rating arch...
8
Gebeurteni
s
Scope Frequent
ie
algemee
n
Frequentie
in life
cycle
Micro Meso Macro
Benoeming
door RvS
Personen 1 - n Enk...
9
• Events on the level of persons
Personal life (birth, marriage, death)
Professional life
Livelihood (dearth, famine, ac...
Look For The Story
Tommaso Caselli
t.caselli@{gmail.com;vu.nl}
Utrecht, July 05th 2017
• “Things” that happen or hold as true (cit. every
definition)
• Eventualities (Bach, 1986 - Algebra of Events)
• Ontologi...
Look Around
• Eventualities are hubs of information:
• limited, if considered in isolation
• rich (and joyful), when conne...
Start Asking: “Why? ”
• Events in context give rise to stories
• different granularities
• New task: StoryLine Extraction
...
Event	Panel	DHBenelux	2017
Jacco	van	Ossenbruggen,	CWI
World	of	(overly)	complex	humanities	research	questions:
• No	models,	everything	is	open	to	interpretation,	...
World	of	(...
PERSON
Events	are	perspectives…	Example:
PLACE TIME
“Prince	Bernhard	was	in	Wageningen	on	May	5th,	1945”
Event:
END OF WWII
World	of	“subjective”	perspectives,	explicit	personal	frame	of	the	
scholar
World	of	“objective”	glorified	word	counting
W...
Take	home	message
• Events	have	the	potential	to	become	the	
20%	of	the	metadata	we	need	to	address	80%	of	current	interop...
DIVE+ INTO THE EVENT-ENRICHED
LINKED OPEN CULTURAL HERITAGE
Support Event-centric browsing for Media Scholars
Access	to	Integrated	Online	Multimedia collections
using	Linked	Open	Data to	integrate	metadata	of	
various	heritage	colle...
OPENIMAGES.EU
3,220	news	broadcasts
Netherlands	Institute	for	Sound	&	Vision
GTAA	thesaurus
DELPHER.NL
197,199	Scans	of Ra...
sem:Event
sem:Actordive:MediaObject
dive:depictedBy
rdfs:label
dive:source
dive:placeholder
dc:identifier
dc:description
e...
Original	Metadata
Interpretation	of	content
Named	Entity	Recognition
Human	computation
Hybrid	pipeline
Where do we get eve...
Original	Metadata
am:Belgische opstand
am:besnijdenis
am:Beurs de Keyser
am:bevrijding
am:bezoekerscentrum
am:bibliotheken...
Crowdsourcing	for	Events in	Texts & Videos
CrowdTruth.org
Description Event
"Foto	is	genomen	tijdens	de	Tweede	Zuid	
Nieuw-Guinea	Expeditie"
Tweede Zuid	Nieuw-Guinea	
Expeditie
Fot...
Radio	news	bulletins:	Every	object	1	event
DIVE+	Enrichments
Enrichment
method
Media
Objects Actors Places Events Other Alignments
OI hybrid pipeline 3,204 1,249 1,4...
DIVE:MediaObject
Nieuws uit Indonesië:
opheffing van het KNIL
dive:depictedBy
sem:hasTimestamp
sem:Event
ANP:1950-08-11:50...
(Common)	Event	thesaurus?
Februaristaking
WOII
Februaristaking
“De oproep 'Staakt!'
voor deelname aan
de februaristaking t...
DIVE+ UI:	INFINITY	OF	EXPLORATION
/ Support exploration and serendipity /
/ Visual inspection of media objects and entitie...
explore
event
event
related
entities
/ Events as backbone for for deep exploration of
interconnected media collections by DH experts
/ Various data enrichment ...
/ http://diveproject.beeldengeluid.nl
/ http://diveplus.beeldengeluid.nl
/ v.de.boer@vu.nl
DIVE+
DIVE+
GETTING THE BIGGER PICTURE: AN EVALUATION OF MEDIA EXPLORATORY SEARCH
AND NARRATIVE CREATION
PANEL: PRAGMATIC APPROACHTO U...
¡ Historians are storytellers
¡ Study of media
texts/representations i.r.t.
media makers (industrial
actors)
¡ But: media ...
'DISRUPTIVE' MEDIA EVENT NARRATIVES
¡ Media (news) event: an event with a specific narrative that gives the event its
mean...
EXAMPLE: 1968 & THE
NETHERLANDS IN THE
1960S
'The times they are a
changing'
DIVEEVENT-BASEDBROWSEROFLINKEDHISTORICALMEDIA
Research Phases
1.Select disruptive media events about conflict & breaking
n...
USER CENTERED APPROACH: CO-CREATION
Mapping search and
storytelling practices
¡ Focus groups & interviews;
¡ Tasks & talk ...
DATA LEVEL
• Enrichment of
annotation, links,
entities, narratives
about events
INTERFACE LEVEL
• Recommendations
for auto...
KEY QUESTIONS
1. How can we interpret 'disruptive' media events? How are 'disruptive' media events
constructed as narrativ...
¡ CLARIAH Research Pilot Narrativizing Disruption: How exploratory search can
support media researchers to interpret ‘disr...
DH Benelux 2017 Panel: A Pragmatic Approach to Understanding and Utilising Events in Cultural Heritage
DH Benelux 2017 Panel: A Pragmatic Approach to Understanding and Utilising Events in Cultural Heritage
DH Benelux 2017 Panel: A Pragmatic Approach to Understanding and Utilising Events in Cultural Heritage
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DH Benelux 2017 Panel: A Pragmatic Approach to Understanding and Utilising Events in Cultural Heritage

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Lora Aroyo, Chiel van den Akker, Marnix van Berchum, Lodewijk
Petram, Gerard Kuys, Tommaso Caselli, Jacco van Ossenbruggen, Victor de Boer, Sabrina Sauer, Berber Hagedoorn

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DH Benelux 2017 Panel: A Pragmatic Approach to Understanding and Utilising Events in Cultural Heritage

  1. 1. A Pragmatic Approach to Understanding and Utilizing Events in Cultural Heritage Lora Aroyo, Chiel van den Akker, Marnix van Berchum, Lodewijk Petram, Gerard Kuys, Tommaso Caselli, Jacco van Ossenbruggen, Victor de Boer, Sabrina Sauer, Berber Hagedoorn
  2. 2. • Lora Aroyo • Marnix van Berchum • Victor de Boer • Willem Robert van Hage • Lizzy Jongma • Gerard Kuys • Susan Legene • Annelies van Nispen • Jacco van Ossenbruggen • Lodewijk Petram • Piek Vossen
  3. 3. In this panel … Challenges related to – Event as an object of study – Event as utility for context and interpretation From different perspectives: – History / Digital Humanities – Computational Linguistics – Cultural Heritage organizations – Computer Science
  4. 4. online access to museum collections
  5. 5. the interpretation of objects in online museum collections is supported by enriching the museum collection meta-data with a structured notion of historical events
  6. 6. Where is the Event in the Museum? § biography of artifacts (provenance) § artifacts were used in events or they depict events § to ask for the historical meaning of an artifact is to ask a question which can be answered only in the context of a story
  7. 7. Two conceptions of digital humanities Slide: Guus Schreiber
  8. 8. DHBenelux 2017, Utrecht 5 July 2017 Lodewijk Petram, Marnix van Berchum Historical events: two cases
  9. 9. 2 1) personal attributes or events? • what information is inherent to a person, what can be modelled differently? Inherent data elements Events Names Occupation Date and place of birth Education Date and place of death Honorific and academic titles Gender
  10. 10. 3 • why did people move? • explanatory data: • micro (life events) • meso (city or region) • macro (national) 2) 18th century migration in the maritime sector
  11. 11. Micro-level events
  12. 12. Micro-level events • Pieter Dy: vader overlijdt in 1816 (op Texel). (In hieropvolgende periode verhuist Dy naar Den Helder) • Foppe Fopkes Baas: 1785: eerste huwelijk op Ameland 1792: kind geboren in Den Helder 1800: trouwt opnieuw (is weduwnaar) op Ameland 1813: dochter overlijdt in Den Helder 1818: zoon Dirk trouwt 1829: op 18 maart overlijdt vrouw 1829: op 21 maart overlijdt Foppe zelf
  13. 13. Meso-level events Nieuwe Nederlandsche Jaerboeken
  14. 14. Macro-level events Clio-Infra
  15. 15. An Events Model for Archives Should we model all of the world all over time? Gerard Kuys, July, 5, 2017
  16. 16. 2 Gerard Kuys, July, 5, 2017 Peeling the onion: from source to interpretation Archief- stukArchief- stukArchief- stuk Archival document Access on archival content reference reference reference reference Archives’ context Archive anExternalDatatype anEntity
  17. 17. Basic structure 3 Interpretation 1 Interpretation 2 Interpretation 3 Interpretation 4 Interpretation 5 Digital representation of source (presumably 1:1 to source content) Real-world source authority Gerard Kuys, July, 5, 2017
  18. 18. Set of events may differ depending on interpretation 4 Interpretation 1 Interpretation 2 Interpretation 3 Interpretation 4 Interpretation 5 Digital representation of source (presumably 1:1 to source content) Real-world source authority Gerard Kuys, July, 5, 2017
  19. 19. What kind of subjects in archives? 5 * Commissions and assignments, personnel registries * Civil and Military Courts, captivity in times of war * Domanial rights (requests), permits * Taxes and Excises, payments * Scope statements in building projects * Motion picture content rating * Meeting minutes * …… Gerard Kuys, July, 5, 2017
  20. 20. What kind of events with such subjects? 6 * Career event * Prosecution event, being made prisoner in times of war * Getting a license * Getting paid, getting fined * Completion events in building activities * Movies getting admitted, getting prohibited * Decisions made, options rejected * …… Gerard Kuys, July, 5, 2017
  21. 21. Events: What kind of data? • Commissieboeken in Raad van State archive (1581 – 1795) • Central Commission Film rating archieve(1928-1960) • Cabinet ministers (cabinets 1848 – 2010), archival guide • Japanese Internment cards in Dutch East Indies (1941-1945) 7 Gerard Kuys, July, 5, 2017
  22. 22. 8 Gebeurteni s Scope Frequent ie algemee n Frequentie in life cycle Micro Meso Macro Benoeming door RvS Personen 1 - n Enkele malen Afhankelijk van functie Vervanging door RvS Personen Bij overlijden of vertrek voorgange r Enkele malen Afhankelijk van functie Aanvraag keuring Films, bedrijven Eenmalig Eenmalig X Afh. van belang film - Film gekeurd Films, bedrijven In principe eenmalig In principe eenmalig X Afh. van belang film - Film herkeurd Films, openbaarhei d Eenmalig Eenmalig X Afh. van belang film - Kabinet treedt aan Parlement Max. 1x in de vier jaar Eenmalig - X X Kabinet treedt af Parlement Max. 1x in de vier jaar Eenmalig - X X Bewindsper s. treedt aan Parlement, kabinet 0 - n 0 - n - X X Gerard Kuys, July, 5, 2017
  23. 23. 9 • Events on the level of persons Personal life (birth, marriage, death) Professional life Livelihood (dearth, famine, acquisition of wealth) Prosecution and captivity • Events in the level of things getting done or undone • Societal events • Natural disasters Events: Provisional Classification Gerard Kuys, July, 5, 2017
  24. 24. Look For The Story Tommaso Caselli t.caselli@{gmail.com;vu.nl} Utrecht, July 05th 2017
  25. 25. • “Things” that happen or hold as true (cit. every definition) • Eventualities (Bach, 1986 - Algebra of Events) • Ontological primitives • Events = dynamic • States = static Set the Ground
  26. 26. Look Around • Eventualities are hubs of information: • limited, if considered in isolation • rich (and joyful), when connected together • Relations between/among events essential to make sense of the world and interpret the context
  27. 27. Start Asking: “Why? ” • Events in context give rise to stories • different granularities • New task: StoryLine Extraction • semantic: general patterns of events (A Revolution) • episodic: specific patterns of events (The French Revolution)
  28. 28. Event Panel DHBenelux 2017 Jacco van Ossenbruggen, CWI
  29. 29. World of (overly) complex humanities research questions: • No models, everything is open to interpretation, ... World of (overly) simplified digital tools: • Models are trivial representations of objects (“bag of words”), ... World of (imperfect) compromises, 80/20 rule • Events as imperfect but good starting point ↓ Simplified who what where when questions ↑ Place/person NER, temporal expression detection, etc
  30. 30. PERSON Events are perspectives… Example: PLACE TIME “Prince Bernhard was in Wageningen on May 5th, 1945” Event: END OF WWII
  31. 31. World of “subjective” perspectives, explicit personal frame of the scholar World of “objective” glorified word counting World of formally modelled events that look deceptively objective • But are always from a specific perspective (who’s?) • Now often implicit but should be explicitly modelled
  32. 32. Take home message • Events have the potential to become the 20% of the metadata we need to address 80% of current interoperability problems • They may look like low-level “technical” metadata … • … but are always encoding some perspective • Event-detection and enrichment tools need to make these perspectives explicit
  33. 33. DIVE+ INTO THE EVENT-ENRICHED LINKED OPEN CULTURAL HERITAGE
  34. 34. Support Event-centric browsing for Media Scholars
  35. 35. Access to Integrated Online Multimedia collections using Linked Open Data to integrate metadata of various heritage collections Interactive Exploration & Discovery in Context linking objects to events and entities building automatic storylines (narratives) DIVE+
  36. 36. OPENIMAGES.EU 3,220 news broadcasts Netherlands Institute for Sound & Vision GTAA thesaurus DELPHER.NL 197,199 Scans of Radio bulletins 1937 – 1984 AMSTERDAM MUSEUM 73,447 cultural heritage objects AM Thesaurus TROPENMUSEUM 78,270 cultural heritage objects SVNC thesaurus Collections and Vocabularies
  37. 37. sem:Event sem:Actordive:MediaObject dive:depictedBy rdfs:label dive:source dive:placeholder dc:identifier dc:description etc. oa:Annotation oa:hasBodyoa:hasTarget sem:Place sem:Time skos:Concept sem:hasActor, sem:hasPlace sem:hasTime dive:isRelatedTo skos:broader, skos:narrower etc. dive:isRelatedTo DIVE+ data model
  38. 38. Original Metadata Interpretation of content Named Entity Recognition Human computation Hybrid pipeline Where do we get events from - LIDO, CIDOC, EDM - creationDateStart - - Interpretation of object - FROG, other pipelines - - Crowdsourcing - -Nichesourcing,
  39. 39. Original Metadata am:Belgische opstand am:besnijdenis am:Beurs de Keyser am:bevrijding am:bezoekerscentrum am:bibliotheken am:Bijlmerramp am:Boulevard of Broken Dreams am:brand am:brand van het oude stadhuis op de Dam am:burgeroorlog am:capitulatie am:christendom geboorte van Christus am:christendom kruisiging am:christendom opstanding van Christus am:christus aan het kruis am:Christus schrijft op de grond am:concert "Fayence bord”
  40. 40. Crowdsourcing for Events in Texts & Videos CrowdTruth.org
  41. 41. Description Event "Foto is genomen tijdens de Tweede Zuid Nieuw-Guinea Expeditie" Tweede Zuid Nieuw-Guinea Expeditie Foto is genomen tijdens de Eerste Zuid Nieuw-Guinea Expeditie Eerste Zuid Nieuw-Guinea Expeditie "Foto is genomen tijdens de Eerste- of de Tweede Zuid Nieuw-Guinea Expeditie" Tweede Zuid Nieuw-Guinea Expeditie "Masker gedragen tijdens oogstfeesten. Het feest in kwestie is het Sokari spel dat eenmaal per jaar wordt opgevoerd gedurende zeven opeenvolgende nachten na Nieuwjaar, medio april. …” Nieuwjaar FROG NER Event extraction Victor Kramer
  42. 42. Radio news bulletins: Every object 1 event
  43. 43. DIVE+ Enrichments Enrichment method Media Objects Actors Places Events Other Alignments OI hybrid pipeline 3,204 1,249 1,412 1,916 185,846 623 NB Interpreted + NER 197,200 194,890 54,571 197,200 6,736 6,353 AM original thesaurus 73,447 66,966 5,973 148 28,047 6,865 TM original thesaurus + FROG NER 78,226 27,829 3,896 23* 13,269 - Total 352,077 290,934 65,852 199,264 233,898 - *) more to come
  44. 44. DIVE:MediaObject Nieuws uit Indonesië: opheffing van het KNIL dive:depictedBy sem:hasTimestamp sem:Event ANP:1950-08-11:50 dive:isRelatedTo dive:relatedPlace sem:hasPlace dive:isRelatedTo dive:relatedActor sem:hasActor dive:isRelatedTo dive:relatedPlace sem:hasPlace sem:Time 25 Juli 1950 dive:depictedBy sem:hasTimestamp DIVE:MediaObject Mannen bij het huis van Paul Spies aan de Parapattan 42, Djakarta dive:depictedBy dive:depictedBy dive:depictedBy DIVE:MediaObject ANP:1950-08-11:50 DIVE:MediaObject Schaal sem:Time 11 Augustus 1950 sem:Event ontbindingsceremonie sem:Place Djakarta sem:Place Indonesië sem:Actor Mohammad Hatta Linking via common actors, places, objects
  45. 45. (Common) Event thesaurus? Februaristaking WOII Februaristaking “De oproep 'Staakt!' voor deelname aan de februaristaking te Amsterdam op 25 en 26 februari 1941. “ stakingen Eduard Hellendoorn "Joseph Eijl Eduard Hellendoorn Hermanus Coenradi 13 maart 1941 gefusilleerd Waalsdorpervlakte" Waalsdorpervlakte Jessie Both & Didi de hooge
  46. 46. DIVE+ UI: INFINITY OF EXPLORATION / Support exploration and serendipity / / Visual inspection of media objects and entities / / Lets user build, save and share Proto-Narratives/
  47. 47. explore event event related entities
  48. 48. / Events as backbone for for deep exploration of interconnected media collections by DH experts / Various data enrichment strategies to construct explorable knowledge graphs DIVE+
  49. 49. / http://diveproject.beeldengeluid.nl / http://diveplus.beeldengeluid.nl / v.de.boer@vu.nl DIVE+
  50. 50. DIVE+
  51. 51. GETTING THE BIGGER PICTURE: AN EVALUATION OF MEDIA EXPLORATORY SEARCH AND NARRATIVE CREATION PANEL: PRAGMATIC APPROACHTO UNDERSTANDING AND UTILISING EVENTS IN CULTURAL HERITAGE BERBER HAGEDOORN & SABRINA SAUER (RUG)
  52. 52. ¡ Historians are storytellers ¡ Study of media texts/representations i.r.t. media makers (industrial actors) ¡ But: media scholars are storytellers too
  53. 53. 'DISRUPTIVE' MEDIA EVENT NARRATIVES ¡ Media (news) event: an event with a specific narrative that gives the event its meaning, and is in contemporary societies increasingly recognized as non- planned or 'disruptive' as well as cross-medial. ¡ Focus on the construction of narratives and power of narrativization in different (news) media, e.g. television, radio, newspapers… ¡ See e.g. Jiménez-Martínez 2016; Rothenbuhler 2010; Katz & Liebes 2007; Dayan & Katz 1992 ¡ For instance stories of empathy, fear and change in relation to international media events
  54. 54. EXAMPLE: 1968 & THE NETHERLANDS IN THE 1960S 'The times they are a changing'
  55. 55. DIVEEVENT-BASEDBROWSEROFLINKEDHISTORICALMEDIA Research Phases 1.Select disruptive media events about conflict & breaking news 2. Construct event narratives using new DIVE+ features 3. Organize focus groups with media researchers 4. Realize incremental innovations to DIVE+ features 5. Test implemented changes with same focus groups MEDIARESEARCHERS
  56. 56. USER CENTERED APPROACH: CO-CREATION Mapping search and storytelling practices ¡ Focus groups & interviews; ¡ Tasks & talk aloud protocols , surveys/questionnaires; ¡ Research diaries Iterative approach
  57. 57. DATA LEVEL • Enrichment of annotation, links, entities, narratives about events INTERFACE LEVEL • Recommendations for automatic suggestions of starting points for search & exploration USER LEVEL • Relation between exploratory search and & narrative creation • In-depth insights into search process of media researchers INSIGHTS of NARRATIVIZING DISRUPTION
  58. 58. KEY QUESTIONS 1. How can we interpret 'disruptive' media events? How are 'disruptive' media events constructed as narratives across media and instilled with specific cultural or political meanings? ¡ NB: from a cross-media perspective; and from the perspective of media researchers as storytellers 2. DH tools can generate new research questions: how can new digital humanities tools support such AV research? (e.g. exploratory search via event-centric linked data digital collection browser DIVE+) 3. How can we assess the purpose and usefulness of narratives for scholarly research (specifically, search and learning), and why are narratives important for media scholars in their research process, from beginning to end?
  59. 59. ¡ CLARIAH Research Pilot Narrativizing Disruption: How exploratory search can support media researchers to interpret ‘disruptive’ media events as lucid narratives ¡ https://www.clariah.nl/en/projects/research-pilots/granted-pilot-research- projects/nardis/610-nardis (May 2017 - May 2018);

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