Armytage: PNG Justice Study, 2010

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Armytage: PNG Justice Study, 2010

  1. 1. PhD Thesis - USyd. 2010 <ul><li>LAW & JUSTICE REFORM </li></ul><ul><li>Case study </li></ul><ul><li>AusAID’s Experience in PNG 2003-7 </li></ul><ul><li>L. Armytage </li></ul><ul><li>Centre for Judicial Studies </li></ul><ul><li>www.educatingjudges.com </li></ul>
  2. 2. OUTLINE <ul><li>11.00-11.30 Global law and justice reform (LJR) context </li></ul><ul><li>11.30-11.45 Discussion and questions </li></ul><ul><li>11.45-12.15 Significance of AusAID's PNG experience </li></ul><ul><li>12.15- 1.00 Discussion and questions. </li></ul>
  3. 3. THIS PRESENTATION <ul><li>LJR is really important to development </li></ul><ul><li>Practitioner – not theorist - Afghanistan, Cambodia, Haiti, Palestine, PNG … </li></ul><ul><li>Often disappointing results - sometimes none </li></ul><ul><li>There must be a better way … ! </li></ul><ul><li>Creating space for critical reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of evidence of experience </li></ul><ul><li>How well are we addressing the core challenges? </li></ul><ul><li>Proposals for improving our practice </li></ul>
  4. 4. CONTEXT <ul><li>Global experience of LJR disappointing over fifty years </li></ul><ul><li>This disappointment due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lack of coherent theory for reform causing confusion over purpose – ‘ what ’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertainty how to evaluate success – ‘ how ’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AusAID’s experience in PNG contributes to evaluation of global LJR endeavours. </li></ul>
  5. 5. HISTORY <ul><li>Recent rapid growth – x100-fold over 2 decades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World Bank: 1,400 projects = USD5.9billion (Dañino R, 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AusAID: $5m projects to $150m programs </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Five waves’ (Jensen), or ‘three moments’ (Trubek) </li></ul><ul><li>Standard packages of ‘thin’ procedural reforms in ‘rule or law,’ ‘law and justice’ or ‘access to justice.’ </li></ul><ul><li>LJR endeavour is still experimental in searching for success. </li></ul>
  6. 6. PURPOSE <ul><li>Purpose for LJR – there are multiple justifications: economic, political, social, humanistic </li></ul><ul><li>These often compete, sometimes collide, are often confused in practice </li></ul><ul><li>This confusion spreads to the challenge of evaluating success in LJR </li></ul>
  7. 7. A. JUSTIFICATION <ul><li>Classical, enlightenment, modern philosophy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of state: supply of public goods inc. justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State and market: capable, small, enabling ...? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutionalism, liberalism, enforcement of social contract </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consensus: reform is important, but why … ? </li></ul><ul><li>Practice is riven by contest over theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumental role; new institutional economics (Weber + North) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutive role; fairness, rights, capability (Rawls, Dworkin, Sen) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LJR has been subordinated to development economics </li></ul><ul><li>LJR should promote justice as fairness and equity </li></ul>
  8. 8. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE <ul><li>Determinants of growth – what works? </li></ul><ul><li>Some evidence justice correlates with growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ New comparative economics’: Dollar + Kraay, Knack + Keefer, Djankov, Feld + Voigt, La Porta, North, Rajan, Rodrik … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But, substantial misgivings at failure to promote equitable growth; internally-contested </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World Development Report 2006: poverty = equity; ‘equity gap.’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNDP’s Human Development Reports …. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stiglitz, Sachs, Easterly, Collier’s ‘bottom billion’ … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevailing instrumental theory is insufficient: ambiguous, incomplete, flawed - viz: equity gap </li></ul>
  9. 9. FINDINGS <ul><li>Economic growth justification has primacy - instrumental </li></ul><ul><li>Reform theory is formative, experimental, evolving </li></ul><ul><li>Theory only partially validated empirically </li></ul><ul><li>No evidence poverty goals attained > widening equity gap </li></ul><ul><li>Performance gap (gap # 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Need to promote equitable dimension of justice > both constitutive and instrumental </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative modalities being explored: eg. WB’s J4P … </li></ul>
  10. 10. B. DEVELOPMENT EVALUATION <ul><li>MDGs - poverty alleviation; but no RoL goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Paris Declaration of Aid Effectiveness , 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>OECD-DAC professionalisation </li></ul><ul><li>MfDR: M&E to centre stage </li></ul><ul><li>Transitional challenges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Paradigm war’: positivists v constructivists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability v learning; efficiency v effectiveness; outputs v outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critique: developmental change not linear; monitoring means monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring impact difficult, costly, slow (WB estimate: USD3-500,000). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluation gap (gap # 2). </li></ul>
  11. 11. EVALUATING LJR <ul><li>Measuring what, how? – the ‘ what ’ question </li></ul><ul><li>Proliferation of monitoring frameworks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice Reform Index, Vera, IFES, CEPEJ, RechtspraaQ, Court Excellence, Berteslmann, Freedom House, Global Integrity, TI, WGI, WGA … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More data, but … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly ‘thin’ efficiency-based reforms: delay reduction, IT … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different approaches, measures, data, methodologies – no harmonisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unresolved debates, no orthodoxy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scarcity of evaluations; lack of methodological rigor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges of finding results: elapsed time, causality, attribution … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment in monitoring at expense of evaluation - USAID’s experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No closer to evaluating / demonstrating success </li></ul>
  12. 12. FINDINGS <ul><li>Evaluation of deficiency = x3 level gap: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development performance: perceptions of disappointment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation gap between rhetoric and practice; no orthodoxy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meta-evaluation of reform: rarely done, poorly done (gap # 3) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Success should be measured normatively </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice requires ‘thick’ and ‘thin’ measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eg. judgments enforcing rights to fresh water and air, clean environment, education, shelter, health, free legal aid, speedy trial …. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convergence with IHRL discourse: economic, civil, political, social, cultural rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MEF: a work in progress … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Success should be measured using normative framework of (international human) rights (law). </li></ul>
  13. 13. C. CASE STUDIES x3 <ul><li>AusAID-PNG: 2003-7 </li></ul><ul><li>ADB : 1990-2007 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UNDP: 2000-9 - Searching for Success in Judicial Reform: Voices of Asia / Pacific Experience (OUP, 2009). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(Ethno)-methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>documentary evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>qualitative induction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reflexive analysis of ‘ordinary, routine details’ of participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>counterfactual: professional evaluations. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. AUSAID – PNG: 2003-7 <ul><li>AusAID’s longest engagement: 20 years+ - TA support to RPNGC since 1988 </li></ul><ul><li>Largest sectoral investment - $161 million between 2003-7; ongoing </li></ul><ul><li>Concept paper 2002 – ‘best shot’ design approach: - ‘ serious, chronic and deteriorating law and order situation ’ </li></ul><ul><li>PNG’s National Law and Justice Policy 2000-2005 - new focus on restorative justice and non-formal sector </li></ul><ul><li>Sectoral programmatic approach </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring impact > LJSP + JAG modality </li></ul>
  15. 15. FINDINGS - CHALLENGES <ul><li>Journey to aid effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ownership - but of what: budget management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity-building policy: a locked black box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advisor role: supporting or doing? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managing for development results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition from audit to learning model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning: SSF + PMF; generality v detail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ECP: WoG, Wenge and the unplannable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance monitoring: groundbreaking investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Est. cost 6% of program; $8.4m; 3 years to design/implement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation, impact, results - contribution analysis (2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategic approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restorative justice policy mandate, but historic orientation to formal sector - 75% of activity funding to state actors in AP.2007. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slowness: change management, political economy analysis, incentives </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. SIGNIFICANCE - PURPOSE <ul><ul><li>LJR practice is exploratory, dynamic, evolving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>paradigm shift in AusAID’s approach from agency > sector based support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proactive, pre-empting Paris Declaration (2005) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>investing in planning linked to performance monitoring from outset </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reform rationale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>effective law and justice systems promote regional security, increase international confidence and attract foreign investment (AA: Governance , 2007) – ie. classic economic instrumentalism – but, tenuous in PNG practice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eclectic, ‘thin’ procedural efficiency-based reform activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>diverse strategic focus > risk of being spread too thinly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share many challenges of other case studies relating to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>promoting counterpart ownership and leadership, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adjusting from ‘top-down’ to ‘bottom-up’; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>preference to engage with formal sector rather than community, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>integrating change management strategies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. SIGNIFICANCE - EVALUATION <ul><ul><li>Paradigm shift in AusAID’s approach to M+E: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>from accountability (audit-model) towards effectiveness (learning-model); </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>from monitoring outputs towards monitoring impact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unprecedented investment: time + money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>integrated PMF linked to SSF: system-level MEF to replace logframe? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>baseline, annual surveys, evidence-based annual reporting, trend analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>transitional – conflicted? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established capacity to monitor/evaluate system-level performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Globally ground-breaking, but … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contribution analysis identified changes, but no ‘real world impacts’ after 4 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>question whether performance or evaluative deficit not addressed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resources and timeframes required to demonstrate impact/results. </li></ul>
  18. 18. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>Major reform initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution from ‘law + order’ to ‘law + justice’ </li></ul><ul><li>World Bank ICP: - ‘ experimental, cutting edge … showcase worldwide. ’ (2010). </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges implementing restorative justice vision </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing need to refine purpose – risk of spread too thin </li></ul><ul><li>Established capacity to measure performance change </li></ul><ul><li>Unprecedented investment in M&E: time, resources </li></ul><ul><li>Prelude to new era of impact monitoring and evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>AusAID’s experience in PNG leads global learning on monitoring and evaluating LJR. </li></ul>

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