Survey Of India


Published on

Published in: Spiritual, Technology
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Survey Of India

  1. 1. SURVEY OF INDIA Maurya, Gupta, & Mughal Pallava & Chola 321BCE - 1700CE Green, white, & saffron, with a 24-spoked Dharmachakra of Ashoka, one for each hour.
  2. 2. INDIA Maurya Empire 321-184BCE Buddhism Gupta Empire 280-550CE Hinduism Mughal Empire 1526-1707CE Islam Pallava Kingdom 275-900CE Hinduism Map courtesy Venu62 Chola Kingdom 848-1279CE Hinduism Map courtesy Venu62
  3. 3. ASHOKA & THE MAURYA EMPIRE 304 - 232BCE -Ashoka the Great after witnessing the destruction he caused with the Kalinga war. “ What have I done?” Punch-mark coins of silver, showing Buddhist symbols like the elephant, the dharmachakra, the Bodhi tree, and burial mound. Image courtesy PHGCOM Photo courtesy Rajeev Kumar A pillar edict containing Buddhist-related messages. Buddhist Period Image courtesy Miljoshi
  4. 4. BUDDHISM <ul><li>The Triple Gem of Buddhism (Sambou) </li></ul><ul><li>Buddha (The ideal nature within all) </li></ul><ul><li>Darhma (The laws or teachings) </li></ul><ul><li>Sangha (The community of enlightened ones) </li></ul><ul><li>The Four Noble Truths (Shitai) </li></ul><ul><li>The Nature of Suffering (Jittai) </li></ul><ul><li>The Origin of Suffering (Kutai) </li></ul><ul><li>The Cessation of Suffering (Mettai) </li></ul><ul><li>The Past escaping Suffering (Doutai) </li></ul>The Dharma wheel has 8 spokes that represent the Noble Eightfold Path. The concept of compassion is central to the teachings of Buddhism, as all forms of life are connected. Panentheism Photo courtesy PHGCOM
  5. 5. SANCHI Source: Monuments of India Images courtesy Michael D. Gunther / Stupas, or “heaps” from the Sanskrit and Pali translations, were mounds of earth covered in masonry (bricks and stones) that were hemispherical in form. These funerary structures also could contain Buddhist relics. The “evolution” of the stupa can be seen in architectural forms in China, Korea, Sri Lanka, SE Asia, Tibet, and even Japan (pagodas). Aniconism
  6. 6. Giant Wild Goose Pagoda: Xi’an, China Photo courtesy Alex Kwok Photo courtesy Michael Reeve Mireuksa Jiseoktap: Iksan, South Korea Photo courtesy Hyo lee Photo courtesy Luca Gorlero Wat Phra Kaeo: Bangkok, Thailand Photo couresy Ralf-André Lettau Shwedagon Zedi Daw: Yangon, Burma Toji Gojyunotou: Kyoto, Japan FROM STUPA TO PAGODA Mahayana & Theravada Pha That Luang: Vientiane, Laos Photo courtesy Aaron Smith
  7. 7. PAGODA: MODERN DERIVATIVES Taipei 101: Taipei, Taiwan Photo courtesy Alton.arts Petronas Towers: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Photo courtesy Ángel Riesgo Martínez Image courtesy Greyengine5 & Antilived
  8. 8. AJANTA CAVES Photo courtesy Ashok Pigments were applied on wet plaster so as to absorb the color, and not peel. The works are known as the ‘Jataka Tales’, and depict Buddhist legends and gods. The rock surface of the caves was chiseled to give it a rough surface so that the plaster would stick. Although construction is Maurya, the paintings are Gupta. 2nd Century BCE Ajanta is monastery with both chaitya - grihas (monuments) and viharas (residence halls).
  9. 9. SAMUDRAGUPTA & THE GUPTA EMPIRE Hindu Period The Golden Age The Gupta period, often referred to as the “Golden Age of India”, was quite similar to the Edo period in Japan, in that it was peaceful and secure, enabling the development of the arts (painted murals of Ajanta), music, and poetry written in Sanskrit (the official language of the empire). Science, mathematics, religion, philosophy and astronomy were other areas of development. Achievements: Over 120 surgical instruments Higher education (Nalanda University) Arabic Numerals Absence of capital punishment Advancements in Algebra Development of ‘Zero’ and ‘Infinity’ Samadragupta Gold Dinars (coins) were composed of eight types, all pure gold. Kumaragupta Chandragutpa II Photos courtesy PHGCOM The mysterious Iron Pillar Photo courtesy Nataraja
  10. 10. Photos courtesy Bryonic501 DASHAVATARA TEMPLE Moksha Panel Lakshmi & Vishnu The 5 Pandav Brothers Located in Orissa, the temple is a cubic cella. It is a holy place called garbha griha (womb chamber) covered with sculptured panels depicting Hindu myths about Krishna, Ram, Vishnu, Nara, and Narayana. Being a residence of a god, Deogarh causes us to question basic assumptions of architecture.
  11. 11. MAHABHARATA An Indian epic poem written in ancient Sanskrit that developed over hundreds of years. It is a story of the gods and goddesses, and Hinduism. The Mahabharata is thought to have been completed during the Gupta Dynasty.Some of the concepts written about are: Illustration depicting a Kurukshetra battle scene. <ul><li>Artha (purpose, wealth) </li></ul><ul><li>Moksha (liberation) </li></ul><ul><li>Dharma (duty, righteousness) </li></ul><ul><li>Kama (pleasure) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Various Caste Systems Around the World <ul><li>Kauwa </li></ul><ul><li>outcasts </li></ul><ul><li>slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Baekjeong </li></ul><ul><li>Untouchables </li></ul><ul><li>butcher </li></ul><ul><li>Burakumin “Eta-hinin” </li></ul><ul><li>untouchables </li></ul><ul><li>butchers </li></ul><ul><li>untertakers </li></ul><ul><li>Dalit “Pariah” </li></ul><ul><li>untouchables </li></ul><ul><li>Khadem “Al-Akhdam” </li></ul><ul><li>outcasts </li></ul><ul><li>Sangmin </li></ul><ul><li>servants </li></ul><ul><li>Shomin </li></ul><ul><li>merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Shudra </li></ul><ul><li>laborers </li></ul><ul><li>Maka’ainana </li></ul><ul><li>farmers </li></ul><ul><li>laborers </li></ul><ul><li>Cheonmin </li></ul><ul><li>peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Komin </li></ul><ul><li>artisans </li></ul><ul><li>craftsmen </li></ul><ul><li>Vaishya </li></ul><ul><li>merchants </li></ul><ul><li>artisans </li></ul><ul><li>Hadarrin </li></ul><ul><li>townspeople </li></ul><ul><li>Kahuna </li></ul><ul><li>priests </li></ul><ul><li>professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Jung-in </li></ul><ul><li>technicians </li></ul><ul><li>Nomin </li></ul><ul><li>farmers </li></ul><ul><li>peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Kshatriya </li></ul><ul><li>rulers </li></ul><ul><li>warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Fellahin </li></ul><ul><li>villagers </li></ul><ul><li>Ali’I </li></ul><ul><li>royalty </li></ul><ul><li>chiefs </li></ul><ul><li>Yangban </li></ul><ul><li>Munban(scholars) </li></ul><ul><li>Muban (warriors) </li></ul><ul><li>Shimin </li></ul><ul><li>Shogun </li></ul><ul><li>Daimyo </li></ul><ul><li>Samurai </li></ul><ul><li>Brahmin </li></ul><ul><li>priests </li></ul><ul><li>sadhus </li></ul><ul><li>Bedouin </li></ul><ul><li>nomads </li></ul>Hawaii Korea Japan India Yemen
  13. 13. <ul><li>Dieties of the Hindu Trimurti </li></ul><ul><li>Brahma (creator - earth) </li></ul><ul><li>Vishnu (preserver - water) </li></ul><ul><li>Shiva (destroyer - fire) </li></ul>HINDUISM Photo courtesy Thomas Ruedas Shiva as Nataraja (cosmic dancer) in an aureola of flames, standing on an Apasmara (demon). The diety Shiva has contains certain attributes of Brahman (the eternal soul). Moksha (meaning release or liberation) is the goal of Hinduism, in that it signifies the completion of Samsara (cycle of life and death, over and over). One must build up favorable Karma over many lifetimes to reach this point. This is similar to the concept of Nirvana in Buddhism. Polytheism
  14. 14. KHAJURAHO Hindu and Jain temples in North Central India, built between 950-1050CE. The temples are famous for their erotic sculpture. Kandariya Mahadeva Temple is the most ornate, and the largest temple of the complex. It is one of the most popular tourist sites in all of India.
  15. 15. Shah Jahan & The Taj Mahal Photo courtesy Amal Mongia AKBAR & THE MOGHUL EMPIRE Islamic Period (Monotheism) To be discussed with Islam…
  16. 16. AKBAR & THE MOGHUL EMPIRE 'Lal Haveli’ - The Red Fort (bungalow) of Agra Photo courtesy Vasant Dave Photos courtesy Hans A. Rosbach Jahangir Mahal
  17. 17. INDIAN FASHIONS A Hindu and a Moslem - 1860, Bengal A Kurta for either men or women, is a long-sleeve collarless shirt, usually fabricated in wool, cotton, or silk depending on the season. A Nehru jacked has a Mandarin collar, and is for either men or women. The Sherwani is a long coat that shows influence from the British frock coat. The felt hat is called a Fez .
  18. 18. A Sari is unstitched cloth for females, which is draped over the shoulders, and wrapped around the waist. Churidar pants are visible through transparent skirts. Photo coutesy Steve Evans Symbols of modesty, Dupatta scarves over Salwar Kameez. INDIAN FASHIONS Choli with lehnga skirt
  19. 19. PALLAVA Photo courtesy Pratheepps Kailash Temple, carved from the living rock. Photo courtesy Y.Shishido
  20. 20. CHOLA Thanjavur Temple Vimanam (tower)
  21. 21. MADURAI: A DRAVIDIAN STYLE Photo courtesy McKay Savage Photo courtesy Bernard Gagnon Minakshi Sundareshvara Temple (1623-1659) is located in Madurai, an historic temple city in the south of India. The architecture of Southern India is often referred to as ‘Dravidian’ as opposed to the Northern style known as ‘ Nagara’ . The ornate towers of the complex are known as Gopurams . They are stucco, painted with vivid polychrome pigments. Visitors walk amongst the granite columns of the portico.
  22. 22. Temple Complex Plan Image courtesy Michael D. Gunther / MADURAI: A DRAVIDIAN STYLE
  23. 23. Photo courtesy Kumar Appaiah Photo courtesy Bernard Gagnon Photo courtesy Claude Renault The form of the gopuram is noticeably concave from the base to the pinnacle. <ul><li>Above: A sadhu (or holy man) at the temple complex. </li></ul><ul><li>Below: Detail of gopuram iconography. </li></ul>MADURAI: A DRAVIDIAN STYLE
  24. 24. Questions 1.Who was Ashoka the Great? 2. What is a Gopuram? Where is it used? 3. What is the chronological order of these 5 empires? Gupta, Mughal, Maurya, Pallava, Chola 4. What is the function of a stupa? Materials? How did it evolve over time? 5. Can you give an example of Hindu architecture? What features does it have? 6. What domestic materials were used for Indian fashion? 7. Name some of the leit-motifs used in Indian design. Do they have symbolic meaning? 8. Explain the term Dravidian. What is an example of Dravidian design? 9. What are some differences between Buddhism and Hinduism? 10. How is the Mandala used in design?