Esp language descriptions

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Esp language descriptions

  1. 1. Language Descriptions<br />
  2. 2. Classical or Traditional Grammar<br /> - Not all the developments in Linguistics have had pedagogic applications. <br />- We shall give a brief outline of the various ideas about language that have influenced ESP in some way.<br />
  3. 3. Description of English and other languages<br />Greek Latin<br /> Based on an analysis of the role played by each word in the sentence.<br />
  4. 4. “Teachers who wish to maintain a balanced view of linguistics should not overlook the fact that traditional grammar has many useful virtues. The traditional handbooks provided an array of terms and distinctions which most of us used in learning to talk about our own language, and which many people continue to find serviceable throughout their lives” <br /> Allen and Widdowson<br />
  5. 5. Structural Linguistics<br />Was founded in 1930th<br />By Leonardo Bloomfield<br />
  6. 6. Structural Linguistics<br /> Peculiarities:<br /> 1. The grammar of the language is described in terms of syntagmatic structures which carry the fundamental propositions( statement, interrogative, negative, imperative) and notions ( time, number, gender). By varying words within these structural frameworks, sentences with different meaning can be generated. <br /> 2. With the help of the structural linguistic the structural syllabus was created. In such syllabus , items are graded so that simpler and more immediately useable structures precede the more complex ones.<br /> Example: ESP syllabus based on structural principals<br /> 1. Simple present active<br /> 2. Simple present passive<br /> 3. Simple present passive and active<br /> 4. -ing forms<br /> 5. Present Perfect; Present Continuous<br /> 6. Infinitives<br /> 7. Anomalous Finites<br /> 8. Past Perfect<br />
  7. 7. Transformational Generative (TG) grammar<br />1. John is easy to please.<br /> John is eager to please.<br />The City Bank has taken over Acme Holdings.<br /> Acme Holdings has been taken over by the City Bank.<br />
  8. 8. In the language there must be two levels of meaning:<br />A deep level<br />A surface level<br />
  9. 9. Language can be looked at from the point of view:<br />Of form<br />Of function<br />Why does language exist?<br /> People do things with it:<br /><ul><li>they give information
  10. 10. they promise
  11. 11. they threaten
  12. 12. they make excuses
  13. 13. they seek information
  14. 14. they identify
  15. 15. they classify
  16. 16. they report</li></li></ul><li>Communicative competence consists of:<br /><ul><li>A set of rules for formulating grammatically correct sentences
  17. 17. A knowledge of when to speak, when not, what to talk about, with whom, when where, in what manner</li></ul>The ingredients of communication:<br /><ul><li>non-verbal communication
  18. 18. the medium and channel of communication
  19. 19. role relationships between participants
  20. 20. the topic and purpose of communication</li></li></ul><li>Text AText B<br />Now I have to change to the final size drill I require, which is three-quarters of an inch diameter, and this is called a morse-taper sleeve.<br />A slower speed for a larger drill.<br />Nice even feed should give a reasonable finish to the hole.<br />Applying coolant periodically. This is mainly for lubrication rather than cooling.<br />Almost to depth now.<br />Right. Withdrawing the drill.<br />That`s fine.<br />Select required drill.<br />Mount drill in tailstock. Use taper sleeves as necessary.<br />Set speed and start machine spindle.<br />Position tailstock to workpiece.<br />Apply firm even pressure to tailstock hand wheel to feed drill into workpiece.<br />Apply coolant frequently.<br />Drill hole to depth.<br />Withdraw drill.<br />Stop machine.<br />
  21. 21. The Type of ESP<br />Register Analysis<br />The Concept of Language Variation<br />
  22. 22. Functional/Notional Grammar<br />Functions<br />Notions<br />Concerned with social behaviour <br />and represent the intention of the speaker or writer.<br />Reflect the way in which the<br />other man thinks<br />
  23. 23. The Functional View of Language<br /><ul><li> have an influence on language teaching in the 1970s
  24. 24. to establish some kind of equivalence in </li></ul>the syllabuses for learning various languages.<br /><ul><li> difficult to divide up the learning tasks into units of equivalent value across the various languages on the basis of formal grammar.</li></li></ul><li>The student of German<br />The learner of English<br />The spelling, the simple/continious tense distinction or the countable/uncountable distinction.<br />The gender/case endings of articles,<br />nouns and adjectives.<br />
  25. 25. Discourse (Rhetorical) analysis<br />Dialogues <br />example: “It is raining”<br />Can I go out to play? It’s raining.<br />Have you cut the grass yet? It’s raining.<br />I think I’ll go out for a walk. It’s raining.<br />
  26. 26. Discourse Analysis<br />2 key ways:<br /> Establishing contact<br /> Finding out what the person wants<br /> Giving information<br /> Arguing the point<br /> Taking down details in writing <br /> Conclusion and thanks<br />
  27. 27. Text-diagramming type of exercise<br />Example: Generalizing and Exemplifying<br />
  28. 28. Complete the following table to summarize the paragraph<br />properties<br />When suitable<br />Materials are available…<br />…against the material properties<br />Figure 8: Text-diagramming<br />
  29. 29. The approach establishes patterns, but does not account for how these patterns create meaning<br />
  30. 30. 3 lessons which must be borne in mind: <br />A) The various developments are not separate entities;<br />B) Describing a language for the purposes of linguistic analysis does not necessarily carry any implications for language learning;<br />C) Describing a language we must make a distinction between what a person does (performance) and what enables them to do (competence)<br />

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