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Presented By: Laraib
(15061701-005)
M.Phil 1st semester
(Evening)
Presented To: Dr Bashir Gondal
Internal versus external
examination
 Internal examination: meaning,
nature, merits and demerits
 External examination: ...
INTRODUCTION
 The process of educating and examining the
growing human child is as old as man himself.
Only its form and ...
INTRODUCTION
 For purposes of appraisal usually two terms are used,
namely; examination and evaluation. The term
examinat...
Concept of Examination
 Be sure we shall test you with something of fear
and hunger, some loss in goods or lives or fruit...
Examination
 Examination is a measuring instrument intended to verify both a
candidates’ value and value of teaching he h...
Examination
Page and Thomas (1978) explain the concept of
examination as
“(1) Assessment of ability, achievement or presen...
VIEWS OF NATIONAL EXPERTS
ABOUT EXAMINATION
 Examination system has been one of the burning
issues with the large number ...
Schedule of Examination
 All Boards, by regulation should fix the dates of
their respective examination and announce them...
Conduct of Examination
 Supervisory staff should be carefully selected in
consultation with or on the recommendation of t...
Conduct of Examination
 Examination agencies should compensate the
supervisory staff for any damages they might suffer in...
Conduct of Examination
 Examination should be held during holidays from the
2nd week of March to 2nd week of April every ...
Internal Examination / External
Examination
 To make the completion of the main secondary school
courses, examination sho...
Internal Examination / External
Examination
 The teacher on the notice board as well as in the
pupils, progress report, s...
Disadvantages of Internal
Assessment
 The teachers within the school may give hints to
students about internal assessment...
Internal Examination / External
Examination
 The sessional or internal evaluation marks should
not be taken into account ...
Process of External Assessment
Conduct
 Selection of paper setters and reviewers.
 Setting and moderation of question pa...
Process of External Assessment
Conduct
 Posting of police personnel at the centers.
 Packing of answer scripts and sendi...
Importance & Objectives of
External Assessment
 To award the students with Degree/Certificate
 To maintain standard of e...
Advantages of External
Assessment
 External assessment helps in developing competent
person from practicing.
 It justifi...
Advantages of External
Assessment
 A team of experienced assessors leads you through
the structured review of how well st...
Disadvantages of External
Assessment
 Much narrower range of assessment opportunities:
less diverse assessment; one exam ...
Disadvantages of External
Assessment
 The only feedback is usually a grade at the end of the
course; no opportunities for...
Suggestions for Improvement of
external assessment
 Comprehensive Evaluation
 Employees of examining bodies to be contro...
Suggestions for Improvement of
external assessment
 Marking of Answer Scripts
 Ban on helping books and guess papers
 A...
Establishment of Bureau of
Examination
 All Pakistan Commission be appointed to survey
the prevailing practices of examin...
Evaluation of the examination
system
1.The credibility of examination results has been
grossly eroded due to large scale, ...
Evaluation of the examination system
5. The type of question papers develop unhealthy
practices such as proliferation of g...
SOLO TAXONOMY AND
EXAMINATIONS
To achieve the better quality of examinations, SOLO Taxonomy
is being used in various count...
Punjab Education Commission
The Government of the Punjab has established Punjab Education
Commission so that they may impr...
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internal and external examination system in pakistan

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internal and external examination system in pakistan

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internal and external examination system in pakistan

  1. 1. Presented By: Laraib (15061701-005) M.Phil 1st semester (Evening) Presented To: Dr Bashir Gondal
  2. 2. Internal versus external examination  Internal examination: meaning, nature, merits and demerits  External examination: meaning, nature, merits and demerits  State of the in Pakistan and some other selected countries
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  The process of educating and examining the growing human child is as old as man himself. Only its form and method have changed from time to time, the primitive man was taught by example and tested through confrontation with the actual life situations. In the early civilized societies formal instruction was limited to a gifted and selected few: The sage, the philosopher and the religious preceptor taught and tested orally by questioning the disciple.
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION  For purposes of appraisal usually two terms are used, namely; examination and evaluation. The term examination aims at ensuring that the matter learnt is adequately fixed and properly recalled. This is a narrow significance and usually relates to class room situations in which emphasis is laid on the learning of a few facts and skills. But the term evaluation has a wider connotation.  It relates to finding out the mental, moral and social changes that have come about in the personality pattern of a student and are directly affecting his behavior. Evaluation has a direct reference to the goals of education and therefore, must take into consideration broader implications which have
  5. 5. Concept of Examination  Be sure we shall test you with something of fear and hunger, some loss in goods or lives or fruits (of you toil). But give glad tidings to those who patiently persevere (Al-Quran.ii:155).
  6. 6. Examination  Examination is a measuring instrument intended to verify both a candidates’ value and value of teaching he has received.  It is an indicator of the training given and received. It is to measure what has been accomplished during the period of study to weigh each candidate’s sum of knowledge and appraise his ability.  It looks like target, incentive, motive or stimulant. “It provides motives for the teacher and a spur for the pupils. Examination conditions and orientates the entire teaching process” (UNESCO 1961)  The aim of our examination system is to judge the achievement of students in different areas such as personality development, creative thinking, and love for Islamic values examinations are the only tools for measuring these aspects.  Examinations are frequently employed in order to keep the students constantly stimulated to high level of achievement. Examination system may be internal or external. The success of which depends on the reliability and the validity of the system.
  7. 7. Examination Page and Thomas (1978) explain the concept of examination as “(1) Assessment of ability, achievement or present performance in a subject (2) instrument of assessment can be log essay or mixed form of assessment may be used for qualifying for entrance to professions and higher education.”
  8. 8. VIEWS OF NATIONAL EXPERTS ABOUT EXAMINATION  Examination system has been one of the burning issues with the large number of Committees, Commissions and Conferences. The recommendations of these were reviewed under the following headings to suggest ways and means to improve the system of examination.
  9. 9. Schedule of Examination  All Boards, by regulation should fix the dates of their respective examination and announce them soon after the commencement of the new academic year. In the case of natural calamities and other extraordinary circumstances, special examination be held for them in prevented from taking regular examination (Govt. of Pakistan, 1966, 1978).  The grouping of subject in the date sheets should be so revised as to reduce the number of examination days (Govt. of Pakistan, 1973).
  10. 10. Conduct of Examination  Supervisory staff should be carefully selected in consultation with or on the recommendation of the employing agencies (Govt. of West Pakistan, 1969. Govt. of Pakistan, 1973)  Only these centers, where necessary facilities are provided should be approved the Board for holding examination (Govt. of West Pakistan, 1969, Govt. of Pakistan, 1971).  Heads of institutions where examination centers are located should be the principal supervisors of the centers. They may be allowed recruit invigilation staff from amongst trusted teachers and should be solely responsible for proper conduct of examination (Govt. of Pakistan, 1971, 1978).  To ensure effective invigilation, the number of invigilators should be increased to maintain a ratio of 1:20 (Govt. of Pakistan, 1971).
  11. 11. Conduct of Examination  Examination agencies should compensate the supervisory staff for any damages they might suffer in performing their examination duties. In view of the personal danger to invigilators in the honest discharge of their function, the Board should consider framing rules, which would enable them to take action on the basis of confidential reports from invigilators (Govt. of Pakistan, 1971).  Action should be prescribed against persons who create disturbance in or outside the examination hall (Govt. of Pakistan, 1971).  Instead of paying D.A. to the supervisory staff, the rate of their remuneration be increased by 50% and they should be paid only T.A (Govt. of Pakistan, 1971).
  12. 12. Conduct of Examination  Examination should be held during holidays from the 2nd week of March to 2nd week of April every year (Govt. of Pakistan, 1978).  Cases of unfair means should be dealt with seriously. If any teacher is found to be assisting in the use of unfair means, he should be proceeded against for removal from services and declared unqualified to act as a teacher in any institution (Govt. of West Pakistan, 1969)  The conduct of examination at centers where conditions for holding examinations are not conducive may be entrusted to a senior administrative officer who should be given adequate authority and power to deal with the situation properly (Govt. of Pakistan, 1971, 1988).
  13. 13. Internal Examination / External Examination  To make the completion of the main secondary school courses, examination should be conducted by teachers themselves who know the pupils and conditions of work Certificates should be issued under the authority of the school. These schools should give a full and comprehensive picture of pupils’ achievements in various phases of school life (Govt. of Pakistan, 1959).  The system of examination should be reorganized and the award of certificates be bases on the performance of the students in the public examination conducted by the Universities/ Board of Secondary Education (seventy five percent of the total marks) and school records, including the results of periodic test and also appraisal of his habits and general behavior (twenty five percent) (Govt. of Pakistan,
  14. 14. Internal Examination / External Examination  The teacher on the notice board as well as in the pupils, progress report, should record result of periodic tests in the school (Govt. of Pakistan, 1959).  The importance of public examination at the secondary stage should reduce. But to abolish these examinations at the secondary stage of our educational history will not serve the purpose (Govt. of West Pakistan, 1969).  Boards’ of secondary education may consider the desirability of permitting some selected school to hold their own examination and these be recognized of corticated issued by the Boards (Govt. of Pakistan, 1971).
  15. 15. Disadvantages of Internal Assessment  The teachers within the school may give hints to students about internal assessment so it is not learners are not challenged by the internal assessments. Learners need to be challenged by the assessments.... but as for external assessments students are expected to know everything because there is no hint..it requires students to compete...
  16. 16. Internal Examination / External Examination  The sessional or internal evaluation marks should not be taken into account in a public examination (Govt. of Pakistan, 1966).  The Secondary School Certificate and Higher Secondary School Certificate Examination should be combination of internal evaluation and public examination. The scores obtained in both should be recorded side by side on the certificate (Govt. of Pakistan, 1971).
  17. 17. Process of External Assessment Conduct  Selection of paper setters and reviewers.  Setting and moderation of question papers.  Printing and packing of question papers confidential nature of printing work.  Selection of examination centers  Appointment of superintendents and invigilators and staff for the fair conduct of examination at centers.  Supply of stationary to centers.  Distribution of question papers to examinees under the supervision of the centre superintendent.
  18. 18. Process of External Assessment Conduct  Posting of police personnel at the centers.  Packing of answer scripts and sending them to Board’s office or examining body’s office.  Deployment of special squads for checking unfair means.  Assignment of fake of fictitious or secret roll numbers to answer books at the Board’s office.  On the spot evaluation at some specified centers where head examiner and examiners mark the scripts.
  19. 19. Importance & Objectives of External Assessment  To award the students with Degree/Certificate  To maintain standard of education  To place the students in merit.  For Comparison of student’s abilities  To evaluate the progress of Institution  Selection for Higher education  To get employment  Popularity/Standard of educational institution.  Selection of intelligent students.  Evaluation of teacher’s performance  Evaluation of objectives and curriculum.  Creation of good habits in students  Satisfaction and happiness of parents
  20. 20. Advantages of External Assessment  External assessment helps in developing competent person from practicing.  It justifies the decision as to whether they should move up to the next class or be awarded a degree or diploma.  External assessment is useful in determining the abilities of a student before developing a plan.  External assessment is designed to detect and locate faults and problems which often are overseen by internal systems  The vital advantage of an external assessment is that it makes easier to compare diverse situation and conditions and articulate their judgments about the equality of measures.  It also assists in following positive values.
  21. 21. Advantages of External Assessment  A team of experienced assessors leads you through the structured review of how well students are doing, bringing fresh perspective and objectivity to the exercise.  Performance in educational institutes is increasingly judged on the basis of effective learning outcomes.  External assessment provides Information which is critical to know whether the School system is delivering good performance and to providing feedback for improvement in student outcomes.  External assessment is the best way to evaluate and revaluate the course of studies.  It can be used as a good device for motivating students.  It brings about a change in the attitude, interests and appreciation of students and teachers towards school programmes.
  22. 22. Disadvantages of External Assessment  Much narrower range of assessment opportunities: less diverse assessment; one exam per year.  Removes assessment entirely from teaching and learning; stressful conditions may lead to students not demonstrating real capacities.  Limits validity by limiting scope of assessment, e.g. difficult to assess interaction skills in exam environment.  Even with double marking, examiner’s judgments can be affected by various factors (task difficulty, topic, interest level, tiredness, etc); little opportunity for assessor reflection / review.  Fairness can only be achieved by treating everyone the same, i.e. setting the same task at the same time
  23. 23. Disadvantages of External Assessment  The only feedback is usually a grade at the end of the course; no opportunities for interaction with assessor; no chance to ask how to improve.  Examination is purely summative, and does not serve any teaching-related purpose; effects on teaching and learning may even be negative; may encourage teaching to the test and a focus on exam technique, rather than outcomes.  Teachers play little to no role in assessment of their students and have no opportunity to share their expertise or knowledge of their students; students treated as numbers.  Teachers have no opportunity to build their assessment skills; get little or no feedback on how to improve as teachers.
  24. 24. Suggestions for Improvement of external assessment  Comprehensive Evaluation  Employees of examining bodies to be controlled  Invigilating staff  Secrecy sections should be fool proof  Appointment of Examiners  Change in examination point of view, It should not be objective, It should be mean to achieve objectives  Reform in question papers
  25. 25. Suggestions for Improvement of external assessment  Marking of Answer Scripts  Ban on helping books and guess papers  Amalgamation of Internal and External exam  Oral test should be taken  Amalgamation of subjective and objective type test  Record of students  Question paper should be based on curriculum rather than text book
  26. 26. Establishment of Bureau of Examination  All Pakistan Commission be appointed to survey the prevailing practices of examinations at various levels and its recommendations should be implemented. The Central Govt. set up the Bureau of Examination. This Bureau should have a branch in each province (Govt. of West Pakistan, 1969, Govt. of Pakistan, 1975).
  27. 27. Evaluation of the examination system 1.The credibility of examination results has been grossly eroded due to large scale, unhampered cheating. 2. The basic purpose of most students to pass the examination is to obtain high marks by fair or foul means. 3. The current system defeats basic targets of education which are acquisition of understanding and application of knowledge. 4. The pattern of question papers with wide range of choice encourages and facilitates selective study and rote reading rather than understanding and application.
  28. 28. Evaluation of the examination system 5. The type of question papers develop unhealthy practices such as proliferation of guide books, made easies, guess papers and tuition work. 6. Malpractices, cheating and even terrorization can be indulged in without adequate accountability. 7. There is little protection provided to the personnel concerned with various stages of examinations.
  29. 29. SOLO TAXONOMY AND EXAMINATIONS To achieve the better quality of examinations, SOLO Taxonomy is being used in various countries. In Australia, it is successful Characteristics of SOLO Taxonomy SOLO TAXONOMY discourages rote learned response. In SOLO, in every new task the student has to progress through each level. SOLO assists in identifying steps towards understanding of learning objects. It facilitates marking of open ended questions and provides advice on instructional activity for the students and classes. It provides a framework for constructing scope and sequence of curriculum. It provides a framework for establishing content validity for tests and examinations. In SOLO, the analysis can clearly describe the competencies of
  30. 30. Punjab Education Commission The Government of the Punjab has established Punjab Education Commission so that they may improve the examination process at elementary level. The objectives of the whole process for improving the examination system are as under: Improvement in teaching and learning with respect to each of the examination subject Making clear that at different class level, the students have grasped a comprehension of the concepts Monitoring the efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery. Facilitating the bench marking of students’ achievement Monitoring equity of student outcomes with reference to rural/urban and male/females Evaluating the existing curricula and textbooks Monitoring the whole education programme Providing information regarding the selection of the students to proceed to the next class Providing ability to monitor students’ progress over time Facilitating judgments about the quality of examination papers and examination process (UNICEF, 2005a).

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