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Unit 6. The hydrosphere


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Unit 6. 1º ESO. The hydrosphere

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Unit 6. The hydrosphere

  2. 2. THE HYDROSPHERE The hydrosphere is all the water on the surface of the Earth. Water is made up of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen. (H2O) More than 70% of the planet is covered by water. 97% is salt water and 3% is fresh water. Water is distrubuted in:  Oceans  Continental waters: Lakes, rivers, groundwater.  Glaciers and ice caps  Clouds
  3. 3. THE WATER CYCLEThere are three stages: Water becomes part of the atmosphere:  Evaporation: The sun heats and evaporates the water in rivers, lakes and oceans.  Transpiration: Animals and plants release water vapour into the atmosphere. Water returns to the surface of the Earth:  Condensation: Water vapour cools down and condenses, forming clouds.  Precipitation: Water falls to the surface of the Earth. Water circulates throughout the surface of the Earth:  Surface run-off: Water moves along the slopes of mountains.  Infiltration: The rain water filters into the ground, forming aquiferous.
  4. 4. ACTIVITIES1.Answer the questions:a)How much of earth’s surface is covered by water?b)What is the name of the water in a solid form?c)What causes evaporation?2. Choose the correct answer:a) Evaporation/Transpiration occurs when plants lose water from their leaves.b) Salt water/Fresh water is more abundant on Earth.c)Rain and hail are different types of precipitation/condensation.
  5. 5. 3. Tick (√) the correct state of water: Solid Liquid Gas A river An iceberg A glacier A cloud A lake4. In what state do we find the largest quantity of fresh water on Earth?5.List the different types of continental waters.
  6. 6. 6.Complete using the water cycle:a) The sun heats the water:________b) Water falls to the surface of the Earth:_________c) Water moves along the slopes of mountains:________d) The rain water filters into the ground, forming aquiferous:________e) Water vapour cools down and condenses:________f) Animals and plants release water vapour:___________
  7. 7. WATER IS A UNIQUE COMPOUND Special properties of water:  Water is a good solvent.  Water absorbs and accumulates heat.  Anomalous dilation: ice density is lower than water density. Physical properties of water Fusion 0ºC temperature Boiling point 100ºC
  8. 8. THE IMPACT ON WATER Pollution of water:  Sewage  Plastics, batteries, oil, etc. Other impacts:  Overexploitation of groundwaters.  The building of dams for storing water.
  9. 9. SAVE WATER! Have a shower instead of a bath. Turn off the tap when brushing our teeth. Turn off the tap when washing our hands. Only use the dishwasher or washing machine when they are full. Water plants at night so that water is not evaporated. Repair water leaks.
  10. 10. ACTIVITIES7. What are the main properties of water?8. What is the the percentage of fresh water on Earth?9.True or false?a)Water can’t dissolve substances.b)Water freezes at -4ºCc)Most of the water on Earth is underground.10. What impacts affect water?