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Unit 5: Invertebrates

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1º ESO. Unit 5: Invertebrates

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Unit 5: Invertebrates

  1. 1. UNIT 5: INVERTEBRATES
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>1. To study the general characteristics of animals. </li></ul><ul><li>2. To learn the general characteristics of invertebrates. </li></ul><ul><li>3. To learn the main groups of invertebrates. </li></ul><ul><li>4. To identify the characteristics which differentiate one group from another. </li></ul>
  3. 3. THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF ANIMALS <ul><li>Animals are the most complex living things. </li></ul><ul><li>They usually have organs and systems. </li></ul><ul><li>They can perform the three vital functions. (Nutrition, interaction and reproduction) </li></ul><ul><li>They can move and interact with other living things. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal reproduction can be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asexual: Budding and fragmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They can be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viviparous animals: develop the embryo inside the mother’s body. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oviparous animals : lay eggs outside the body. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovoviviparous animals: develop within eggs that remain inside the mother’s body. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Are they viviparous, oviparous or ovoviparous? </li></ul>
  5. 5. CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS <ul><li>Two groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebrates: which have an internal skeleton with a backbone. </li></ul><ul><li>Invertebrates: which don’t have an internal skeleton. </li></ul>
  6. 6. INVERTEBRATES
  7. 7. VERTEBRATES
  8. 8. 1. PORIFERA <ul><li>Sponges are aquatic animals. Most of them are marine. </li></ul><ul><li>They live attached to sand or rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>The body is perforated by pores and supported by small needles called spicules . </li></ul><ul><li>They have an internal cavity with an upper hole called osculum . </li></ul><ul><li>They are filtering animals . They feed filtering water and retaining food particles. </li></ul><ul><li>They can reproduce sexually or asexually (fragmentation o budding). </li></ul>
  9. 9. WATER CIRCULATION IN A SPONGE.
  10. 10. <ul><li>Cnidaria are aquatic animals. Most of them are marine. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Corals, jellyfish, sea anemones, hydra . </li></ul><ul><li>Cnidaria have two body forms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swimming medusae: An umbrella shape floating freely. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sessile polyps: a bag shape fixed to the ground. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They have a mouth with tentacles with stinging cells called cnidocytes and a gastrovascular cavity. </li></ul><ul><li>They can reproduce sexually or asexually (budding) </li></ul><ul><li>Cnidaria are carnivores </li></ul><ul><li>and catch their prey. </li></ul>2. CNIDARIA
  11. 11. ACTIVITIES <ul><li>1.True or false? </li></ul><ul><li>a)Asexual reproduction happens through internal fecundation. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Budding is a kind of asexual reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>c) In viviparous animals the embryo develops inside the mother’s body. </li></ul><ul><li>d) In oviparous animals the egg develops inside the mother’s body. </li></ul><ul><li>2.What is the main difference between vertebrates and invertebrates? </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>3.Explain how porifera and cnidaria feed. </li></ul><ul><li>4.Copy and complete the following sentences in your notebook. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Polyps have the shape of a ………… </li></ul><ul><li>b)Medusae have the shape of an ………….. </li></ul><ul><li>5. True or false? </li></ul><ul><li>a) Porifera live freely, floating on sea water. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Porifera can reproduce sexually or asexually. </li></ul><ul><li>c) Corals are porifera with the shape of a polyp. </li></ul><ul><li>d) Cnidaria can reproduce sexually from eggs. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Worm includes animals with a soft, elongated body. </li></ul><ul><li>Three types: platyhelminthes, nematodes, annelids. </li></ul><ul><li>PLATYHELMINTHES: are flat worms. They live in wet environments or can be parasites. Ex: Planaria and Taenia . </li></ul><ul><li>NEMATODES: are cylindrical worms. They live in water, </li></ul><ul><li>wet soil or parasites. Ex: Hookworms. </li></ul><ul><li>ANNELIDS: are worms with segments. The body </li></ul><ul><li>is long and divided in rings. They live in wet soil or </li></ul><ul><li>water. They have specialised systems . </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: earthworms, leeches. </li></ul>3. WORMS
  14. 14. <ul><li>They are aquatic ( squids, mussels, clams ) and terrestrial animals ( snails, slugs ). </li></ul><ul><li>Organs highly developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of the body: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The head: contains the sense organs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The visceral mass: contains the internal organs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The muscular foot: to move around, excavate or catch the prey. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They breath through lungs (terrestrial) or gills (aquatic). </li></ul><ul><li>They reproduce sexually. </li></ul><ul><li>Main groups : Gastropods (snail, slugs), Bivalves (mussels, oysters, clams), Cephalopods (squid, octopus, cuttlefish, nautilus) </li></ul>4. MOLLUSCS
  15. 15. GASTROPODS BIVALVES CEPHALOPODS
  16. 16. ACTIVITIES <ul><li>1. What is the main characteristic of nematodes? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Copy and complete this sentence in your notebook. </li></ul><ul><li>Annelids’ bodies are…………. And divided into ………. or ……….. They live in ……… </li></ul><ul><li>3. What will happen if a earthworm lie in the sun? </li></ul><ul><li>4. What is the main characteristic of platyhelminthes? </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>5. Draw an snail, a mussel and an octopus. </li></ul><ul><li>6. List the main body parts of a mollusc. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Write two molluscs that breathe through gills and lungs. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>They are terrestrial (spiders) or aquatic animals (crabs). </li></ul><ul><li>The body is divided into segments. ( head, thorax, cephalotorax, abdomen ) </li></ul><ul><li>They have hard appendages (antennas, legs, palps) </li></ul><ul><li>The body is covered by a rigid and articulated exoskeleton. </li></ul><ul><li>They breathe by gills (aquatic) or by tracheas (terrestrials). </li></ul><ul><li>They reproduce sexually and some of them have complete or incomplete metamorphosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Classification: </li></ul><ul><li>Chelicerates (spiders, scorpions, mites) </li></ul><ul><li>Mandibulates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crustaceans (Crabs, shrimps, lobsters) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myriapods (Millipedes, centipedes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insects (grasshopper, butterfly, fly, wasp…) </li></ul></ul>5. ARTHROPODS
  19. 21. CHELICERATES MANDIBULATES CRUSTACEANS MYRIAPODS INSECTS
  20. 22. <ul><li>They are marine animals. </li></ul><ul><li>They have hard skeleton, generally with spines . </li></ul><ul><li>They have an ambulacral system to move around. </li></ul><ul><li>They reproduce sexually or by fragmentation like starfish. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumber, brittle star. </li></ul>6. ECHINODERMS
  21. 23. ACTIVITIES <ul><li>1. Make a list of 4 characteristics common to all arthropods. </li></ul><ul><li>2. What is metamorphosis? How many kinds of metamorphosis are there? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What is the main function of the exoskeleton? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Write down two examples of Chelicerates and four examples of Mandibulates. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Explain how Crustaceans breathe. </li></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>6. Which system is exclusive to echinoderms? What is it used for? </li></ul><ul><li>7.True or false? </li></ul><ul><li>a)The body of many echinoderms is covered by spines. </li></ul><ul><li>b)Ambulacral system is used for reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>c)Echinoderms can reproduce sexually through eggs. </li></ul><ul><li>8.State which group of invertebrates the following animals belong to: </li></ul><ul><li>a)Earthworms e)Jellyfish </li></ul><ul><li>b)Snail f)Mussel </li></ul><ul><li>c)Fly g)Sponge </li></ul><ul><li>d)Scorpion h)Starfish </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>9. Match each kind of invertebrate to its main characteristic. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Molluscs 1.They have an ambulacral system. </li></ul><ul><li>b)Arthropods 2.They have pores. </li></ul><ul><li>c)Porifera 3.They have exoskeleton. </li></ul><ul><li>d)Annelids 4.The mouth is sourronded by tentacles </li></ul><ul><li>e)Echinoderms 5.Its body is very long and divided into segments. </li></ul><ul><li>f)Cnidaria 6. Most of them have a shell. </li></ul><ul><li>10.Order the following animals from the most simple to the most complex: Fly, sponge, earthworm, mussel, jellyfish, taenia. </li></ul><ul><li>11. True or false? </li></ul><ul><li>a) Echinoderms have an internal shell. </li></ul><ul><li>b)All terrestrial arthropods breathe by lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>c)All invertebrates have an endoskeleton. </li></ul><ul><li>d)An annelid’s body is divided into rings. </li></ul>

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