Unit 3: Motion and movement


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Unit 3: Motion and movement. 2º ESO.

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Unit 3: Motion and movement

  2. 2. WHAT IS THEMOVEMENT? Movement is the change of position of an object in relation to a fixed point in space. In physics, motion is the change of location or position of an object with respect to time.
  3. 3. MOTION CHARACTERISTICS The main characteristics are the following ones: position, trajectory, distance travelled, displacement, time taken, speed and acceleration. Position is precisely where an object is located. Trajectory is the path that a moving object follows through space. It can be rectilinear, circular, parabolic etc . Ex: a ball thrown into a basket is parabolic or the hands of a watch is circular.
  4. 4.  The distance travelled is the length of the trajectory made by the moving object from the initial position to the final position. The displacement (D) is the distance, measured in straight line, between the initial position(Xi) and the final position (Xf). D=Xf-Xi
  5. 5.  Speed is the distance travelled per unit of time.  Average speed (Vm) is calculated dividing the distance travelled by the time spent. Vm= distance travelled time spent The unit used to measure the speed in the SI is metres per second. (m/s)
  6. 6. UNIFORM LINEAR MOTIONA body has a uniform linear motion if the trajectory is a straight line and the speed is constant. d= v x t time Distance Distance-time graph travelled speedSpeed-time graph
  7. 7. ACCELERATION If speed changes in a movement, it is an accelerated motion. Acceleration is how fast the speed of an object is changing. It is calculated dividing the variation of speed by the time spent at this variation. vfinal - vinitial a tfinal - tinitial The unit used in the SI is metres per square second (m/s2)
  8. 8. UNIFORMLY VARIEDMOTION The speed varies in a uniform way. Ex: A train starting off o stopping.
  9. 9. Motion can be what can change the speed of objects or can deform them, are the Uniform motion Change of position with respect to another one that we consider as fixed. Speed doesn’t change Trajectory Position Distance travelled Speed Acceleration can be The acceleration is It is equal to the defined as the ratio subtraction between between what theAccelerated motion two positions speed has changed Rectilinear and the time Circular It is the ratio between elapsed to occur Parabolic It is where the distance travelled that change Elliptical an object and the time elapsedSpeed changes Hyperbolic is located to do it Forces
  10. 10. ACTIVITY 1An athlete can run long distances at 4 metresper second. How far can she run in?c)50 secondse)3 minutesg)1 houri)2 hours and a half
  11. 11. ACTIVITY 2Andrew rows at an average speed of 2 metres persecond.a)How long does it take him to row: Speed Distance• 70 m Time• 800 m Distance Speed x Tim e• 1 km and a half Time Distanceb) How far can Andrew row in: Speed• 12 seconds• 3 minutes and a half• 4 hours
  12. 12. ACTIVITY 3 A snail moves 5 m in 2 hours. If it moves at the same speed all the time, calculate:a)The time it takes to move 20 mc) The distance it would move in 3 hours and a halfe)The time it takes to move 1 mg)The distance it moves in 15 minutes
  13. 13. ACTIVITY 4John can type 960 words in 20 minutes.Calculate his typing speed in:c)Words per minuted)Words per hour
  14. 14. ACTIVITY 5A car is at rest and accelerates with anacceleration of 5 m/s2 during 10 seconds, we cansay that: A. It has an average speed of 50 m/s. C. It travels a distance of 50 m. E. Its final speed is 50 m/s. G. It travels a distance of 2 m.
  15. 15. ACTIVITY 6The graph represents data of positions and times of themovement of an object. A. Is it an uniform motion or an accelerated motion? Justify your answer.s (m) B. The position of the object at 2 seconds from when the movement started. The position of the object at 6 seconds. C. Speed at the interval 2-6 seconds. D. The position of the object at 4 seconds from when the movement started. The position of the object at 10 seconds. E. Speed at the interval 4-10 t (s) seconds. F. How has the trajectory been?
  16. 16. ACTIVITY 7Given the following values tables, answer the following questions. Values table A Values table B s (m) t (s) s (m) t (s) A. Draw the graph s/t of each 2 0 0 0 movement. 4,5 1 2 1 C. Calculate the average speed in 7 2 5 2 the first five seconds for each 9,5 3 9 3 values table. 12 4 14 4 14,5 5 20 5 E. Calculate the average speed in 17 6 27 6 the time elapsed from the second five to the second ten 19,5 7 35 7 for each values table. 22 8 44 8 24,5 9 54 9 G. Indicate the type of movement 27 10 65 10 represented in each graph.