Unit 2: Matter and energy

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Unit 2: matter and energy. 2º ESO.

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Unit 2: Matter and energy

  1. 1. UNIT 2: MATTERAND ENERGY
  2. 2. ENERGY Energy is the capacity for doing work or to produce heat. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be transformed from one form into another. Types of material systems depending on the transference:  Open system: You are able to exchange matter and energy.  Closed system: You can exchange energy (as heat or work), but not matter.  Isolated system: You can’t exchange any of heat, work, or matter with the surroundings. Heat and work can produce transformations in matter.
  3. 3.  A body has:  Potential Energy: stored energy. Energy  Kinetic Energy: the energy of motion. Ex: A roller Energy coaster. Substances like wood, coal, oil, and gasoline have stored energy because of their chemistry they can burn.
  4. 4. FORMS OF ENERGY Mechanical  Electrical Thermal  Electromagnetic Chemical  Nuclear Internal Energy can be transferred, or converted, from one form to another!
  5. 5. MECHANICAL ENERGY Energy associated with the motion of an object. (Kinetic and potential energy)  Chewing  Frog Dancing
  6. 6. THERMAL ENERGY Total energy of the particles in a substance or material. All objects give off thermal energy Ice cream melting gains thermal energy
  7. 7. CHEMICAL ENERGYPotential energy stored in chemical bonds.  Food  Fire Cracker  Stomach  Battery
  8. 8. INTERNAL ENERGYIt is the total energy contained by a body, related to atoms, molecules etc.
  9. 9. ELECTRICAL ENERGY Moving electrical charges that produce electricity and energy.  Lightening  Batteries
  10. 10. ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY  Energy that travels in waves Visible light UV Rays Microwaves Radio
  11. 11. NUCLEAR POWER Energy stored in the nucleus of an atom from fission or fusion  Sun  Stars  Nuclear Power Plant
  12. 12. SOURCES OF ENERGY Renewable energy: It comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat. Non-renewable energy: resources which can’t be used again and again because they run out. Ex: Fossil fuels.
  13. 13. ACTIVITIES1.What happens during any change?2.Write an example of open, closed and isolated system.3.What type of material system (open, closed isolated) is a pressure cooker with food inside which is being heated: a) Before the security valve expels water vapour. b)When the security valve expels water vapour.4. What’s energy?5.Two bodies, A and B, are isolated from the environment. If body B gains 500 J of energy, what has happened to body A?
  14. 14. 6.Name the type of mechanical energy a body has when:a) It’s at rest on the top of a roof.b) It reaches the ground at a speed of 3 m/s.7.What’s a nonrenewable source of energy? And renewable? Give examples of both.8.In what units are heat and work measured?9.Fill in the blanks using these words: joules- transformed-energy-material system-destroyed- same._______is the capacity that a _______ has to produce changes. Energy is measured in______ In any energy transfer, the total amount of_______ before the transfer remains the__________ as the total amount of_______afterwards. Energy is not______or________, it’s just___________.

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