1. FISH Fish are aquatic vertebrates that can live in salt water and fresh water. They have fins. The body is covered by scales. They breathe through gills. They have swim bladder. It’s a sac of gas to stay afloat. TYPES OF FISH: Bony fish: They have a bony skeleton. Ex: Sardine, tuna, hake. Cartilaginous fish: They have a cartilaginous skeleton. Ex: Sharks, rays and manta rays.
ACTIVITIES1.Which structure use a fish to breathe?2.What is the main difference between cartilaginous fish and bony fish?3.What is the swim bladder?4. Find three more examples of bony fish.
2. AMPHIBIANS Amphibians are vertebrates capable of living in terrestrial and humid environments. They usually have four limbs. They often have webbed feet. They are ectotherms. They breathe through lungs, gills and skin.TYPES OF AMPHIBIANS: Anura: They don’t have a tail. Ex: Frog, toad. Urodela: They have a tail. Ex: Salamander, newt.
ACTIVITIES1. What are the types of respiration in amphibians?2. What is the main difference between a toad and a salamander?
3. REPTILES Reptiles are vertebrates animals which live on land, but some live in water. They always have a tail. They have four limbs. (except snakes) The skin is covered by scales. They breathe through lungs. They are ectotherms.TYPES OF REPTILES Turtles: They have caparace. Lizards: Ex: Iguanas, Chameleons Snakes: They don’t have legs. They are venemous. Crocodiles: They are the biggest reptiles.
ACTIVITIES1. Which group of reptiles is leggless?2.What reptile has a venemous bite?3. What group of reptiles has a caparace?4.What is the biggest living reptile?5. Find six examples os reptiles.
4. BIRDS Birds are flying vertebrates. They can live on the ground or on water. They have two limbs called wings. They have hollow and light bones. They have a corneus beak. The body is covered with feathers. The lungs have some extensions called air sacs. The air sacs help them to fly and breathe. They are endothermic.TYPES OF BIRDS Carinatae: They have keel and flying muscles. Ex: Gulls, goldfinches, falcons, sparrows, parrots, etc Ratites: They don’t have keel or flying muscles, and the wings are atrophied. Ex: Ostrich, cassowary, rhea, emu.
ACTIVITIES1. How can birds fly?2. What are air sacs? What are they used for?3.Find 3 more examples of carinatae and ratites.4. What are the main differences between ratites and carinatae?
5. MAMMALS They have four limbs adapted to fly,swim,run… The skin is covered by hair or fur. Most of them are viviparous. They are endothermal. They breathe through lungs. Females feed their babies through their mammary glands.TYPES OF MAMMALS Monotremes: They are oviparous. Ex: platypus, echidna. Marsupials: The babies develop inside the marsupium. Ex: kangaroo, koala bear. Placental mammals: The embryo develops in the mother’s uterus. Ex: cat, dog, human being.
ACTIVITIES1. What is the main characteristic of mammals that gives its name to the group?2. State the main differences between marsupial and placental mammals.3. Name the groups in which vertebrates are classified.4. Define endothermal and ectothermal.
5. Match each type of breathing with the animal:a) Through lungs 1.Eagleb) Through gills 2. Hakec)Through the skin 3. Wall lizard 4.Tuna 5. Tadpole 6.Dolphin 7. Toad6. Match each kind of vertebrate to its type of skin:1.Mammals a) skin covered with feathers2.Reptiles b) naked and wet skin3.Birds c)skin covered by thick scales4.Amphibians d) skin covered by thin scales5.Fish e)skin covered with hair
7. Complete the sentences with the following words:Feathers –wings- hair- fur- scalesa. Birds are the only animals that have _____________________. They all have__________________, but not all can fly.b. Why do human have body ___________________?c. A Polar bear has its body covered with __________________to keep it warm.d. Fish and reptiles have their body covered with_______________________.