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J1879 Robustness Validation Hand Book   A Joint SAE, ZVEI, JSAE, AEC Automotive Electronics   Robustness Validation   Plan The current qualification and verification methods do not provide statistical evidence that a device under test will meet customer demand of parts per million failure rates. The correlation between applied stress condition and lifetime under use condition is not established. The result of a qualification is qualitative, under the same requirements, it is possible to select the worst choice.  Analyzed returns from the field demonstrate that some tests are not detecting deficiencies during the qualification process.  In consequence, a more pragmatic validation approach must be introduced.   Robustness validation seeks to define the guard band between the outer limits of the specification and the component's actual performance.  Robustness is the degree to which a component or system is impervious or resistant to factors which can effect its function, performance or other identified attribute or quality characteristic. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Robustness Curve -  Sufficient Robustness  If the Area Of The Robustness Curve (blue ring in figure 1) lies outside the specification limits, the robustness of the component is sufficient. In general, the target is met if the robustness curve lies outside the specification limits. Robustness Curve – Insufficient Robustness  Strategies for improvement of insufficient robustness.   In case of insufficient robustness, improvement measures have to be defined and implemented during the development phase. Corrections for Unexpected Failures that are discovered after the development phase should be corrected and added to the knowledge base. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Knowledge Matrix  - A knowledge matrix is needed to capture the basic mechanisms behind each potential failure mechanism, the root cause(s) of each failure mechanism and the effects of  failure to the electronic component, product performance and application. The knowledge matrix is the database for generating a qualification plan based on the application profile and for generating the reliability performance numbers under use conditions. Mission Profile  - The mission profile determines, within a specific group of applications, the range of environmental, life time and manufacturing conditions to which the device is exposed during its life. This life time includes the whole supply chain (storage, shipping, processing, operating and non-operating). Based on the mission profile the potential risks to fail in the application together with the potential failure mechanisms can be defined. Robustness Assessment  - A robustness assessment has to be done separately for each failure mechanism. The overall component robustness can be estimated by the failure mode’s statistical data.  Trends and Challenges Robustness Validation Components Input Expected Outcomes Robustness Decision Qualification Process Flow Using Robustness Validation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Solutions for Improvement Robustness Diagram NO Quality Engineering requirements Improvement Robustness Sufficient? Production Robustness Assessment Review stress set up Design for Reliability Screening strategy Technology solution Application review Mission profile review YES Environment defined by mission profile Performance in the application spec Failure mechanism  Known potential failure mechanisms Unknown potential failure mechanisms Qualification plan Reliability tests, test conditions, duration & acceptance, test vehicle, Sample size / number of lots Stress tests according to quality plan Parameter change over time of stress Fail distribution Model used for extrapolation Compare data to requirements Compare delta to robustness target Intrinsic reliability monitoring Extrinsic reliability monitoring Frequency of monitoring/sample size Actions on deviations in monitoring results The robustness diagram is a way to demonstrate robustness validation results graphically. The figure above gives an example for two parameters, i.e., Temperature and Voltage. The guard band, or safety margin, between the limits of the specification and the component's actual performance determines the component’s robustness as indicated by the three robustness curves. Figure 1. Figure 2. Potential risk and failure mechanism Qualification setup Perform stress tests Reliability Characterization Monitor plan set up Parameter A Parameter B Specification Application II Application II  LEAST  ROBUST Failure  Mode C Failure  Mode B Failure   Mode  A Robustness Margin ROBUST VERY ROBUST

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