Reading 101 Phonics Rules -Digraphs and Trigraphs
Learning Objectives Master the rules governing the use of digraphs, trigraphs and quadgraphs in phonics. Pronounce accurately by being phonemically aware and phonetically knowledgeable.
Introduction• As you can recall, phonemes form the most basic sound in a word.• Some examples include:/b/ sound as in bonfire, black, bathtub, and balcony./f/ sound as in fossil, fail, frame, and fingerprint.Short /a/ sound as in at, taxi, anniversary, laboratory, and tackle.Short /i/ sound as in it, gift, inflate and spinach
Digraphs and Trigraphs• Just as a flower with 3 petals is no more or less than a flower with 2 petals, a single sound can be produced by more than a single letter.• Digraph – 2-letter sound. For example,ph or /f/ sound – phone and phonicskn or /n/ sound – know and knife• Trigraph – 3-letter sound. For example,igh or /i/ sound – light and plighttch or /ch/ sound– match and catch
Digraphs and Trigraphs• In digraphs, consonants join together to form a kind of consonant team, which makes a special sound.• Similarly for trigraphs, consonants join together to form a consonant team as well.• In the earlier examples, /p/ and /h/ combine to form /ph/, which makes /f/ sound as in phone.• If you are unaware that /ph/ is /f/, you will read it as /p/ + /h/ combined, which is clearly wrong!
Consonant Blend• When two or more consonants appear together and you hear each sound that each consonant would normally make, the consonant team is called a consonant blend.• In other words, the resultant sound is the combined sound of each consonant.
More Consonant Blends• /fr/ as in frog, frock, friend• /fl/ as in fleece, flee, floss• /cl/ as in class, clock, click, clown• /cr/ as in crab, crass, crest, watercress• /gl/ as in glad, glass, glee, glow• /gr/ as in grass, grab, great, graph
Application• To improve your vocabulary, you need your knowledge of phoneme (letter sounds), phonics (sound rules) and whole language (reading texts).• Difficult words come naturally to you if you have heard them (whole language), know their parts and analyse them (phonemes and phonics)1) charisma – /k/ + /air/ + /r/ + /e/ + /s/ + /m/ + /a/2) diaphragm - /d/ + /i/ + /er/ + /ph/ + /ragm/
Discussion• What do digraphs and trigraphs represent?• What are the use of digraphs and trigraphs in pronunciation?• When digraphs and trigraphs are read as each letter sound combined, what are they called?
Discussion (suggested answers)• What do digraphs and trigraphs represent?They represent 2-letter and 3-letter sounds.• What are the use of digraphs and trigraphs in pronunciation?They help us to identify the special or blended sound they produce.• When digraphs and trigraphs are read as each letter sound combined, what are they called?Consonant Blends
In Summary• We learn about phonemes as they help us in our spelling choice and reading.• Together with phonics (analyse sounds) and whole-language learning (reading texts), we become more proficient in spelling and reading.• Digraphs and Trigraphs introduce the idea of one sound represented by 2 and 3 letters respectively to help us read accurately when we see them.