Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social

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Presentation at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany, 2012-02-29

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Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social

  1. 1. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive Systems Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social Presentation at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf Christoph Lange University of Bremen, Germany 2012-02-29 Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 1
  2. 2. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive Systems‘Hello, World!’ 2011: Ph.D. from Jacobs University Bremen (with Michael Kohlhase) Enabling Collaboration on Semiformal Mathematical Knowledge by Semantic Web Integration from 2011: Postdoctoral researcher at the University of Bremen (with John Bateman, Till Mossakowski) Ontology Integration and Interoperability (OntoIOp) – Distributed Ontology Language (DOL) ↝ ISO 17347 Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 2
  3. 3. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive SystemsThe Semantic Web Visionvision of Berners-Lee, Hendler andLassila 2001: Machines understand the data on the Web . . . to assist users with knowledge-related tasks. low-profile artificial intelligence: Don’t try to automatically understand documents, . . . . . . but enable authors and applications to publish structured data. (Berners-Lee, Hendler andnow going mainstream Lassila 2001) Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 3
  4. 4. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive SystemsThe schema.org Search Vocabulary initiative of search engine operators (Bing, Google, etc.) annotation vocabulary for structuring web pages; covers . . . creative works organizations places events persons products Example (Movie description) Avatar Director: James Cameron (born August 16, 1954) Science fiction Trailer Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 4
  5. 5. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive SystemsThe schema.org Search Vocabulary initiative of search engine operators (Bing, Google, etc.) annotation vocabulary for structuring web pages; covers . . . creative works organizations places events persons products Example (Movie description) <div class="movie"> <h1>Avatar</h1> <div class="director"> Director: James Cameron (born August 16, 1954) </div> <span class="genre">Science fiction</span> <a href="../movies/avatar-theatrical-trailer.html" Trailer</a> </div> Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 4
  6. 6. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive SystemsThe schema.org Search Vocabulary initiative of search engine operators (Bing, Google, etc.) annotation vocabulary for structuring web pages; covers . . . creative works organizations places events persons products Example (Movie description) <div itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Movie"> <h1 itemprop="name">Avatar</h1> <div itemprop="director" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Person"> Director: <span itemprop="name">James Cameron</span> (born <span itemprop="birthDate">August 16, 1954</span>) </div> <span itemprop="genre">Science fiction</span> <a href="../movies/avatar-theatrical-trailer.html" itemprop="trailer">Trailer</a> </div> Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 4
  7. 7. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive SystemsThe schema.org Search Vocabulary initiative of search engine operators (Bing, Google, etc.) annotation vocabulary for structuring web pages; covers . . . creative works organizations places events persons products Example (Movie description) Movie Avatar Person e pe ty m na ty p e director name bi James Cameron ge rth nr Da e r te ile tra ../movies/. . . Science fiction August 16, 1954 Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 4
  8. 8. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive SystemsSocial Data with schema.org review or rating of a creative work, organization or product (written by a person) social network of a person: person follows/knows person person works for person, is colleague of person person has parents/siblings/spouse/children/other relatives Example (Reviews of a movie) ratingValue g atin 6 ewR revi author name Movie Pünktchen type ews revi type knows e revi Person nam ews type author Avatar name Anton revi ewR atin 8.5 g ratingValue Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 5
  9. 9. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive SystemsWhat Search Engines make out of schema.org Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 6
  10. 10. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive SystemsFacebook’s Open Graph Protocol Let people ‘like’ your website without maintaining a Facebook page 1 Annotate it with Open Graph metadata 2 Integrate your site into Facebook’s ‘social graph’<html xmlns:og="http://ogp.me/ns#" xmlns:fb="http://www.facebook.com/2008/fbml"> <meta property="og:image" content="http://www.malcolmcoles.co.uk/blog/..."/> <meta property="og:site_name" content="Malcolm Coles's blog"/> <meta property="fb:admins" content="522100824"/> <meta property="og:title" content="Malcolm Coles: SEO, Twitter and ..."/> <meta property="og:type" content="blog"/> <meta property="og:url" content="http://www.malcolmcoles.co.uk/blog/"/> <meta property="og:description" content="The blog of Malcolm Coles. ..."/> ... Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 7
  11. 11. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive SystemsScience is Social – Collaboration in Mathematics History of collaboration in the small: Hardy/Littlewood in the large: hundreds of mathematicians classifying the finite simple groups ‘industrialization’ of research Utilizing the Social Web research blogs: Baez, Gowers, Tao Polymath: collaborative proofs Collaboration = creation, formalization, organization, Polymath wiki/blog: P ≠ NP proof understanding, reuse, application Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 8
  12. 12. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive SystemsDiscourse in Mathematics Proofs and Refutations (Lakatos 1976): 1 initial theorem, initial proof sketch 2 problem in the proof identified (only covers a specific case); counter-example 3 rework proof, or even restate theorem Peer review (not just in mathematics) 1 read paper ‘What does this mean?’ (missing background knowledge, unfamiliar notation) ‘How does this work?’ ‘What is this good for?’ look up background information in cited publications 2 verify claims 3 point out problems with the paper and its formal concepts Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 9
  13. 13. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive SystemsAn Integrated Representation ofMathematical Knowledge and Discourse Theorem …… Example SIOC argumentation subClassOf module (partly shown) Position agrees_with/ agrees_with/ disagrees_with disagrees_with Domain-specific Math. Know- argumentation supported_by ledge Item classes (partly shown) subClassOf OMDoc ontology Ontology Decision Entity decides decides resolves_into Issue Idea proposes_solution_for subClassOf subClassOf Wrong Inappropriate Incomprehensible Provide Keep as Delete for Domain Example Bad Example (Lange, Hastrup and Corlosquet 2008) Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 10
  14. 14. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive SystemsProblem Solving in a Semantic Wiki 1 Is there an unresolved issue that is considered legitimate? 2 If solutions have been suggested, let the highest-ranked suggestion win.(Lange 2011) Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 11
  15. 15. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive SystemsProblem Solving in a Semantic Wiki(Lange 2011) Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 11
  16. 16. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive SystemsProblem Solving in a Semantic Wiki ↓(Lange 2011) Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 11
  17. 17. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive SystemsUsability Evaluation of the Wiki Prototype Is the system usable? learnable? effective? useful? satisfying to use? Can we effectively support maintenance workflows? Quick local fixing of minor errors (in text, formalization, or presentation) Peer review, and discussing about problems Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 12
  18. 18. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive SystemsFeedback Statements from Test Users positive statement successful 93 action 95 understood concept 36 18 not understood concept 18 unexpected bug negative 61 statement 43 dissatisfaction 52 44 51 confusion/uncertainty not understood expectation what to do not met Understanding only seems marginal, but had a high impact on successfully accomplishing tasks! (Lange 2011) Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 13
  19. 19. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive SystemsResults, Interpretation, and Consequences Particular results about argumentation model and user interface: generally successful: 1 associate new discussion post with the knowledge item in question 2 model covers most commonly used argumentation primitives 3 user interface informs about available primitives 4 effectively supports user in choosing the right one missed ‘question’ post type requested better documentation of available argumentation primitives and how to use them Conclusion Make the user interface semantically transparent (for learnability) Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 14
  20. 20. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive SystemsSelf-explaining Publicationsand Assistive Services (David, Kohlhase, Lange, Rabe, Zhiltsov and Zholudev 2010) Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 15
  21. 21. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive SystemsPlanetary: e-Math on the Web 3.0 Planetary: math-enabled social semantic web information portal (http://trac.mathweb.org/planetary/; Kohlhase, Corneli, David, Ginev, Jucovschi, Kohlhase, Lange, Matican, Mirea and Zholudev 2011, Elsevier Executable Paper Challenge finalist) based on Drupal 7 Content Management Systemcontributing legacymathematical knowledgecollections to the Web ofData PlanetMath encyclopedia arXiv.org pre-prints Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 16
  22. 22. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive SystemsSelf-explaining UIs with System Ontologies System ontologies in Planetary: structural ontologies, workflow ontologies, argumentation ontology Customizable in the environment (= mathematical documents) ‘The ontology is the API’ (needs rich ontology language, e.g. DOL) Self-explaining user interface via ontology documentation Theorem …… Example hasDiscussion ` SIOC forum1 definition argumentation subClassOf (IkeWiki ontology) module (partly shown) Position agrees_with/ agrees_with/ exemplifies disagrees_with disagrees_with post1: Issue Domain-specific Math. Know- (UnclearWh.Useful) example argumentation ledge Item classes (partly shown) supported_by has_reply elaborates_on subClassOf post2: Elaboration OMDoc ontology Ontology has_container agrees_with Decision Entity post3: Position resolvesInto decides decides proposes_ solution_for knowledge resolves_into post4: Idea items (ProvideExample) (OMDoc ontology) Issue Idea proposes_solution_for supports on wiki pages subClassOf subClassOf decides post5: Evaluation Wrong Inappropriate Incomprehensible Provide Keep as Delete agrees_with for Domain Example Bad Example post6: Position post7: Decision supported_by argumentative physical structure structure (SIOC Core) discussion page (SIOC Arg.) Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 17
  23. 23. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive SystemsReferences I Berners-Lee, Tim, James Hendler and Ora Lassila (2001). ‘The Semantic Web. A new form of Web content that is meaningful to computers will unleash a revolution of new possibilities’. In: Scientific American 284. David, Catalin, Michael Kohlhase, Christoph Lange, Florian Rabe, Nikita Zhiltsov and Vyacheslav Zholudev (2010). ‘Publishing Math Lecture Notes as Linked Data’. In: The Semantic Web: Research and Applications (Part II). 7th Extended Semantic Web Conference (ESWC) (Hersonissos, Crete, Greece, 30th May–3rd June 2010). Ed. by Lora Aroyo, Grigoris Antoniou, Eero Hyvönen, Annette ten Teije, Heiner Stuckenschmidt, Liliana Cabral and Tania Tudorache. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6089. Springer Verlag, pp. 370–375. arXiv:1004.3390v1 [cs.DL]. Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 18
  24. 24. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive SystemsReferences II Kohlhase, Michael, Joe Corneli, Catalin David, Deyan Ginev, Constantin Jucovschi, Andrea Kohlhase, Christoph Lange, Bogdan Matican, Stefan Mirea and Vyacheslav Zholudev (2011). ‘The Planetary System: Web 3.0 & Active Documents for STEM’. In: Procedia Computer Science 4: Special issue: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Science (ICCS). Ed. by Mitsuhisa Sato, Satoshi Matsuoka, Peter M. Sloot, G. Dick van Albada and Jack Dongarra. Finalist at the Executable Papers Challenge, pp. 598–607. doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2011.04.063. url: https://svn.mathweb.org/repos/planetary/doc/epc1 1/paper.pdf. Lakatos, Imre (1976). Proofs and Refutations. The Logic of Mathematical Discovery. Cambridge University Press. Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 19
  25. 25. Introduction Social Semantic Web Collaborative Problem Solving Self-explaining and Adaptive SystemsReferences III Lange, Christoph (2011). Enabling Collaboration on Semiformal Mathematical Knowledge by Semantic Web Integration. Studies on the Semantic Web 11. Heidelberg and Amsterdam: AKA Verlag and IOS Press. isbn: 978-1-60750-840-3. Lange, Christoph, Tuukka Hastrup and Stéphane Corlosquet (Oct. 2008). ‘Arguing on Issues with Mathematical Knowledge Items in a Semantic Wiki’. In: Wissens- und Erfahrungsmanagement LWA (Lernen, Wissensentdeckung und Adaptivität) Conference Proceedings. Ed. by Joachim Baumeister and Martin Atzmüller. Vol. 448. Christoph Lange Semantic Web Technology: The Key to Making Scientific Information Systems Social 2012-02-29 20

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