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  • OverviewOverview 10/01/11 Overview Prelim: Facilitator shakes hands with guests, does the “warm-up”, rules, logistics, describes BIG (what we do) Trainer: Introduce yourself and your background and how you got into green. Talk about the goal of “green” and our role in this “intro” class. Talk about expectations, goals of the course, what will be covered and what won’t, we’ll keep this simple Trainer asks for Introductions:
  • Overview Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Energy conservation versus energy efficiency. Conservation is turning off the light, efficiency is the light uses a little less energy when it is on. Stair step the process from conservation to efficient systems to finally power generation. Renewable energy will not make you use less energy, it will make it for you. It does not make a green home if it wastes water, is unhealthy and wastes materials.
  • Overview Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy First note on language, marketing etc. People call you in because of comfort. They don’t call you because of offgassing, they call you because they are sick, or cold, or hot etc. Speak to the driver, not your principles. Took this out of slide because it doesn’t speak to comfort: Polls have shown that over 70% of Americans want renewable energy Talk to people about service delivery not just energy efficiency Sell: comfort, health, durability
  • Overview Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Energy conservation versus energy efficiency. Conservation is turning off the light, efficiency is the light uses a little less energy when it is on. Stair step the process from conservation to efficient systems to finally power generation. Renewable energy will not make you use less energy, it will make it for you. It does not make a green home if it wastes water, is unhealthy and wastes materials.
  • Overview Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy High school physics lessons again? We are going to remind you what Mr. Helwig already taught you in high school. Important slide for test. Heat is energy. Heat is the total amount of energy possessed by the molecules in a piece of matter. This energy is both kinetic energy and potential energy. When heat, (i. e., energy), goes into a substance one of two things can happen: 1. The substance can experience a raise in temperature. That is, the heat can be used to speed up the molecules of the substance. Since Kelvin temperature is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of molecules in a substance, a factor increase in temperature causes an equal factor increase in the average kinetic energy of the molecules. And if the kinetic energy of the molecules increase, the speed of the molecules will increase, although these increases are not directly proportional. The kinetic energy of a body is proportional to the square of the speed of the body. 2. The substance can change state. For example, if the substance is ice, it can melt into water. Perhaps surprisingly, this change does not cause a raise in temperature. The moment before melting the average kinetic energy of the ice molecules is the same as the average kinetic energy of the water molecules a moment after melting. Although heat is absorbed by this change of state, the absorbed energy is not used to speed up the molecules. The energy is used to change the bonding between the molecules. Changing the manner in which the molecules bond to one another constitutes a change in potential energy. Heat comes in and there is an increase in the potential energy of the molecules. Their kinetic energy remains unchanged.
  • Overview Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reminder about test. Cold is the lack of heat. I am giving away heat, the cold is not coming in. You don’t hear your mom say, close the door you are letting in the cold, she says you are letting all the heat out and that is what is happening. All three at once shown on upcoming slide Understand that heat is energy, not temperature. Temperature is a number that is related to the average kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance. If temperature is measured in Kelvin degrees, then this number is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the molecules. Heat is a measurement of the total energy in a substance. That total energy is made up of not only of the kinetic energies of the molecules of the substance, but total energy is also made up of the potential energies of the molecules.
  • Overview Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Here are the three types of heat transfer in action all at once. You experience the release of heat as a byproduct of energy transformation yet heat is also being stored in materials (including you), so it is not all “wasted”. This one of the principles of passive solar design, which we will talk about.
  • Overview Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Per Marc: move slide??? Energy conservation versus energy efficiency. Conservation is turning off the light, efficiency is the light uses a little less energy when it is on. Stair step the process from conservation to efficient systems to finally power generation. Renewable energy will not make you use less energy, it will make it for you. It does not make a green home if it wastes water, is unhealthy and wastes materials.
  • Overview Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Energy conservation versus energy efficiency. Conservation is turning off the light, efficiency is the light uses a little less energy when it is on. Stair step the process from conservation to efficient systems to finally power generation. Renewable energy will not make you use less energy, it will make it for you. It does not make a green home if it wastes water, is unhealthy and wastes materials.
  • Overview Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy “ renewable”??? Vs. Solar Energy Systems Speaker notes: WHEN ALL IS SAID AND DONE, ONLY THEN DO WE LOOK AT RENEWABLES We are addressing this early as a part of the discussion on building science and energy, but don’t mistake that for the order in which we should address designing a building.
  • Overview Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Who is the average, it is not a person just a point on the continuum. Lots of this stuff is up to the user (occupant behavior) Vampire loads
  • Overview Make the comparison between energy and water like the body. (you can live 3 weeks without food (energy), but only 3-4 days without water). This goes for the larger picture as well. changing 1 traffic light from incandescent to LED saves 1.2 gallons a day at the power plantc (need to find where this stat came from) Nuclear power is just a steam engine. A huge steam engine. Sidebar: Notice that there are always power plants on a body of water. Overview
  • Overview Make the comparison between energy and water like the body. (you can live 3 weeks without food (energy), but only 3-4 days without water). This goes for the larger picture as well. changing 1 traffic light from incandescent to LED saves 1.2 gallons a day at the power plantc (need to find where this stat came from) Nuclear power is just a steam engine. A huge steam engine. Sidebar: Notice that there are always power plants on a body of water. Overview
  • Overview Resource Conservation Refer to the chart. Look at toilets. How clean does that water need to be? 14% leaks, give me a break. When you consider the double effect of water and energy on water. Powerful effect. From 1996-99, the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AWWARF) spearheaded a study to determine how North American households utilize water around the house and develop models to forecast future residential water demand. Some of the study's findings include: The North American households included in this study use approx. 146,000 gallons annually. Of this amount, 42% (61,300 gallons) is used indoors. The remaining 58% (84,700 gallons) is used outdoors. Hard copies of the AWWARF Residential End Uses of Water Study are available by calling 1-800-926-7337. Additional information on the End Uses study can be found on the AWWA’s Water Wiser Web site. For water conservation tips: America Water Works Associations - East Bay Municipal Utility District - California Urban Water Conservation Council - Metropolitan Water District of Southern California -
  • Overview Resource Conservation Quit misting our lawns, watk audience whatering sidewalks Get smart with more efficient heads, watering systems Ask audience, “whats wrong?” “how to correct?”
  • Overview Resource Conservation High efficiency washers use approximately 41 gallons per load (gpl) while high-efficiency machines use only 23 gpl (Mayer,, 2001 – www. A family of four would save more than 8,000 gallons of water per year by installing a high-efficiency clothes washer. These models also reduce energy consumption by using less hot water and because of higher spin speeds that reduce drying time (resulting in 40% energy reduction and 40% water reduction). New standards for clothes washers will be issued in 2007 and 2010 per the SFPUC. Most manufacturers offer high-efficiency dishwashers that use less water and less energy than standard models. A family that replaces a 12-gallon per load machine with a 6-gallon per load machine and runs their dishwasher 4 times per week will save about 1,250 gallons of water per year. Source: Replacing a 10-year old dishwasher with an ENERGY STAR labeled dishwasher can save you more than $30 a year in energy costs. To find Energy Star products: To find WaterSense products: 1” of rain on 100sf of roof, captures 60 gallons of water Greywater has been in code for decades and is officially in 2007 CPC. It is running every day of the year
  • Overview 1. Most of the earth's surface consists of water; there is much more water than there is land. 2. Water can not only be found on the surface, but also in the ground and in the air. 3. There is the same amount of water on earth as there was when the earth was formed. The water that came from your faucet could contain molecules that Neanderthals drank… 4. The overall amount of water on our planet has remained the same for two billion years. 5. There are two kinds of water; salt water and freshwater. Salt water contains great amounts of salt, whereas freshwater has a dissolved salt concentration of less than 1%. Only freshwater can be applied as drinking water. 6. Water consists of three atoms, 2 Hydrogen atoms and an Oxygen atom, that are bond together due to electrical charges. 7. The weight of a water molecule depends on the number of moles present, as it is 18 grams per mole. 8. Water moves around the earth in a water cycle. The water cycle has five parts: evaporation, condensation, precipitation, infiltration and surface run-off. 9. In a 100-year period, a water molecule spends 98 years in the ocean, 20 months as ice, about 2 weeks in lakes and rivers, and less than a week in the atmosphere. 10. Groundwater can take a human lifetime just to traverse a mile. 11. Most of the earth's surface water is permanently frozen or salty. 12. Water regulates the earth's temperature. 13. Water freezes at zero degrees Celcius. 14. Water vaporizes at a hundred degrees Celcius. 15. Water is the only substance that is found naturally on earth in three forms: liquid, gas, solid. 16. If water changes phase its physical appearance changes due to parting of water molecules. In the solid phase the water molecules are close together and in the gaseous phase they are the furthest apart. 17. Frozen water is 9% lighter than water, which is why ice floats on water. 18. A litre of water weighs 1.01 kilograms. 19. It doesn't take much salt to make water "salty." If one-thousandth (or more) of the weight of water is from salt, then the water is "saline." 20. Saline water can be desalinated for use as drinking water by going through a process to remove the salt from the water. 21. When water contains a lot of calcium and magnesium, it is called hard water. Hard water is not suited for all purposes water is normally used for. 22. To determine water quality certified agencies take samples that are tested in a laboratory. The samples are tested on various factors, to determine if they suffice water quality standards. 23. Each country has its own water quality standards that determine to which degree water should be purified, depending on the purpose it will be used for. About water quantities : 1. As oceans are very wide and there are multiple to be found on earth, oceans store most of the earth's water. This is apparently 97% of the total amount of water on earth, 2% of which is frozen. 2. 80% of the earth's water is surface water. The other 20% is either ground water or atmospheric water vapour. 3. Of all the water on earth, only 2,5% is fresh water. Fresh water is either groundwater (0,5%), or readily accessible water in lakes, streams, rivers, etc. (0,01%). 4. If all the world's water were fit into a gallon jug, the fresh water available for us to use would equal only about one tablespoon. 5. Over 90% of the world's supply of fresh water is located in Antarctica. 6. Less than 1% of the water supply on earth can be used as drinking water. 7. The earth's total amount of water has a volume of about 344 million cubic miles. · 315 million cubic miles is seawater. · 9 million cubic miles is groundwater in aquifers. · 7 million cubic miles is frozen in polar ice caps. · 53,000 cubic miles of water pass through the planet's lakes and streams. · 4,000 cubic miles of water is atmospheric moisture. · 3,400 cubic miles of water are locked within the bodies of living things. 8. Approximately 66% of the human body consists of water. Water exists within all our organs and it is transported throughout our body to assist physical functions. 9. The total amount of water in the body of an average adult is 37 litres. 10. Human brains are 75% water. Overview
  • Overview Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Quantifying the data What’s missing??? = People! We add a lot of moisture into our homes, more as the homes get tighter
  • Overview Indoor Air Quality Water runs down hill and most water and mold damage will be found at the bottom and horizontals of the building. Lack of capillary breaks can cause water to be wicked up into a building. A capillary break must be 3/8 of an inch. If the ambient air is cooler indoors then moisture will be drawn in from the outdoors. If the environment is hotter outdoors then moisture will also be drawn in. (Southern climates) In Northern climates, the indoor temperature is warmer and the moisture content is higher indoors so the movement of moisture will be from the indoors out rather than from the outdoors in. This will have an effect how the exterior of the buildings are designed. Lack of air exchange will have a negative effect on the drying of building materials if they get wet. Who’s minding the seams???
  • Overview Indoor Air Quality Water ponding over the sill plate and poor flashing at the joints. Lack of paint at the bottom edge of the siding causing wicking up of water on the sill plate and into the siding behind the paper into the plywood. Deterioration of the paper with mold growth and mold growth on the back of the interior gyp.
  • Overview Indoor Air Quality
  • Overview Indoor Air Quality Dissimilar metals caused corrosion of the hot water pipe. Hot water leak causing elevated moisture in the crawlspace condensing on wood surfaces with mold growth.
  • Overview Before we get going, “Are there any questions so far ABOUT THE BASICS OF BUILDING SCIENCE”. Overview
  • Overview Indoor Air Quality The last bullet quote is from an article in Scientific American according to DJ. I couldn’t find it in a search on their site Important Question to the Audience: How many people over 35 had friends with asthma or resp. problems? How many people have kids or have friends who have kids that have respiratory problems?
  • Overview Explain the difference and expansion of IEQ vs. IAQ
  • Overview Indoor Air Quality Speaker notes: As you become familiar with IAQ issues, you may begin to see culprits affecting IAQ that are not directly linked with the type of job contracted for. Consider acquainting the family with the bad chemicals they have in their building before you start a job. This may become the reason why you are selected as a contractor! (or the homeowner heard that you wouldn’t contaminate their house with chemicals!) Consider writing a list of potential pollutants that can be seen or smelled, and have them acknowledge them at the beginning.
  • Overview Indoor Air Quality Speaker notes: For a listing of products that have undergone rigorous testing in California, see the specification section 01350 at: These are primarily commercial products at this time, but carpet, natural linoleum, and paints are among the products tested. The site also lists products that passed the test. USE LESS!!!
  • Overview Indoor Air Quality Diluting the high concentrations, flush-out via natural or mechanical
  • Overview Indoor Air Quality Can ONLY filter particulates!!! Only high-tech can filter gases Careful adding filtration to HVAC systems, they add a lot of static pressure to the system (choking it) You can never just change one thing
  • Overview Indoor Air Quality Review Rules. Reduce, ventilate, and filter. These are the things we don’t want in our lungs, skin, bloodstream. They ruin our lungs, nervous system and brain functions. I know I don’t need any help in that realm. In US, we require that chemicals not be dangerous, In Europe they have to be “safe” If you can smell it, it probably has VOCs Masking, diluting, changing smell are all methods to conceal VOCs What is “low” what’s “high”??? LOW= 50 gpl (paint) 70 (adhesives) for list of building products/ VOC levels
  • Overview Indoor Air Quality How do we find out about it? Look at the labels! Why did they start regulating this stuff: To Reduce urban smog. Go to the charts, green building checklists or GOOGLE. Use them as a guide, not the end all be all source. Regulated by OSHA and produced to educate workers and emergency personnel about material ingredients and reactions. Smaller numbers typically mean they are better for IAQ South Coast Air Quality District (L.A.) “writes” the rules that everyone eventually adopts Trainers: know difference between TDS and MSDS “ I’m NOT going to buy your product because ____” is the most effective way to promote change in the manufacturers
  • Overview Indoor Air Quality There are literally hundreds of materials and plastics out there that use Vinyl Chloride as an ingredient. Plastic bags, rubber base, rubber boots, weatherstripping, inflatable mattresses, window blinds etc. Know what you’re buying and what’s in it
  • Overview Indoor Air Quality *Source for above slide information: U.S Environmental Protection Agency Speaker notes: #1 no cost IEQ solution is to remove your shoes! CALL DAVID ADAMSON AND TOM LENT TO FIND OUT BETTER LANGUAGE FOR THE SB LATEX SECTION TOM LENT TOO The styrene-butadiene latex that attaches the fiber to the backing is a known carcinogen. There are few carpets on the market that don’t use it. If you must use carpet, try to get your installer to lay it out flat in a warehouse for at least 30 days before installation. Or conversely, let the house off gas before the client moves back in. How much surface area is in carpet. Each fiber etc. lots of surface area. Shoes deposit everything into the carpet, acts as a matt, then your baby crawls around on it and you share those undershoe items with them. CRI TESTED: Acetaldehyde Benzene Caprolactam 2-Ethylhexanoic Acid Formaldehyde 1-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidinone Naphthalene Nonanal Octanal 4-Phenylcyclohexene Styrene Toluene Vinyl Acetate
  • Overview Bigger problem than most think Overview
  • Overview Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Car comparison: Explain You do not want to be in the top numbers, you want to be way down below. We will talk about carbon monoxide alarms and detectors . We don’t have the slide here on alarms because we are focusing on the problem, not the solution. We might want to mention it visually here as a key.
  • Overview Car comparison Exception product is from COexperts ( National Comfort Institute makes another good one. NSI 3000 Trainer: show previous slide and what these alarms “measure” (compare alarm types/brands) The better ones don’t meet the “standard” because they do MORE! Building the Home Part 2
  • Overview
  • Building science

    1. 1. The Science of Buildings: Energy, Water, Indoor Air Quality, and Materials Build It Green Presented by: Kevin Beck, Lead Trainer
    2. 2. © Build It Green 2010 What We Will Cover: <ul><li>The physical forces at work in a building </li></ul><ul><li>What is important about Energy use? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does Water affect everything? </li></ul><ul><li>What is healthy Indoor Air Quality? </li></ul><ul><li>What are Green Materials? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Energy = Comfort <ul><li>People don’t want energy; they want what energy provides and they don’t want to pay a lot for it: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot showers and cold beer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comfortable interiors (temperature, humidity, radiation, draft-free, light, no glare) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is our job to strike the balance between comfort and energy (form, amount, pattern) </li></ul><ul><li>If you deliver it cheaply, safely, and conveniently, they will use less </li></ul>© Build It Green 2010
    4. 4. Energy: The Keystone of Green Building <ul><li>Energy Basics </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Conservation (using less) </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Efficiency (using it well) </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable Energy (acquiring new energy) </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the differences between use (EC), efficiency (EE) and acquisition/creation (RE) </li></ul>© Build It Green 2010
    5. 5. 1. Energy Basics What are the rules? <ul><li>The laws of thermodynamics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st Law —Energy can neither be created nor destroyed (can only be changed from one form to another) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd Law —Whenever energy is changed it loses something in the process (called entropy) (i.e. “you can’t get even”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat is the typical result from entropy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat is the “waste” or “loss” of the energy exchange process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We measure this as the efficiency of the conversion (e.g. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a 92% AFUE furnace) </li></ul></ul></ul>© Build It Green 2010
    6. 6. How does it work? <ul><li>Heat always moves from higher concentration to lower concentration, from hot to cold (most things work in this same manner) Note: Cold is not cold, it is just the absence of heat. </li></ul><ul><li>This process typically takes place 3 ways in buildings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All three can occur at once or separately </li></ul>© Build It Green 2010
    7. 7. © Build It Green 2010 © Build It Green 2008 <ul><li>Heat transfer and you: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From high to low </li></ul>
    8. 8. 2. Energy Conservation <ul><li>Using Less: </li></ul><ul><li>Decreasing the energy used to operate a residence ( and provide good service) </li></ul><ul><li>This is accomplished via conscious design and construction, efficient equipment, and conscious operations </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, the overall kwh/therm input is the best final evaluation metric of a home or piece of equipment (how much does it ultimately use?) </li></ul>© Build It Green 2010
    9. 9. 3. Energy Efficiency <ul><li>Using It Well: </li></ul><ul><li>Using technology to decrease energy demand </li></ul><ul><li>If a piece of equipment is efficient, it will use less energy (conservation) compared to a similar inefficient piece of equipment </li></ul>© Build It Green 2010
    10. 10. 4. Renewable Energy © Build It Green 2010 <ul><li>Using technology to harness solar energy </li></ul><ul><li>Wind Power </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroelectric Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Hot Water Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Photovoltaic Systems </li></ul><ul><li>While all of these systems have value, they should be used in the right situation; after you’ve done your conservation and efficiency efforts to the maximum </li></ul>
    11. 11. Average CA Residential Energy Use © Build It Green 2010 (Source: CA Energy Commission) Electric Gas
    12. 12. Water and Energy Statistics <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Only 2.5% of the world’s water is fresh water </li></ul><ul><li>Only around 0.4% is available for use by people </li></ul><ul><li>Avg. water use per person is 70-100 gal/day NOT INCLUDING LANDSCAPING </li></ul><ul><li>40-60% of potable water is used in landscapes </li></ul>© Build It Green 2010
    13. 13. Water and Energy Statistics <ul><li>Water is Inextricably Linked with Energy and Materials </li></ul><ul><li>19% of CA electricity and 32% of CA natural gas is used for water pumping, cleaning, heating (so by saving water, you are saving energy!) </li></ul><ul><li>14% of home energy is used for heating water </li></ul><ul><li>Water is used in every power plant for boiling to make steam to run a turbine and for cooling that steam we just made and the machinery we just heated (So by saving energy, we are saving water!) </li></ul><ul><li>Water is used in virtually every industrial process for mixing with and cleaning materials (So by conserving resources you’re saving water!) </li></ul><ul><li>We can go a long time without energy, but very short time without water. We can create usable energy, but not water. </li></ul>© Build It Green 2010
    14. 14. © Build It Green 2010 The avg. U.S. household uses 350 gallons of water per day (inside) SOURCE: American Water Works Association Research Foundation – percentages are rounded Saving water saves treatment chemicals, pumping, heating energy, and power plant pollution Where Does Indoor Water Go?
    15. 15. © Build It Green 2010 Where Does Ext. Water Go? <ul><li>40-60% of potable water goes into the landscape </li></ul><ul><li>How much does it actually need? Imagine a daily water truck. </li></ul><ul><li>How much runs into the street? </li></ul><ul><li>How much sprays into the air and not on the landscape? </li></ul><ul><li>What could you do to change this situation? How much effort would it take? Is that effort worth it? </li></ul>
    16. 16. Water Conservation Strategy <ul><li>Get educated on water use ( </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct a Water Audit </li></ul><ul><li>Install Water Conserving Appliances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EnergyStar® & WaterSense® rated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Install Water Conserving Fixtures & Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toilets, faucets, showerheads, and on-demand hot water circulation pump </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optimize Irrigation system </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Landscape Water Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Rainwater Harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Grey-water Plumbing </li></ul><ul><li>Use Water Wisely </li></ul>© Build It Green 2010 WaterSense Certifies: Toilets (now) Irrigation Professionals (now) Bathroom Faucets (now) Urinals (early 2010) Homes (2010) Showerheads (2010) Irrigation Controllers (2010)
    17. 17. Water & Building Materials Don’t Mix <ul><li>Water vapor is everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Plumbing is throughout the house & irrigation system </li></ul><ul><li>It rains from time to time </li></ul><ul><li>We like to cook, bathe & wash </li></ul><ul><li>Soil is always evapo-transpiring </li></ul><ul><li>Too much moisture destroys buildings and bank accounts. </li></ul>© Build It Green 2010
    18. 18. Moisture Source Impacts © Build It Green 2010 <ul><li>Moisture Source Potential Cups </li></ul><ul><li>Showering 1 /shower </li></ul><ul><li>Dishwashing 2-4 /day </li></ul><ul><li>Cooking (meals for 4) 4-8 /day </li></ul><ul><li>Dryers venting indoors 8-12 /load </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal evaporation from materials 12-28 /day </li></ul><ul><li>Ground moisture 0-210 /day </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Saturn Energy Auditor Field Guide </li></ul>The Following activities add unseen moisture to the air:
    19. 19. Moisture Laws <ul><li>Water follows certain rules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It flows downhill via gravity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It flows up via capillary action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It can push through materials via diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It can go in and out of buildings with airflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It moves from high concentrations to low concentrations </li></ul></ul>© Build It Green 2010
    20. 20. © Build It Green 2010
    21. 21. © Build It Green 2010 Wet Soil
    22. 22. © Build It Green 2010 Leaky Plumbing
    23. 23. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ & IEQ) © Build It Green 2010
    24. 24. The Sleeping Giant <ul><li>We don’t know what we don’t know </li></ul><ul><li>15% of homeowners may be allergic to elements in their own homes </li></ul><ul><li>40% of children born today will develop some form of respiratory disease </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalence of asthma has doubled since 1976 (20 million people, including 6.3 million children) </li></ul><ul><li>Increased links to ADD and asthma in children </li></ul><ul><li>Of all the chemicals that the EPA monitors, only 2 (ozone & sulphur dioxide) are more prevalent outdoors than indoors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Environmental Protection Agency </li></ul></ul>© Build It Green 2010
    25. 25. What is IAQ and IEQ? <ul><li>Indoor Air Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formaldehyde </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VOCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particulates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the air in your home (un)healthy for you? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are there dangerous gases or pollutants in it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If so, what are they; how do we address them? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indoor Environmental Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formaldehyde </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VOCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particulates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vibration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature/Humidity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How are you affected by these things? </li></ul></ul>© Build It Green 2010
    26. 26. How To Address IAQ Issues <ul><li>Three main categories: </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture, Gases & Particulates </li></ul><ul><li>Things to consider: </li></ul><ul><li>The chemicals already in the building </li></ul><ul><li>The chemicals you add to the building </li></ul><ul><li>The health of workers and occupants </li></ul><ul><li>Future IAQ problems </li></ul><ul><li>Pathway to Solutions: </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Filtration </li></ul><ul><li>IAQ during construction </li></ul>© Build It Green 2010
    27. 27. First Action: Elimination <ul><li>Reduce the type and number of products and causes that off-gas into the living space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solvent Based Adhesives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paints and Finishes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carpet and Fabrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineered Wood Products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combustion Appliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pesticides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hobbies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most things (except concrete, metals and glass) off-gas some mix of chemicals at some decreasing rate over some period of time. It is different for every material . </li></ul>© Build It Green 2010
    28. 28. Second Action: Ventilation <ul><li>Ventilation is the second way to reduce the impact of high concentrations of unhealthy gases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Ventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical Ventilation </li></ul></ul>© Build It Green 2010
    29. 29. Third Action: Filtration <ul><li>Filtration takes some micro particulates out of the air </li></ul><ul><li>Residential filtration does not capture gases </li></ul>© Build It Green 2010 Remember to test your system to see if it can handle the air flow restriction of your filter!
    30. 30. Volatile Organic Compounds <ul><li>VOCs are typically in solvents in fluid or flexible products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paints, sealers, adhesives, caulks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-site finishes can be absorbed by other porous materials in a home, such as carpets and furniture. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most of the ‘enes’ are VOCs (avoid them) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasoline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kerosene (C 14 H 30 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benzene (C 6 H 6 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xylene (C 8 H 10 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toluene (C 7 H 8 ) </li></ul></ul>© Build It Green 2010 Off-gassing Carbon based Broken down and reconstructed
    31. 31. Check: Label, Technical Data Sheet, or Material Safety Data Sheet <ul><li>Product label may show VOC levels (grams per liter) </li></ul><ul><li>The Technical Data Sheet is a summary of technical info promoted by the manufacturer and expected by the customer (cut sheet) </li></ul><ul><li>The Material Safety Data Sheet is a summary of categorized health hazard information relevant to people handling the material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MSDS has nine to sixteen sections, describing 3 hazard types: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health Hazards (i.e. acids on skin will cause burns) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fire Hazards (i.e. propane burns easily & may explode) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reactivity Hazards (i.e. mixing ammonia & bleach will result in the release of a harmful gas) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>None is a complete source of info; tend to be general summaries </li></ul><ul><li>None describe laws related to the product or allergic effects </li></ul><ul><li>We tend to follow SCAQMD regulations </li></ul>© Build It Green 2010
    32. 32. Vinyl Flooring <ul><li>Vinyl chloride and other dangerous emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Vinyl flooring can trap moisture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could promote de-lamination and mold growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vinyl Composition Tile (VCT) is more benign than sheet vinyl - 75-80% limestone </li></ul><ul><li>Rule of Thumb: The softer – the more off-gassing </li></ul>© Build It Green 2010
    33. 33. Carpeting Contains: <ul><li>Toxic chemicals in the fibers, bonding material, dyes, fire retardants, backing glues (white styrene butadiene latex ), fungicides and antistatic and stain-resistant treatments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>120 chemicals, some of which are neuro-toxic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These chemicals persist for at least 3 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is neither renewable nor bio-degradable </li></ul></ul>© Build It Green 2010
    34. 34. Carbon Monoxide “The Silent Killer” © Build It Green 2010 <ul><li>Gas stove </li></ul><ul><li>Gas furnace </li></ul><ul><li>Gas water heater </li></ul><ul><li>Gas dryer </li></ul><ul><li>Gas/wood fireplace or stove </li></ul><ul><li>Gas or charcoal grill </li></ul><ul><li>Car/Garage </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated that each year carbon monoxide poisoning </li></ul><ul><li>kills 5,000 persons in the U.S. and injures over 10,000 persons. (Source: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning </li></ul>
    35. 35. Carbon Monoxide exposure © Build It Green 2010
    36. 36. Carbon Monoxide Alarms © Build It Green 2010 <ul><li>Look for UL 2034 and CSA 6.19 certifications or a unit that measures low level and long term CO </li></ul>
    37. 37. Questions © Build It Green 2010