This is a home on Howe Street in Oakland There are many images that come to mind when someone says “green home” from the 70’s solar homes to the eclectic hippie homes. Green homes don’t look green….they look like….(see next slide)
The Truth is building/remodeling green is just good business. This is a picture of the Emeryville Resourceful Building: a 3 unit infill, affordable housing project in Emeryville. It shows that you can use green building materials and methodologies in all projects - not just the high end ones. The Homeowner - the homes are built with healthier materials, they are more durable, and utility and water bills are lower due to resource efficient construction The Community -money saved on energy and water bills can be spent in the community Materials Used : Fiber cement siding (durable, reduces wood use), Certified wood in trim and trellises (framing also certified; reduces impacts on forests), Fly ash concrete paving and foundations (recycled, reduces CO2 in production), Low E glazing (reduces heat gain in summer, reduces heat loss in winter), Sunshades (reduces heat gain), Clad wood windows (reduces maintenance, good thermal performance), Drip irrigation (water efficient). Another example is the McStain Project in Boulder, a 180 unit affordable housing development that sold faster than any other homes on the market because it was built green and the units are healthier and less expensive to operate.
Theses two rooms look very much the same, like a room you might see somewhere here in Berkeley, but…
They actually represent different environmental impacts and performance.
The numbers speak for themselves
This is our industry, and who better than those of us in the building industry to step up?
The areas that LEED focuses on are site, water, energy, materials and indoor environmental quality. LEED has had a huge impact in the U.S. but like all tools and systems it has it's flaws and shortcomings. It is improving all the time, but my main problem with it is that it gives points for things that get included but not for things that are designed out, things that don't need to be used or included because of better, more integrated design. It also doesn't specifically lead people to use the integrated design process which is different from the standard, linear design process. Integrated design is based on designing buildings by starting from an understanding of them as systems of systems embedded in larger natural and human systems. It also requires having all the key decision-makers and stakeholders involved in the design process at the same time in the same room at the beginning of the process - taking advantage of everyone's knowledge and expertise - using the collective intelligence of everyone together. I think that the building regulatory people should also be involved at this stage - in the design charrettes that are used in this process. This requires more investment of time and some expense at the front end of the design process but the result is usually very cost-effective high performance projects - sometimes costing less than conventional practice - but typically not much more to produce much better buildings.
According to the NAHB building a 2,085 square foot home uses about 1.5 acres of forest. Formula: One 20 inch diameter fir tree = approximately 700 bd. ft of lumber. A typical 2085 sq.ft. home uses 13,127 bd.ft. of framing lumber and 6,212 sq. ft. of sheathing Totaling 16,000 total bd. ft of wood 16,000 divided by 700 (one 20 inch tree) you get about (23) 20 inch diameter trees, which translates to approximately 1.5 acres of forest.
Source: EPA Poor IAQ is due to inefficient gas burning appliances, mold, dust, toxic adhesives and cleaning agents, pesticides tracked into the home. New homes are “tighter” due to energy efficient construction but that means the contaminants have no way to escape. Story: New vinyl flooring in the kitchen actually makes children sick due to off gassing of vinyl chloride. In addition, many infants crawl and play on the vinyl floor exposing them to even higher levels of toxins. Children are more susceptible to off-gassing than adults
We produce a vast amount of waste that not only creates huge landfills, but creates a dead end for resources that could be reused. Over 20% of Alameda County waste sent to landfill is generated by the construction industry. Most of this material can and should be recycled. So part of green building is figuring out how to reduce construction & demolition waste.
Anecdotes from Arcata salvaging and Trinidad cabin to 205 Montego and any in between….
The primary issue many cities are facing is insufficient stormwater capacity, the direct result of increased impervious surfaces: rooftops, streets, and compacted surfaces. Impervious surfaces directly correlate to light intensity as components of urbanization. As impervious cover increases, flood plain.
For new water heaters, make sure that installation does not void warranty Can reduce heat loss by about 10% or more on older water heaters Insulate pipes in all runs through unconditioned spaces Minimum insulation should run 6’ from the tank to prevent convection circulation from the heater through the pipes
Dual flush toilets are also available. 0.8 gpf for liquid; 1.6 gpf for solids Replace existing toilets with a new 1.6 gpf or less Saves 8-22 gal/day based on 4 flushes High efficiency shower heads may reduce demand for hot water and reduce energy use for water heating by up to 20%. Recommendation: to install a chlorine filter on showerhead Reduce chemicals and particulates Install between the pipe and the showerhead Chlorine is absorbed 6 times faster through the skin than through the digestive system
The solar path in passive design The ability to achieve these goals simultaneously is fundamentally dependent on the seasonal variations in the sun's path throughout the day This occurs as a result of the inclination Inclination Inclination in general is the angle between a reference plane and another plane or Axis_of_rotation of direction.... of the earth's axis of rotation in relation to its orbit ORBit ORBit is a CORBA compliant Object Request Broker. The current version is called ORBit2 and is compliant with Common Object Request Broker Architecture ver.... . The sun path Sun path Sun path refers to the apparent significant seasonal-and-hourly positional changes of the sun as the Earth rotates, and orbits around the sun.... is unique for any given latitude. Generally the sun will appear to rise in the east and set in the west. In Northern Hemisphere non-tropical latitudes farther than 23.5 degrees from the equator: The sun will reach its highest point Noon Noon is the time exactly halfway through the day, written 12:00 in the 24-hour clock and 12:00 noon in the 12-hour clock.... toward the South (in the direction of the equator) As winter solstice Solstice A solstice is either of the two times of the year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the equator: in technical words, when the celestial equator and ecliptic reach their largest separation.... approaches, the angle Azimuth Azimuth is the horizontal component of a direction , measured around the horizon usually from the north toward the East, i.e.... at which the sun rises Sunrise Sunrise , also called sunup in some American English dialects, is the time at which the first part of the Sun appears above the horizon in the east.... and sets Sunset Sunset , also called sundown in some American English dialects, is the time at which the Sun disappears below the horizon in the west.... progressively moves further toward the South and the daylight hours will become shorter The opposite is noted in summer where the sun will rise and set further toward the North and the daylight hours will lengthen The converse is observed in the Southern Hemisphere, but the sun rises to the east and sets toward the west everywhere. In equatorial regions at less than 23.5 degrees, the position of the sun at solar noon Noon Noon is the time exactly halfway through the day, written 12:00 in the 24-hour clock and 12:00 noon in the 12-hour clock.... will oscillate from north to south and back again during the year. In regions closer than 23.5 degrees from either north-or-south pole, during summer the sun will trace a complete circle in the sky without setting whilst it will never appear above the horizon six months later, during the height of winter. The 47-degree difference in the altitude of the sun at solar noon between winter and summer forms the basis of passive solar design. This information is combined with local climatic data ( degree day Degree day A degree day is a measure of heating or cooling. Totalised degree days from an appropriate starting date are used to plan the planting of crops and management of pests.... ) heating and cooling requirements to determine at what time of the year solar gain will be beneficial for thermal comfort Thermal comfort Human thermal comfort is defined by ASHRAE as the state of mind that expresses satisfaction with the surrounding environment .... , and when it should be blocked with shading. By strategic placement of items such as glazing and shading devices, the percent of solar gain entering a building can be controlled throughout the year. One passive solar Passive solar Passive solar is a term referring to those technologies that can be employed to convert natural sunlight into usable heat, to cause air-movement for ventilation or cooling, or to store the heat for future use, without the use of electrical or m... sun path design problem is that the sun is in the same relative position six weeks before, and six weeks after, the solstice, BUT due to &quot;thermal lag&quot; from the thermal mass Thermal mass Thermal mass , in the most general sense, is any mass that absorbs and holds heat. In the architectural sense, it is any mass that absorbs and stores heat during sunny periods when the heat is not desirable in the living space of a building, an... of the Earth, the temperature and solar gain requirements are quite different before-and-after the summer-and-winter solstice. Movable shutters, shades, shade screen, or window quilts can accommodate day-to-day and hour-to-hour solar gain and insulation requirements. Careful arrangement of rooms completes the passive solar design. A common recommendation for residential dwellings is to place living areas facing solar noon and sleeping quarters on the opposite side.. A heliodon Heliodon A heliodon is a device for adjusting the angle between a flat surface and a beam of light to match the angle between a horizontal plane at a specific latitude and the solar beam.... is a traditional movable light device used by architects and designers to help model sun path effects. In modern times, 3D computer graphics can visually simulate this data, and calculate performance predictions.
Aperature : The set of windows and overhangs that determine how much sun enters the building. Absorber : The material that the sun’s ray come into contact with. Thermal Mass : The material that stores the sun’s thermal energy for re-release after sundown. Distribution : The means by which the thermal energy is released to the living/working spaces. Control : The techniques used to control the collection and distribution of the sun's thermal energy.
Wall cavities with existing insulation can be blown full of new cellulose or fiberglass to increase the density therefore the R-value. If existing cathedral or flat ceilings are already insulated, and re-roofing is being done, add additional rigid foam insulation on top of the existing roof sheathing Exterior walls can be wrapped with a min. of 1” (R-4) rigid foam to increase R-value if total exterior refinish is being doneInsulate and seal floors over unconditioned crawl spaces with R-19 or greater Protect underside of fiberglass with inexpensive sheathing or wire materials that act as a barrier to vermin
Important when fiberglass is used Seal holes between floors and between stud cavities around wire runs Caulk top and bottom plates on all floors
Low-E keeps heat out on summer days and keeps the heat in during cold weather Saves energy In older homes, replace whenever possible and cost-effective Wood, vinyl, and fiberglass generally insulate better than aluminum frames.
Can reduce the need for air conditioning
Sized to produce between 4-5 air changes per hour 2 speeds, low for continuous ventilation and high Window should be open while fan is running to avoid back drafting of CO from gas appliance flues Use a airtight seal to prevent air leakage in winter For Indoor Air Quality these systems exhaust the dust to the outside Must be vented outdoors Alternative is the purchase of a high efficient particulate air (HEPA) filter
Collect energy from the sun and turn it into electricity Electricity can be sold to local utility (net metering) Electricity can be used directly by household
Car exhaust contains many known carcinogens Can migrate into living spaces through doors and cracks in walls
Darker colors tend to have higher VOCs due to the concentration of synthetic materials
Production of vinyl flooring can result in the creation of toxic byproducts such as dioxins
Finished with expansion joints
1. laney overview of green building revised 1-11-11
<ul><li>Overview of Sustainability and the Built Environment as it relates to Fossil Fuel Consumption and Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>The basics of Green Building </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to LEED, Green Points, One Planet & other rating systems and criteria related to Green Building. </li></ul>
<ul><li>GREEN BUILDING. A holistic approach to design, construction, and demolition that minimizes the building’s impact on the environment, the occupants, and the community . </li></ul>
Bamboo Flooring No VOC Paint Salvaged Wood Low VOC Finish Hardwood Flooring Paint with VOCs Old Growth Wood Finish with VOCs
<ul><ul><li>The United States comprises 5% of the total world population and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans use 25% of the world’s energy resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings and the building industry consumes between 1/3 and ½ of the nations energy. </li></ul></ul>
Home Size 478 SF/person average floor area 1,500 SF 3.14 people per household In 1950 In 1970 1.6 x 1950 In 2000 2.8 x 1950 297 SF/person average floor area 1,000 SF 3.37 people per household 840 SF/person average floor area 2,200 SF 2.62 people per household
<ul><li>Construction of a 2,085 sq ft home uses up to 1.5 acres of forest </li></ul><ul><li>95% of old growth forests have been depleted </li></ul>
<ul><li>Generation and use of energy (electric, gas, oil, coal) are major contributors to air pollution and global climate change. </li></ul>ENERGY USE
<ul><li>We spend 90% of our time indoors </li></ul><ul><li>Air inside the average home is 10 times more polluted than outside air on the smoggiest days </li></ul>
<ul><li>Million tons generated in a year in each county </li></ul><ul><li>21% from construction and demolition industry </li></ul>
<ul><li>Site Selection & Environmental Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Development Density & Community Connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Storm water Management </li></ul>SUSTAINABLE SITES
<ul><li>l ocally produced </li></ul><ul><li>minimally-processed </li></ul><ul><li>durable and able to be maintained </li></ul><ul><li>high in recycled-content </li></ul><ul><li>readily-recyclable </li></ul>
<ul><li>Flyash is a byproduct of coal burning power plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of flyash in concrete diverts it from landfills. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The U.S. produces 1.3 billion tons of Portland cement annually. This emits 1.3 billion tons of CO 2 into the environment. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Concrete and rubble can be crushed and used for backfill and drainage purposes at the base of foundations </li></ul><ul><li>Using recycled instead of virgin materials saves money and natural recourses </li></ul>
<ul><li>FSC certification assures that the forest from which the wood is produced is managed in an environmentally and socially responsible manner. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Wood saving techniques: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Framing walls 24” on center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2-stud corners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ladder blocking at partitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stacking trusses over studs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use single top plates </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Builders’ Guide online at www.R ECYCLE N OW . ORG </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lumber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plumbing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reclaimed wood </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Reclaimed lumber can be used for non-structural applications </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces resource consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces landfill deposits </li></ul>
<ul><ul><li>Plastic lumber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains only recycled plastic resins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check manufacturer for amount of expansion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composite lumber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made with recycled wood fiber and recycled plastic resins formed into deck boards </li></ul></ul></ul>
<ul><li>FIBER-CEMENT SIDING is composed of Cement, sand, and recycled cellulose </li></ul>
<ul><li>Minimize the amount of fresh water used within buildings and outside for landscaping. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Non Invasive Species </li></ul><ul><li>No Species Require Shearing </li></ul><ul><li>Drought-tolerant Natives </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal Turf Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Plants Grouped by Water Needs (Hydronizing) </li></ul>
<ul><ul><li>Mulch All Planting Beds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil Amended with Compost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rainwater Harvesting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greywater Systems </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Install water conserving appliances </li></ul><ul><li>Install low flow aerators on faucets and showerheads </li></ul>
<ul><li>Insulate Water Heaters & Pipes </li></ul>
Hot water arrives at the fixture 5 times faster than on average
<ul><li>Locate Water Heater within 12 Feet of All Fixtures </li></ul>
<ul><ul><li>Toilets Dual-Flush or maximum 1.28gpf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Showers use max 2.5 gpm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faucets use max 1.5 gpm </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Improving energy efficiency and using renewable energy sources are effective ways to improve air quality and reduce the impacts of global warming </li></ul>
<ul><li>Passive solar buildings aim to maintain interior Thermal comfort. </li></ul><ul><li>Passive solar design does not include active systems . . </li></ul>
<ul><li>Plant deciduous trees for shade </li></ul><ul><li>Natural ventilation is a key cooling strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Install window overhangs and awnings </li></ul>
<ul><ul><li>Exceed the Title 24 Standard for your climate by at least 20% </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Install expanding foam or caulk where wood connections are made or framing is drilled to provide plumbing and electrical runs. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Low- E double-glazed windows </li></ul><ul><li>Low-conductivity frames </li></ul><ul><li>Look for windows that have a National Fenestration Rating Council </li></ul><ul><li>(NFRC) label </li></ul>
<ul><li>Lighting controls include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dimmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensors and timers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Install either at specific locations or as a whole house system </li></ul>
<ul><ul><li>Can be adjusted to either draw warm air upward during the summer or push warm air downward during the winter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best locations are bedrooms and living rooms </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Exhaust excess heat and moisture from attic spaces by natural convection. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Code requirement of 1 sq. ft. of net free area of venting for every 150 sq. ft. of attic floor area – should be doubled. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep insulation from blocking soffit/eave vents </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Cools a house without the use of air conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaust warm, indoor air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bring in fresh, cool, outdoor air at night </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fan mounted in a hallway ceiling on the top floor </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS (PVs) </li></ul><ul><li>SOLAR HOT WATER </li></ul>
<ul><li>Attached garage is the single most significant contributor to poor indoor air quality (source: U.S. EPA) </li></ul>
<ul><ul><li>Replaces vinyl flooring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains petroleum-based products or chlorinated chemicals such as PVC which off gases VOCs </li></ul></ul></ul>
<ul><ul><li>For slab-on-grade additions or basements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great for radiant, in-floor heating systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Durable and easy to clean </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>A Builder’s Guide – </li></ul><ul><li>GREEN FROM THE GROUND UP, </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable, Healthy, and Energy-Efficient Home Construction by David Johnston & Scott Gibson </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 1 – Green Building Basics </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 2 – The House as a System </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 3 – Planning and Design </li></ul>