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It’s Not Just                                               Privacy, Porn,                                              & ...
Bona fides             Photo by ifmuth on Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
Hi, y’all!Photo by Lawson Whitaker
It’s fun to talk about bombs                        Photo by dkshots on Flickr, CC BY-NC 2.0
I want to talk about service                       Photo by siuto717 on Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
What I want to talk about•   Where do we go for professional ethics?•   What is ethics anyway?•   What’s professionalism?•...
FIRST, SOME DILEMMAS…                 Photo by Stefan Baudy on Flickr, CC BY 2.0
A circulation dilemma:  Fifty Shades and the G.E.D.                  Photo by JMAZ on Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
A reference dilemma:The surgery                       Photo by cmdrcord on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
A reference dilemma:Should you use your library school log-in?
A reference dilemma:Do we deliver?                       Photo by jessie.millan on Flickr, CC BYY2.0
A circulation dilemma:         The list of books               Photo by vincealongi on Flickr, CC BY 2.0
A library dilemma:What are we doing about our ERIC      documents on microfiche?                    Photo by Mr. T in DC o...
WHERE DO WE GOFOR OURPROFESSIONALETHICS?     Photo by kittysfotos on Flickr, CC BY 2.0
Our professional codes?                    Photo by cavale on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
I.    We provide the highest level of service to all library      users through appropriate and usefully organized      re...
“The principles of this Code areexpressed in broad statements toguide ethical decision making.These statements provide afr...
RUSA Guidelines for Behavioral Performance of                       Reference and Information Service Providers1.0 Approac...
Our professional training?                     Photo by cavale on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
“ethical questions suchas the provision ofinformation that hasthe potential to harmsociety (e.g., how tobuild a bomb) are ...
“If an individual…asks ifthere is any material onhow to freebasecocaine, do you provideit?” (p.42)Should a librarianprovid...
Our social functions?                        Photo by cavale on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
“The missionof librarians isto improvesociety…”-David Lankes  Photo by library_mistress on Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
We need professional codes                     Photo by urbanhiker on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
We need to discuss extreme cases                        Photo by U.S. Dept. Of Defense, Public Domain
We need to embrace social justice                         Photo by Smoovey on Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
But, we also have to deal with that fine…                               Photo by yuan2003 on Flickr, CC BY-NC 2.0
We have codes, policies, training, and missions.       How should we balance them?                                     Pho...
SO, LET’S TALKETHICS…          Photo by ocs_camp on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Ethics       The study of morality.               MoralityA set of norms, ideals, and virtues that          guide our beha...
Common moralityThe norms, ideals and virtues that bind all moral agents.                        >         Community morali...
Professional morality  Our community specific norms, ideals, and virtues.         Professional ethicsHow should we apply o...
Where I’m coming from…Meta-ethics: Non-cognitivism (prescriptivism)     Hare, R. M. 1952. The Language of Morals. Oxford: ...
WHAT ISPROFESSIONALISM?            Photo by kenyee on Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
Photo by Leo Reynolds on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
1. Professional roles are sociallyconstructed within a community.                          Photo by desmondkavanagh on Fli...
2. Our role is a function of our expertise.                                 Photo by raster on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
3. Professionals are entrusted with certain         decision-making responsibilities.Bunge, Charles. 1999. “Ethics and the...
4. Professionals assume certain      practical obligations.                        Photo by julishannon on Flickr, CC BY-N...
Librarians are professionals1.   Socially constructed role2.   Specific skills and expertise3.   Decision-making responsib...
AN ETHICS OFLIBRARY SERVICE             Photo by archeon on Flickr, CC BY-ND 2.0
Our ethics of service should be tied to       our professional status.                               Photo by wwworks on F...
COROLLARY 1:OUR ROLE IS SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED,SO WE SHOULD ACT ON BEHALF OF OUR          COMMUNITIES.                      ...
1. Act on behalf of your community Remember that you are privileged   Photo by stephendann on Flickr,                     ...
1. Act on behalf of your community       Know your stakeholders   Photo by furlined on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
1. Act on behalf of your community Don’t undermine your responsibilities         to your communities.   Photo by jose.jhg ...
1. Act on behalf of your community*   *Remember that common morality      trumps community morality.                      ...
COROLLARY 2:   OUR ROLE IS A FUNCTION OF OURSPECIALIZED SKILLS, SO WE SHOULD ACT   ACCORDING TO OUR EXPERTISE.            ...
2. Act within your expertise     Understand your skills   Photo by Oldtasty on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
2. Act within your expertise   Don’t exceed your expertise   Photo by yellowbookltd on Flickr, CC BY
2. Act within your expertise    Don’t deny your expertise                            Photo by heathbrandon on Flickr, CC B...
2. Act within your expertiseEmbrace professional development   Photo by NASA, pub. domain
COROLLARY 3:WE HAVE DECISION-MAKING RESPONSIBILITIES     SO WE MUST RESPECT AUTONOMY.                               Photo ...
3. Respect patron autonomy     Remember that you are        moral equals         Photo by colinjagoe on Flickr, CC BY-NC-S...
3. Respect patron autonomy     Respect the autonomy   that has been ceded to you   Photo by domincspics on Flickr, CC BY 2.0
3. Respect patron autonomy       Do not infringe on    what has not been ceded   Photo by tomx20 on Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
COROLLARY 4:WE HAVE PRACTICAL OBLIGATIONS,SO WE SHOULD UNDERSTAND THEM.                         Photo by wink on Flickr, C...
4. Understand your practical        obligations        Understand your    contractual environment   Photo by LOSINPUN on F...
4. Understand your practical        obligations      Practical dilemmas               vs.       Ethical dilemmas    Photo ...
4. Understand your practical        obligationsAccept the practical consequences         of your decisions  Photo by s_mye...
4. Understand your practical        obligations  Remember that it’s not always     about right and wrong.   Photo by zen o...
CONCLUSION:AN ETHICALFRAMEWORK
An ethical frameworkYour professional role           Your professional ethics     Socially constructed        Act on behal...
Solving dilemmasIs my decision consistent with…1. my professional role within the community?2. my expertise?3. respect for...
Solving dilemmasBy acting on this decision, am I…1. Upholding my duties to all stakeholders?2. Willing to accept practical...
An ethical frameworkYour professional role           Your professional ethics     Socially constructed        Act on behal...
In other words…                  Photo by deathtogutenberg on Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
Thanks!http://senseandreference.wordpress.com                                  Photo by brent_nashville, CC BY-NC 2.0
It's not just privacy, porn, and pipe-bombs: Libraries and the ethics of service
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It's not just privacy, porn, and pipe-bombs: Libraries and the ethics of service

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Slides from an 10/12/12 at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Invited to speak as part of Ethics Awareness Week. Thank you to UIUC libraries, the GSLIS, and the National Center for Professional and Research Ethics.

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It's not just privacy, porn, and pipe-bombs: Libraries and the ethics of service

  1. 1. It’s Not Just Privacy, Porn, & Pipe-Bombs: Libraries & the ethics of service Lane Wilkinson October 12, 2012 Ethics Awareness Week The National Center forPhoto by emdot on Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Professional and Research Ethics
  2. 2. Bona fides Photo by ifmuth on Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  3. 3. Hi, y’all!Photo by Lawson Whitaker
  4. 4. It’s fun to talk about bombs Photo by dkshots on Flickr, CC BY-NC 2.0
  5. 5. I want to talk about service Photo by siuto717 on Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  6. 6. What I want to talk about• Where do we go for professional ethics?• What is ethics anyway?• What’s professionalism?• The ethics of library service. Photo by kmtucker on Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  7. 7. FIRST, SOME DILEMMAS… Photo by Stefan Baudy on Flickr, CC BY 2.0
  8. 8. A circulation dilemma: Fifty Shades and the G.E.D. Photo by JMAZ on Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  9. 9. A reference dilemma:The surgery Photo by cmdrcord on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
  10. 10. A reference dilemma:Should you use your library school log-in?
  11. 11. A reference dilemma:Do we deliver? Photo by jessie.millan on Flickr, CC BYY2.0
  12. 12. A circulation dilemma: The list of books Photo by vincealongi on Flickr, CC BY 2.0
  13. 13. A library dilemma:What are we doing about our ERIC documents on microfiche? Photo by Mr. T in DC on Flickr, CC BY-ND 2.0
  14. 14. WHERE DO WE GOFOR OURPROFESSIONALETHICS? Photo by kittysfotos on Flickr, CC BY 2.0
  15. 15. Our professional codes? Photo by cavale on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
  16. 16. I. We provide the highest level of service to all library users through appropriate and usefully organized resources; equitable service policies; equitable access; and accurate, unbiased, and courteous responses to all requests.II. We uphold the principles of intellectual freedom…III. We protect each library users right to privacy…IV. We respect intellectual property rights…V. We treat co-workers and other colleagues with respect…VI. We do not advance private interests at the expense of library users…VII. We distinguish between our personal convictions and professional duties…VIII. We strive for excellence in the profession by maintaining and enhancing our own knowledge and skills…
  17. 17. “The principles of this Code areexpressed in broad statements toguide ethical decision making.These statements provide aframework; they cannot and donot dictate conduct to coverparticular situations.”
  18. 18. RUSA Guidelines for Behavioral Performance of Reference and Information Service Providers1.0 Approachability 3.0 Listening/Inquiring. The reference interview is the heart of the reference transaction and is crucial to the success of the process. The librarian must be effective in identifying the patrons information needs and must do so in aIn order to have a successful reference transaction, patrons must be able to identify that a reference librarian is available to provide assistance and also must feel manner that keeps patrons at ease. Strong listening and questioning skills are necessary for a positive interaction. As a good communicator, the librarian:comfortable in going to that person for help. In remote environments, this also means placing contact information for chat, email, telephone, and other services in Generalprominent locations, to make them obvious and welcoming to patrons. Approachability behaviors, such as the initial verbal and non-verbal responses of the librarian, 3.1 Communicates in a receptive, cordial, and encouraging manner.will set the tone for the entire communication process, and will influence the depth and level of interaction between the staff and the patrons. At this stage in the 3.2 Uses a tone of voice and/or written language appropriate to the nature of the transaction.process, the behaviors exhibited by the staff member should serve to welcome the patrons and to place them at ease. The librarians role in the communications 3.3 Allows the patrons to state fully their information need in their own words before responding.process is to make the patrons feel comfortable in a situation that may be perceived as intimidating, risky, confusing, and overwhelming. 3.4 Identifies the goals or objectives of the user’s research, when appropriate. 3.5 Rephrases the question or request and asks for confirmation to ensure that it is understood.To be approachable, the librarian: 3.6 Seeks to clarify confusing terminology and avoids excessive jargon. 3.7 Uses open-ended questioning techniques to encourage patrons to expand on the request or present additional information. Some examples of such questions include:General ! Please tell me more about your topic.1.1 Establishes a "reference presence" wherever patrons look for it. This includes having Reference Services in a highly visible location and using proper signage (both ! What additional information can you give me?in the library and on the librarys Web site) to indicate the location, hours, and availability of in-person and remote help or assistance. ! How much information do you need?1.2 Is poised and ready to engage approaching patrons. The librarian is aware of the need to stop all other activities when patrons approach and focus attention on the 3.8 Uses closed and/or clarifying questions to refine the search query. Some examples of clarifying questions are:patrons needs. ! What have you already found? ! What type of information do you need (books, articles, etc.)?1.3 Acknowledges others waiting for service. ! Do you need current or historical information?1.3.1 Employs a system of question triage to identify what types of questions the patrons have when more than two patrons are waiting. Frequently asked questions, 3.9 Maintains objectivity and does not interject value judgments about subject matter or the nature of the question into the transaction.brief informational questions, directional questions, and referrals can be answered quickly, allowing more time to devote to in-depth reference questions. RemoteIn Person 3.10 Uses reference interviews or Web forms to gather as much information as possible without compromising user privacy.1.4 Establishes initial eye contact with patrons, and acknowledges the presence of patrons through smiling and attentive and welcoming body language. 4.0 Searching1.5 Acknowledges patrons through the use of a friendly greeting to initiate conversation, and by standing up, moving forward, or moving closer to them. The search process is the portion of the transaction in which behavior and accuracy intersect. Without an effective search, not only is the desired information unlikely to be found, but patrons may become1.6 Remains visible to patrons as much as possible. discouraged as well. Yet many of the aspects of searching that lead to accurate results are still dependent on the behavior of the librarian. As an effective searcher, the librarian:1.7 Roves through the reference area offering assistance whenever possible. Librarians should make themselves available to patrons by offering assistance at their Generalpoint-of-need rather than waiting for patrons to come to the reference desk. To rove successfully, the librarian should: 4.1 Finds out what patrons have already tried, and encourages patrons to contribute ideas. 4.2 Constructs a competent and complete search strategy. This involves:1.7.1 Be mobile. Get the patrons started on the initial steps of their search, then move on to other patrons. ! Selecting search terms that are most related to the information desired.1.7.2 Address the patrons before addressing their computer screen. Patrons are more likely to confide in librarians and discuss their needs if they do not perceive the ! Verifying spelling and other possible factual errors in the original query.librarians as "policing" the area. ! Identifying sources appropriate to the patrons need that have the highest probability of containing information relevant to the patrons query.1.7.3 Approach patrons and offer assistance with lines such as, "Are you finding what you need?" "Can I help you with anything?" or "How is your search going?" 4.3 Explains the search strategy and sequence to the patrons, as well as the sources to be used.1.7.4 Check back on the patron’s progress after helping them start a search. 4.4 Attempts to conduct the search within the patrons’ allotted time frame. 4.5 Explains how to use sources when appropriate.1.7.5 If the reference desk has been left unattended, check back periodically to see if there are patrons waiting for assistance there. 4.6 Works with the patrons to narrow or broaden the topic when too little or too much information is identified.Remote 4.7 Asks the patrons if additional information is needed after an initial result is found.1.8 Should provide prominent, jargon-free links to all forms of reference services from the home page of the librarys Web site, and throughout the site wherever 4.8 Recognizes when to refer patrons to a more appropriate guide, database, library, librarian, or other resource.research assistance may be sought out. The Web should be used to make reference services easy to find and convenient. 4.9 Offers pointers, detailed search paths (including complete URLs), and names of resources used to find the answer, so that patrons can learn to answer similar questions on their own. In Person 4.10 Accompanies the patrons in the search (at least in the initial stages of the search process).2.0 Interest RemoteA successful librarian must demonstrate a high degree of interest in the reference transaction. While not every query will contain stimulating intellectual challenges, 4.11 Uses appropriate technology (such as co-browsing, scanning, faxing, etc.) to help guide patrons through library resources, when possible.the librarian should be interested in eachpatrons informational need and should be committed to providing the most effective assistance. Librarians who demonstrate a high level of interest in the inquiries of 5.0 Follow-uptheir patrons will generate a higher level of satisfaction among users. To demonstrate interest, the librarian: The reference transaction does not end when the librarian leaves the patrons. The librarian is responsible for determining if the patrons are satisfied with the results of the search, and is also responsible forGeneral referring the patrons to other sources, even when those sources are not available in the local library. For successful follow-up, the librarian: General2.1 Faces the patron when speaking and listening. 5.1 Asks patrons if their questions have been completely answered.2.2 2.2 Focuses attention on the patrons. 5.2 Encourages the patrons to return if they have further questions by making a statement such as “If you don’t find what you are looking for, please come back and we’ll try something else.”In Person 5.3 Roving (see 1.7) is an excellent technique for follow-up.2.3 Faces patrons when speaking and listening. 5.4 Consults other librarians or experts in the field when additional subject expertise is needed. 5.5 Makes patrons aware of other appropriate reference services (email, etc.).2.4 Maintains or re-establishes eye contact with patrons throughout the transaction. 5.6 Makes arrangements, when appropriate, with the patrons to research a question even after the reference transaction has been completed.2.5 Signals an understanding of patrons’ needs through verbal or non-verbal confirmation, such as nodding of the head or brief comments or questions. 5.7 Refers the patrons to other sources or institutions when the query cannot be answered to the satisfaction of the patron.Remote 5.8 Facilitates the process of referring patrons to another library or information agency through activities such as calling ahead, providing direction and instructions, and providing the library and the patrons with as such information as possible about the amount of information required, and sources already consulted.2.6 Maintains or re-establishes "word contact" with the patron in text-based environments by sending written or prepared prompts, etc., to convey interest in the 5.9 Takes care not to end the reference interview prematurely.7patrons question. Remote2.7 Acknowledges user email questions in a timely manner. 5.9 Suggests that the patrons visit or call the library when appropriate.2.8 States question-answering procedures and policies clearly in an accessible place on the Web. This should indicate question scope, types of answers provided, andexpected turnaround time. 53 bullet points. 1,555 words.
  19. 19. Our professional training? Photo by cavale on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
  20. 20. “ethical questions suchas the provision ofinformation that hasthe potential to harmsociety (e.g., how tobuild a bomb) are nowconcrete issues thatreference librariansencounter in their dailylives” (p.20)
  21. 21. “If an individual…asks ifthere is any material onhow to freebasecocaine, do you provideit?” (p.42)Should a librarianprovide how-to-commit-suicideinformation to atroubled teen? (p. 44)
  22. 22. Our social functions? Photo by cavale on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
  23. 23. “The missionof librarians isto improvesociety…”-David Lankes Photo by library_mistress on Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  24. 24. We need professional codes Photo by urbanhiker on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
  25. 25. We need to discuss extreme cases Photo by U.S. Dept. Of Defense, Public Domain
  26. 26. We need to embrace social justice Photo by Smoovey on Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  27. 27. But, we also have to deal with that fine… Photo by yuan2003 on Flickr, CC BY-NC 2.0
  28. 28. We have codes, policies, training, and missions. How should we balance them? Photo by archeon on Flickr, CC BY-ND 2.0
  29. 29. SO, LET’S TALKETHICS… Photo by ocs_camp on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
  30. 30. Ethics The study of morality. MoralityA set of norms, ideals, and virtues that guide our behavior.
  31. 31. Common moralityThe norms, ideals and virtues that bind all moral agents. > Community moralityThe norms, ideals, and virtues that spring from specific cultural, religious, or institutional sources.
  32. 32. Professional morality Our community specific norms, ideals, and virtues. Professional ethicsHow should we apply our community specific morality?
  33. 33. Where I’m coming from…Meta-ethics: Non-cognitivism (prescriptivism) Hare, R. M. 1952. The Language of Morals. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.Normative ethics: Hybrid Kantian constructivism Korsgaard, Christine. 2009. Self-Constitution: Action, Identity and Integrity. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. Rawls, John. 1971. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press.
  34. 34. WHAT ISPROFESSIONALISM? Photo by kenyee on Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  35. 35. Photo by Leo Reynolds on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
  36. 36. 1. Professional roles are sociallyconstructed within a community. Photo by desmondkavanagh on Flickr, CC BY-ND 2.0
  37. 37. 2. Our role is a function of our expertise. Photo by raster on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
  38. 38. 3. Professionals are entrusted with certain decision-making responsibilities.Bunge, Charles. 1999. “Ethics and the Reference Librarian.” The Reference Librarian, 31, no 66: 25-43. Photo by thorinside on Flickr, CC BY-SA 2.0
  39. 39. 4. Professionals assume certain practical obligations. Photo by julishannon on Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  40. 40. Librarians are professionals1. Socially constructed role2. Specific skills and expertise3. Decision-making responsibility4. Practical obligations Photo by dana_d on Flickr, CC BY-SA 2.0
  41. 41. AN ETHICS OFLIBRARY SERVICE Photo by archeon on Flickr, CC BY-ND 2.0
  42. 42. Our ethics of service should be tied to our professional status. Photo by wwworks on Flickr, CC BY 2.0
  43. 43. COROLLARY 1:OUR ROLE IS SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED,SO WE SHOULD ACT ON BEHALF OF OUR COMMUNITIES. Photo by v1ctory_1s_m1ne on Flickr, CC BY-NC 2.0
  44. 44. 1. Act on behalf of your community Remember that you are privileged Photo by stephendann on Flickr, CC BY-SA 2.0
  45. 45. 1. Act on behalf of your community Know your stakeholders Photo by furlined on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
  46. 46. 1. Act on behalf of your community Don’t undermine your responsibilities to your communities. Photo by jose.jhg on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
  47. 47. 1. Act on behalf of your community* *Remember that common morality trumps community morality. Photo by churl on Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  48. 48. COROLLARY 2: OUR ROLE IS A FUNCTION OF OURSPECIALIZED SKILLS, SO WE SHOULD ACT ACCORDING TO OUR EXPERTISE. Photo by spkbxxx on Flickr, CC BY-NC 2.0
  49. 49. 2. Act within your expertise Understand your skills Photo by Oldtasty on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
  50. 50. 2. Act within your expertise Don’t exceed your expertise Photo by yellowbookltd on Flickr, CC BY
  51. 51. 2. Act within your expertise Don’t deny your expertise Photo by heathbrandon on Flickr, CC BY-SA 2.0
  52. 52. 2. Act within your expertiseEmbrace professional development Photo by NASA, pub. domain
  53. 53. COROLLARY 3:WE HAVE DECISION-MAKING RESPONSIBILITIES SO WE MUST RESPECT AUTONOMY. Photo by tronathan on Flickr, CC BY-NC 2.0
  54. 54. 3. Respect patron autonomy Remember that you are moral equals Photo by colinjagoe on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
  55. 55. 3. Respect patron autonomy Respect the autonomy that has been ceded to you Photo by domincspics on Flickr, CC BY 2.0
  56. 56. 3. Respect patron autonomy Do not infringe on what has not been ceded Photo by tomx20 on Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  57. 57. COROLLARY 4:WE HAVE PRACTICAL OBLIGATIONS,SO WE SHOULD UNDERSTAND THEM. Photo by wink on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
  58. 58. 4. Understand your practical obligations Understand your contractual environment Photo by LOSINPUN on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
  59. 59. 4. Understand your practical obligations Practical dilemmas vs. Ethical dilemmas Photo by anyjazz65 on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
  60. 60. 4. Understand your practical obligationsAccept the practical consequences of your decisions Photo by s_myers on Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  61. 61. 4. Understand your practical obligations Remember that it’s not always about right and wrong. Photo by zen on Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
  62. 62. CONCLUSION:AN ETHICALFRAMEWORK
  63. 63. An ethical frameworkYour professional role Your professional ethics Socially constructed Act on behalf of your community Based in expertise Act according to your expertiseDecision-making responsibility Respect autonomy Practical obligations Accept practical consequences
  64. 64. Solving dilemmasIs my decision consistent with…1. my professional role within the community?2. my expertise?3. respect for autonomy? Photo by theilr on Flickr, CC BY-SA 2.0
  65. 65. Solving dilemmasBy acting on this decision, am I…1. Upholding my duties to all stakeholders?2. Willing to accept practical consequences? Photo by theilr on Flickr, CC BY-SA 2.0
  66. 66. An ethical frameworkYour professional role Your professional ethics Socially constructed Act on behalf of your community Based in expertise Act according to your expertiseDecision-making responsibility Respect autonomy Practical obligations Accept practical consequences
  67. 67. In other words… Photo by deathtogutenberg on Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  68. 68. Thanks!http://senseandreference.wordpress.com Photo by brent_nashville, CC BY-NC 2.0

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