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Land Surveying Resources Handbook


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Land Surveyors Handbook for resources and links around the web to helpful information related to virtually every aspect of land surveying, including surveyor support groups and Surveying Glossary

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  • Great article. Thanks for the info, it’s easy to understand. BTW, if anyone needs to fill out an elevation certificate form, I found a blank form here
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Land Surveying Resources Handbook

  1. 1. Land Surveying Resources HandbookA Resource Pool for Members of Land Surveyors United Land Surveying Resources Handbook.................................................. 1 A Resource Pool for Members of Land Surveyors United ........................... 1 SURVEYING EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS ......................................... 2 HOME---> SURVEYING RESOURCES ................................................ 2 LAND SURVEYING LINKS AND RESOURCES FROM AROUND THE WEB ..... 2 ONLINE SURVEYING MAGAZINES ....................................................... 4 SURVEYING SOFTWARE MANUFACTURERS .......................................... 2 GPS BOOKS .................................................................................... 5 GOVERNMENT GIS INFORMATION (CANADA)....................................... 5 STATE LAND SURVEYING BOARDS AND ORGANIZATIONS ..................... 3 GIS INFORMATION (GENERAL) .......................................................... 6 SURVEYING ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONAL...................................... 6 INTERNATIONAL SURVEYING COMPANIES DIRECTORY ......................... 6 PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS ........................................................ 4 GOVERNMENT GPS LINKS ................................................................. 5 GOVERNMENT ASSOCIATIONS .......................................................... 5 SURVEYING RELATED PATENTS ......................................................... 6 CADASTRAL SURVEYING................................................................... 7 SURVEYING METHODS ..................................................................... 7 DYNAMIC OR KINEMATIC GPS ........................................................ 7 STATIC GPS ................................................................................. 7 DIFFERENTIAL POSITIONING.......................................................... 8 INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS ......................................................10 ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES ..................................................10 GLOSSARY OF SURVEYING AND MAPPING TERMS ................................ 8 SURVEYING SCHOOLS, COLLEGES AND TRAINING ..............................10 SURVEYING EDUCATION SCHOOLS ...................................................11 EDUCATION IN LAND SURVEYING .....................................................13 ONLINE SCHOOLS FOR CERTIFICATION .............................................13 AUBURN UNIVERSITY ................................................................... 13 COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES ......................................................... 14 LAND SURVEYING HISTORY ............................................................. 15 LEGAL RESEARCH ........................................................................... 15 EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS............................................................... 16 UNITS OF MEASURE ........................................................................ 18 LAND SURVEYORS UNITED ELSEWHERE ON THE WEB .........................15 SURVEYING BLOGS......................................................................... 15 AUTODESK BLOGS .......................................................................... 15 CAD RELATED BLOGS...................................................................... 16 SURVEYING IMAGES AND MAPS ONLINE ............................................17 SURVEYORS SLANG........................................................................ 21 USENET NEWSGROUPS OF INTEREST TO SURVEYORS .........................17 SATELLITE TRACKING ..................................................................... 18 MISCELLANEOUS LAND SURVEYING LINKS ........................................18 SURVEYORS ABBREVIATIONS .......................................................... 23
  2. 2. SURVEYING EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS HOME---> SURVEYING RESOURCES • AutoCAD • Bentley Systems • Blue Marble Geographics • Calcomp • Carlson Software • CST/berger • ESRI • Hewlett Packard • HP Programmable Calculators Software Archives • Ideal Scanners & Systems • Intergraph • Leica • Motorola 2-way Portable Radios • NovAtel GPS • Thales Navagation GPS • Topcon Web Site • Trimble Surveying & Mapping Systems • SchonstedtLAND SURVEYING LINKS AND RESOURCES • SokkiaFROM AROUND THE WEB • Berntsen Survey MarkersThis page is starting to become the • Carhartt Work Clothes • Chicago Steel and Tapemost comprehensive list of land surveyor • David White Levelslinks available on the web. Dont forget to • Dunham & Morrowbookmark this page! [Ctrl+D] • Dutch Hill Performance TripodsSubmit a link to us here • Jobcom RadiosPlease report broken links here • Laser Technology • Leica Geosystems • Mark-It • Motorola Portable RadiosSurveyor Support Groups By Location • Nikon • Pacific Crest ▪ North ▪ Antarctica • Topcon Survey America ▪ US States • Schonstedt Magnetic Locators ▪ South ▪ India • Seco America ▪ Carribean • Silva Compasses ▪ Africa ▪ Canada • Silver Shield ▪ Asia ▪ Puerto • Surv-Kap ▪ Australia Rico • Suunto Compasses ▪ Europe ▪ Jamaica • Trimble ▪ Russia • West Coast Shoe Co. Heavy-Duty Boots • Whites Boots SURVEYING SOFTWARE MANUFACTURERSSurveyor Support Based on •Equipment Manufacturer ◦ Abykus Surveying Spreadsheets ◦ ACA Ltd. ALERT Deformation Monitoring System ▪ Sokkia ▪ Microsurvey Support Support ◦ Autodesk ▪ Trimble ◦ Bentley Systems (Microstation) Support ◦ Boston Harbor Software
  3. 3. ▪ Topcon ▪ Juniper ◦ BW Muncy Deed Plotting Software Support Systems ◦ Carlson Software ▪ Navcom Support ◦ CAD Warehouse Support ▪ Handheld ◦ Corvallis Microtechnology ▪ Altus Support ◦ CvlSoft Inc. Positioning ▪ Traverse PC ◦ Direct Line Software DeedMapper ▪ Ashtech Support ◦ Eagle Point Software Magellan ▪ Magellan ◦ ESRI GIS Mapping Software ▪ Nikon Support ◦ FREE SURVEYING SOFTWARE! Support ▪ Spectra ◦ GeoMagix ▪ Precision ◦ GeoSurface Technologies Support ◦ HP 48 Software Archive ▪ TDS ◦ Infycons Support ◦ Innerspace Technology ▪ Carlson ◦ Intergraph Support ◦ Microsearch GeoLab ◦ MicroSurvey Software, Inc. ◦ Project Tracker ProSurveyor Support Groups Based on ◦ PC SurveyTheme ◦ PCI Geomatics ◦ Ptbase ▪ ◦ Quick Cogo ▪ Job Search ▪ Machine ◦ RAMSS Inc. Group Control for ◦ Simplicity Systems, Inc. ◦ Softree Terrain Tools ▪ Unemployed Land Surveyors Surveyors ◦ SRH Least Squares ▪ Resume Review ▪ Surveying ◦ The Complete CAD Catalog/AutoCAD ▪ Surveyors How To Shareware Online Toolbox ▪ LSI or FSI ◦ TerraModel ▪ Student Study ◦ Traverse PC Surveyors Materials ◦ Tripod Data Systems ▪ Archeaology ▪ Party Chiefs ◦ UGL Software ▪ City Surveyors ▪ Raw Data ◦ XYZ Works ▪ Government ▪ Seismic STATE LAND SURVEYING BOARDS AND ORGANIZATIONS Surveyors Surveyors ▪ GIS and ▪ Surveyors • Alabama - Surveying Connect • Alaska - ▪ Mobile Phones ▪ Construction • Arizona - Support Surveying default.htm ▪ Endangered Art ▪ 3D Scanner • Arkansas - of Chaining Support • ▪ LSU Field ▪ One Man • California - Support Group Show • ▪ Robotics For ▪ Public • Land Surveyors Works • Colorado - ▪ KML for Group • Surveyors ▪ PHD • Connecticut - ▪ aw Enforcement Resources • Delaware - ▪ Aerial Group • Florida - Photogrammetry ▪ Cadastral • Georgia -
  4. 4. ▪ Law for ▪ Product • Hawaii - Surveyors Reviews • Idaho - ▪ Creative ▪ HP48 • Illinois - Construction Calculators • ▪ Geodetic/GPS ▪ Computer • Indiana - ▪ Out of Plumb Help for • Kansas - Fans Surveyors • Kentucky - ▪ Formulas • Louisiana - that Work • ▪ Female • Maine - Land • Maryland - Surveyors • Massachusetts - ▪ History of • Michigan - Surveying • Minnesota - ▪ Cartography • Mississippi - and • Missouri - Mapping • Montana - ▪ Odd or • Nevada - Funny • New Hampshire - Surveying • Stories • New Jersey - • New Mexico - • New York - • SURVEYING MAGAZINES • North Carolina - • Point of Beginning — The Oldest of • the Surveying Magazines • Ohio - • American Surveyor Magazine — A paid • Oklahoma - • Oregon - subscription print magazine - Just • became free…subscribe now • Pennsylvania - • GPS World — The latest GPS news • Rhode Island - for surveyors and other professions • South Carolina - • GeoPlace — GPS in the News • Tennessee - • Texas - • Cadalyst — Cad Information - Hugh • AutoLisp library • Utah - • Professional Surveyor — addresses the • Virginia - processes and tools of position and • measurement as well as the role of • Washington - • the surveyor • Wisconsin - • Earth Observation Magazine — EOM • West Virginia - provides up-to-date coverage of developments with satellite imagery, digital aerial photography, PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS digital topographic datasets and • National Surveyors Hall of Fame — by South dakota more! Society of Professiona Land Surveyors • GIS Monitor (weekly) — GIS Monitor • FSMS - Florida Survey and Mapping Society takes a fresh look at GIS software,
  5. 5. data, GPS, location-based services, • ISPLS - Indiana Society of Professional Land Surveyors — wireless and other industries and Professional society for Indiana Land Surveyors technologies that touch the location • IPLSA - Illinois Professional Land Surveyors Association — technology arena Professional society for Illinois Land SurveyorsGPS BOOKS • NCSS - North Carolina Society of Surveyors, Inc. — Society • GPS for Dummies by Joel McNamara — for North Carolina Land Surveyors Introduction for Beginners • National Society of Professional Surveyors - NSPS — National • GPS Made Easy by Lawrence Letham — Society of Professional Surveyors - NSPS A good book for those considering • American Association for Geodetic Surveying - AAGS — buying a GPS professional society of scientists and other • Geocaching for Dummies by Joel professionals overseeing the development and use of McNamara— Find a high-tech hobby Earth-referencing system in the great outdoors! Dig into this • The CURTA Calculator Page — Everything you want to fast-growing detective sport know about the CURTA Calculator including • The Essential Guide To Geocaching by simulators Mike Dyer — Caches or stashes of GOVERNMENT GPS LINKS provisions, hidden along a route • US Coast Guard (official GPS site) were a common occurrence in • US Coast Guard GPS Signal Specifications Lewis and Clark�s day when • US Geologic Survey • GPS for Land Surveyors by Jan Van Sickle • Tycho — Written by a land surveyor, for • Satellite Predictor land surveyors • SatNav Predictor • GPS Mapping by Rich Owings — • Berkley Satellite Tracker (ok, its not a gov site) Learning to use a GPS is fairly • TLE Archive straightforward; choosing which • NGS / NOAA GPS Site software to use is not. GPS • USGS Geographic Names Information System -- coordinates, Mapping � Make Your Own Maps elevation, population, and more • GPS Satellite Surveying by Alfred Leick • USGS GNIS Database (FTP format) — updated to cover emerging • Metric to Imperial conversion precise-point position technology • Canada: Geological Survey of Canada Online Purchasing Page • Introduction to GPS by Ahmed El- (and in French) -- on-line ordering system for their Topo Rabbany— includes an in-depth Maps, Geological Pub, Digital Products etc discussion on the errors and biases • New Zealand: Land Information New Zealand -- official that affect GPS measurements, government mapping agency of NZ along with guidance • Switzerland: Federal Office of TopographyGOVERNMENT GIS INFORMATION • UK: The Ordnance Survey of Great Britain -- the official(CANADA) mapping agency of the United Kingdom • BC Land Title & Survey - OnLine • USA: US Census US Census GIS FAQ Cadastre GOVERNMENT ASSOCIATIONS • BC OnLine - BC E-Government Services • District of West Vancouver - WestMap
  6. 6. • City of Burnaby - BURNABY MAP • Federal Base Network Surveys — The Federal Base • City of Richmond - GIS INQUIRY Network provides spatial reference control that has • City of Surrey - COSMOS some of the most precise accuracies available today. • District of North Vancouver - GeoWeb • US National Weather Service (High Speed Internet) — • City of North Vancouver - GIS Website Interactive US Weather Service Maps and Charts • City of Coquitlam - Q the Map • The Library of Congress — The name says it all. • City of Port Coquitlam - POCO Map • NGS Survey Mark Recovery Form — This form can be used • City of Vancouver - VanMap to submit recovery information for survey marks to the • The Corporation of Delta - DeltaMap National Geodetic Survey. • City of Langley - Geo - Property • US Copyright Office — Copyright is a form of protection Information System provided by the laws of the United States • City of Abbotsford - Webmap • National Geodetic Survey — NOAAs National GeodeticGIS INFORMATION (GENERAL) Survey (NGS) defines and manages a national • coordinate system. • • Download NGS PC Software • • Corpscon Version 6.0 — Corps of Engineers Coordinate • ConversionSURVEYING ASSOCIATIONS • NGS PC Software — Geiod03, LaPlace corrections,INTERNATIONAL Coordinate conversions…its all here • International Federation of Surveyors • NGS Datasheet Page — Datasheets, ShapeFiles, Tidal • Alberta Land Surveyors Association Benchmarks, Recovery Sheets… The Source • Association of Canada Lands Surveyors • — Extensive • Association of Ontario Land Surveyors library of information on GPS for the professional and • Canadian Institute of Geomatics the consumer • Corporation of LS of the Province of SURVEYING RELATED PATENTS British Columbia • Laser Land Surveying Apparatus With Digital Display — A • Saskatchewan Land Surveyors Association land-surveying apparatus for use with a laser beamINTERNATIONAL SURVEYING COMPANIES source to obtain grade and range distances has a gradeDIRECTORY pole with a laser beam detection unit slidably mounted [thanks LSRP] thereon AFRICA • Method and Apparatus of Computer Aided Surveying for • 4Y Geo Informatics Pty Ltd obtaining Digital, 3D Topographic Information — Method of • Riding & Watt Professional Land Surveyors surveying for the compilation of digital files of • Geoland Surveys detailed, three-dimensional, topographic data, • CESS - Civil Engineering & General consisting of co-ordinates of points in the terrain and Surveying Services the corresponding topographic point • J.J. Synman Professional Land • Pole Tilt Sensor for Surveyor Range Pole — A surveyor range Surveyors • Johnston Associates pole, for example, equipped with a GPS receiver and • McCann & ONeill antenna mounted at the top end, a battery mounted at • Papenhagen & Associates the bottom end to better balance the pole, a tilt sensor • Westervelt & Knoetze Professional and a direction sensor Land Surveyors ARGENTINA
  7. 7. • Mertind Argentina S.A. • Position Sensing System for Surveying and Grading — A• Miguel Angel Tous - Agrimensor position sensing apparatus and method useful for• Lanari, Calza & Associates surveying, marking, and grading implement sensing AUSTRALIA and control is disclosed• K F Murphy & Associates - Consulting Surveyors • Computer Assisted Video Surveying and Method Thereof —• Data Survey Pty. Ltd. One embodiment of the invention is a method of using BRAZIL a computer to assist a land based video survey. Initially,• Poligono Topografia, LTDA Promap a video recording of a control location and a survey Topografia Ltda area is produced. BULGARIA • High Speed Well Surveying and Land Navigation — A land• GEOCAD 93 vehicle navigation apparatus incorporates an inertial• SPOT angular rate sensor on the vehicle and having a CANADA sensitive axis, and an inertial acceleration or tilt sensor• Rudy Mak Surveying, LTD CADASTRAL SURVEYING• Terra Pacific Land Surveying Ltd.• Derek G. Graham Limited • Association of Canada Lands Surveyors• Isaac & Denchuk• Coote, Hiley, Jemmett Limited • Canadian Council of Land Surveyors• Richard A. Preiss Surveying Ltd.• Taylor & MacKeen Surveys Limited• Robert T. Stephenson Surveying, • Canada Centre for Cadastral Management - Natural Resources Inc. Canada• Montieth & Sutherland Limited• Payette, Himma & Delorme, Ltd. • Association of British Columbia Land Surveyors• N.C.L. Geomatics• J.D. Barnes Limited• Butler Sundvick & Associates • Association of Ontario Land Surveyors• Everest Geodetics• Klau Geomatics • Lower Mainland British Columbia Land Surveyors Group• Cadastral Geomatics International, SURVEYING METHODS Inc.• Fairhall, Moffatt & Woodland Limited, OLS DYNAMIC OR KINEMATIC GPS• Jaques Caron, Arpenteur-Geometre• Browne Johnson and Associates Dymanic or Kinematic GPS is becoming the default method of• Burnham Land Surveys• Robert Allen and Company navigation for small craft as the complex computations• Holstead & Redmond Limited previously necessary are all performed on-board the receiver.• Eastern Land Surveys, Ltd. They work independently of the weather, 24 hours per day ( but• Dhaliwal Oliver Wong Professional not under trees or water), perform spheroidal calculations and Land Surveying, Inc. automatically convert between coordinate datums.• McNeice Harvey DAmico Surveyors, LTD• Beninger Surveying, LTD STATIC GPS• Hol & Associates• Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited The highest level of accuracy obtainable with GPS requires use GUAM & PHILIPPINES of two units, one as a base station and the other visiting the• Prudencio R. Balagtas & Associates, Inc. points of interest. It is then possible to compute the vector
  8. 8. • GeoAnalytika Technical and between these two units to a much higher degree of accuracy Consultancy Services than we can compute absolute latitude and longitude. ITALY Practically all the systematic errors that can occur in GPS• Milano Antonio & Associates positioning can be eliminated if we measure to a set of satellites INDIA simultaneously from two receivers, a process known as• Geo Spatial Dimensions• SaNaS Technologies Pvt. Ltd., differential positioning.• Secon Surveys• Arya Surveying Company DIFFERENTIAL POSITIONING• Goodland Surveys• Wasisht Engineers and Consultants• Hitech Surveys The typical configuration for differential positioning is shown• A K R Surveying Company Pvt. LTD. below, two units receiving signals from the same constellation• Theovel Surveys of satellites at the same time. The relative position of the two• Premier Consulting Engineers & units can be determined to a very high accuracy, in many cases Surveyors PVT. LTD. better than a centimetre. If one of these units was located over a• Pallavi Surveys point for which we had ground control coordinates it is then ISRAEL• Mashav Surveys, LTD theoretically possible to obtain highly accurate coordinates for• Tomer Civil Engineering Services & the other point. This is indeed the case, providing all the Surveying computations are performed in the one coordinate system.• RGM Geodesy and Surveying, Ltd. JAMAICA This technique can be also applied if one of the receivers is on a• J.R. Mais & Associates Ltd. moving platform, or is moved between points of interest while MALAYSIA the base station remains fixed and continues to observe to the• Ground Data Systems Sdn. Bhd. same satellites. This produces new procedures known as rapid- NEW GUINEA static positioning, kinematic positioning and pseudo-kinematic• Niugini Surveys positioning. In general the units store the observations to the SPAIN satellites and are downloaded to PC type computers at the end• OJEDAS, Inc. of the project. The differential solution is then computed using THE NETHERLANDS the complete set of data from all the receivers. The latest• GeoComp Nederland hardware systems can transmit the corrections between the base NEW ZEALAND station and the rover allowing the solution to be determined on-• Knight & Associates CKL Surveys Ltd. the-fly so that positioning accuracies of around 0.01m are NIGERIA available in real-time.• Aero-Geodetic Services (Nig) Ltd GLOSSARY OF SURVEYING AND MAPPING TERMS• Oak Surveys Aerial photography Photography of part of the earths surface, PAKISTAN but is not rectified to account for differences in scale throughout• Geomatics and Engineering the photograph. Altitude The vertical angle between the plane Services Private Limited of the horizon and the line to the object which is observed. In• A.W.MIR Associates• Chaudhery Brothers photogrammetry, altitude applies to elevation above a datum of PHILIPPINES points in space. Aneroid barometer An instrument used to• GENSON Surveying & Engineering obtain heights above sea level by measuring atmospheric Consultants pressure. Since atmospheric pressure varies with the height POLAND above or below sea level, the height can be read directly from
  9. 9. • GEODOR Land Surveying Services the height scale on the barometer. Archaeological record The Bono Sp. CYW. Poland archaeological record exists as a repository. Inside lie the PUERTO RICO decaying material remains of ancient beings and civilisations.• Professional land Surveyors, PSC As archaeologists approach their work, they encounter raw data• Lalr Surveyors• JJC Land Surveyors from the archaeological record that serves as the source of their• RLDA Surveying & Mapping evidence to interpret. ATS The Automated Title System is the• VS Surveying Services, Inc. computerised legal register of freehold land, State tenure land REPUBLIC of IRELAND and Reserve land in Queensland. The system also automates• Patrick J. McCormack, LS, elements of the document receiving, lodgement, tracking and Hydrogragher registration processes. Australian Height Datum The datum RUSSIA used to determine elevations in Australia. The AHD is based on• The Laboratory of Inertial Geodetic mean sea level being zero elevation. Azimuth The horizontal Systems (LIGS) SAUDIA ARABIA angle measured from the meridian planes (a plane which• RGF Surveys contains the polar axis, being true north). Baseline A surveyed SLOVAKIA line usually several kilometres long. It is established with the• GAMO Ltd. utmost precision available at the time. Surveys refer to the SINGAPORE baseline for coordination and correlation. The baseline• LEE BOON HAW REGISTERED accumulates distances throughout a triangulation network, SURVEYORSurveytech Pte Ltd extending to other baselines, providing further integrated THAILAND control. Beam compass A drafting instrument used for drawing• CPS Surveying Co., LTD. circles with a long radius. The point and scribe are separate• AAM (Thailand) Co., Ltd. units, mounted to slide and clamp on a long beam. TURKEY Bearing An angle measured clockwise from a north line of 0�• SAGBAS Muhendislik LTD.STI. to a given surveyed line. Bench mark A permanent object,• ONSOY Engineering Co. natural or artificial, displaying a marked point whose elevation UNITED KINGDOM above or below an adopted datum is known. Blaze A mark• Geomatic Engineering Ltd• SV Land Modelling Ltd carved in a tree trunk at about breast height, signifying close• Airlie Geomatics proximity of a survey line Cadastral A Latin term from• Plowman Craven & Associates cadastre referring to a registry of lands. Cadastral surveying is• Merrett Survey Partnership the process of determining and defining land ownership and• Warner Land Surveys Limited• Land Data Surveys boundaries. Cadastral map A map depicting land parcels and• SLC Associates associated nomenclature. Cartography The art and science of• Geospatial Engineering Services the production of maps. This includes the construction of Ltd. projections, design, compilation, drafting and reproduction.• Digital Surveys, Ltd. Chart Special purpose navigation maps chiefly used for UKRAINE nautical, aeronautical and mapping of the cosmos. CISP The• Donetsk Geodetic Center Computer Inventory of Survey Plans is a database that provides VIETNAM current and historical survey plan information. It includes• Geomatics Consulting International (Vietnam) images of all survey plans registered in Queensland. ClinometerUNITED STATES - VIRGIN ISLANDS An instrument used to determine the angle of elevation or• Gary M. Bourdan, PC depression. A De Lisles Pendent Clinometer was used by• Brian Mosely and Associates, Inc. surveyors and engineers to set out slopes and gradients in the
  10. 10. • BGM Engineers & Surveyors, LLC construction of paths, tracks and roads. Compass The magnetic WEST INDIES compass has a pivoting magnetised needle that always points to • Anthony G. A. Allison & Associates magnetic north (geological features may influence readings). • Earl Cenac & Associates The compass circumference is divided into degrees from which • Advanced Land Surveying • CANE Associates Co, Ltd. a bearing of a chosen direction from magnetic north can beINTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS determined. A compass magnetic bearing must be converted toASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES a grid bearing for plotting on a map. Contour interval The • Association of Consulting difference in elevation between adjacent contours as delineated Surveyors,New South Wales, Australia on a map. Contours Lines joining points of equal height as • Consiglio Nazionale Geometri (CNG), shown on a topographic map. Contour lines that are relatively Italy (National Council of Surveyors) (in Italian) close together depict an area of steep terrain on the earths • Council of European Geodetic surface. Crown land Land belonging to the reigning sovereign. Surveyors (CLGE) / Comit� de � Datum A mathematical representation that best fits the shape of � Liaison des G�om�tres � the earth. Accurate mapping and coordinate systems must be Europ�ens� • Institution of Civil Engineering based on a datum. A new datum known as the Geocentric Datum of Surveyors (ICES), U.K. Australia (GDA) was introduced in 2000 to bring Australia in line • Institution of Surveyors, The, Australia with the rest of the worlds coordinate systems. GDA is also • International Federation of totally compatible with satellite based navigation systems, for � � Surveyors / F�d�ration example Global Positioning Systems (GPS). The previous datum � internationale des g�om�tres � • International Federation of used in Australia was known as the Australian Geodetic Datum Surveyors Commission 7 (FIG7) (AGD). However, this was restricted because it was defined to • New Zealand Institute of Surveyors best fit the shape of the earth in the Australian region only. The � � • Ordre des G�om�tres-Experts, change in datums had a major consequence to all coordinates. France Both latitudes/longitudes and eastings/northings were shifted by • Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS), U.K. approximately 200 metres in a north-easterly direction. DCDB • Society of Chartered Surveyors The Digital Cadastral Database is the spatial representation of (SCS), Ireland every parcel of land in Queensland. This is along with its legal • Spatial Sciences Institute, Australia Lot on Plan description and relevant attributes. It provides the • The Survey Association (TSA), U.K. map base for systems dealing with land related information. • UKGEOforum, U.K. Description of country As described in the 1916 Rules and Directions for the Guidance of Surveyors: "Country, whetherSURVEYING SCHOOLS, COLLEGES AND undulating, broken, or rugged; timber, whether open, thick,TRAINING heavy, or with undergrowth; scrubs, their character and Cincinnati State Technical & situation, should be specially noted in field-books, as the rate of Community College - additional payment that may be allowed on such account is Engineering Technologies based on the information supplied". EDME Electronic Distance Measuring Equipment. This instrument measures distancesEast Tennessee State University - Surveying using light or sound waves. Elevation The height above meanand Mapping Science Program sea level. ERTS Earth Resources Technology Satellite. This was later renamed Landsat. GDA94 The geodetic coordinate ofMichigan Technology University - SurveyingProgram latitude and longitude generated using GDA as the datum as at 1 January 1994. Geocentric datum A datum which has its origin
  11. 11. at the Earths centre of mass. This datum can therefore be usedNew Jersey Institute of Technology - Surveying anywhere on the planet and be compatible with the same datumEngineering and Technology Program anywhere else on the planet. Geodesy The science andThe Ohio State University - Dept. of Civil and mathematical calculations of the shape and size of the Earth.Environmental Engineering & Geodetic Science Geographical coordinates A point on a map given as latitude and longitude readings. The values are given as degrees,Oregon Institute of Technology - Surveying minutes and seconds. Geographic Information Systems GIS isProgram the spatial capture of themed data layers and the storing,Penn State Wilkes-Barre - College of analysing and displaying of the geographically referencedEngineering and Surveying Program information. A GIS also includes the procedures, software, hardware, operating personnel and spatial data associated withPurdue University - School of Civil Engineering the system. Global Positioning System GPS is a satellite basedhttp://rangerschool.esf.eduSuny - ESF Ranger School navigation system originally developed by the United States Department of Defence. A GPS receiver calculates a positionTexas A&M University - Corpus Christi - Dept. of by measuring distances to four or more satellites of a possibleComputers & Mathematics 24. These orbit the Earth at all times. Graticule A network of crossing lines on a map representing parallels of latitude andUniversity of Wyoming - Civil and ArchitecturalEngineering meridians of longitude as defined by the projection. Grid A group of parallel lines that run perpendicular to another groupUniversity of Folorida - Geomatica Student of parallel lines to form a map coverage of squares. GridAssociation coordinates A point on a map given as an easting and northingACSM Accredited Schools and Programs reading. The values are given in metres. Grid north The direction of the vertical grid lines shown on a topographic map.SURVEYING EDUCATION SCHOOLS The difference between grid north and true north is referred to • Alfred State College • ASCE Distance Learning as grid convergence. Gunters chain A distance measuring • Asheville-Buncombe Technical device composed of 100 metal links fastened together with College rings. The length of the chain is 66 feet. It was invented in • Auburn University Distance about 1620 by English astronomer, Edmund Gunter. Hunter- Learning gatherer A member of a society who gains their subsistence in • Austin Community College • Bates Technical College the wild on food obtained by hunting and foraging. • Bellingham Technical College Hydrography Features including rivers, streams, lakes, swamps • California State Polytechnic and other water related features. Hypsometric tinting The use of University different colours to signify changing elevations on a • California State University - Fresno topographic map. Latitude The angular distance along a • Central Piedmont Community meridian measured from the Equator, either north or College south.LeClanche Cell The cell consists of a glass vessel into • Cincinnati State Technical College which a zinc rod and a cylindrical pot of porous earthenware is • College of the Canyons placed. The earthenware pot holds a carbon plate. A mixture of • Columbus State Community College equal parts of carbon and needle binoxide of manganese is • Community College of Baltimore packed around this plate. To set the cell into action, the glass County vessel is nearly filled with a saturated solution of sal-ammoniac. • East Tennessee State University A reaction takes place and a voltage of 1.46 volts is generated. • Evergreen Valley College
  12. 12. • Ferris State University Lifeways A term often used within the discipline of• FIG Surveying Education Database archaeology and denotes a customary way of living, or a way of• Flathead Valley Community College life among people.• Glenville State College Lithography This is based on the principle that water and• Louisiana State University grease dont mix. After an image is drawn on limestone with a• Macomb Community College greasy medium, the stone is dampened and ink is applied with a• Metropolitan State College of Denver roller. The greasy image repels the water and retains the ink.• MSCD Distance Learning Paper is then pressed onto the surface. Lockspit Trenches dug• Michigan Technological University beside a peg or post along the survey lines from the corner of a• Michigan Tech. Distance Learning subject parcel. An example clause taken from the 1916 Rules• Montgomery College and Regulations for the Guidance of Surveyors states:• Murray State University• New Hampshire Community On each side of the split pegs, and distant about one foot, Technical College lockspits, three feet in length and six inches in depth, are ... to• New Jersey Institute of be dug in the direction of the surveyed line. On very stony Technology lands, rows of stones placed in the direction of the surveyed line• New Mexico State University• Nicolet Area Technical College may be substituted for dug-out lockspits. Log tables A set of• Ohio State University tables used to abridge arithmetical calculations, by the use of• Oklahoma State University - addition and subtraction rather than multiplication and division. Oklahoma City Longitude The angular distance measured from a reference• Old Dominion University• Oregon Institute of Technology meridian, Greenwich, either east or west. Magnetic north The• Oregon State University direction from a point on the earths surface to the north• Palomar College magnetic pole. The difference between magnetic north and true• Paul Smiths College north is referred to as magnetic declination. Map A• Peninsula College• Penn State University - Wilkes- representation of the earths surface where constituancies and Barre related nomenclature are portrayed to a specific format. Map• Pennsylvania College of projection A means of systematically representing the meridians Technology and parallels of the earth onto a plane surface. Map scale The• Phoenix College relationship between a distance on a map and the corresponding• Purdue University• Red Vector distance on the earths surface. Mark An object, for example an• Renton Technical College imprinted metal disc, used to designate a survey point. It is• Sacramento City College usually associated with terms such as reference mark, azimuth• San Antonio College mark or bench mark. Material culture A term that refers to the• Sandhills Community College physical objects created by a culture. This could include the• San Jacinto College buildings, tools and other artefacts created by the members of a• Santa Rosa Junior College society. Measuring scales Measuring scales allow the user to• Santiago Canyon College represent a subject or drawing to a recognisable reduction or• Southern Illinois University constant ratio of the actual or proposed size. Many early scales• Southern Polytechnic State University were made of silver, ivory, bone or boxwood. Mercator• Southwest Missouri State projection A conformal cylindrical projection tangential to the University Equator. Rhumb lines on this projection are represented as• Stark State College straight lines. Meridian A straight line connecting the North and• Texas A&M - Corpus Christi• Texas State Technical College (Waco) South Poles and traversing points of equal longitude. Metes and
  13. 13. • Thomas Edison State College bounds The oldest known form of describing the perimeter of a • Towson University parcel of land. The method of describing the boundary of a • Troy State University • Tyler Junior College parcel of land in which the bearing and length of each • University of Alaska - Anchorage successive line is given. Lines may also be described as • University of Arkansas - Little following some apparent line, for example the bank of a stream. Rock MGA94 The Universal Transverse Mercator coordinates of • University of Arkansas - Fayetteville eastings, northings, and zones generated from GDA94 are • University of Arkansas - Monticello called Map Grid of Australia 1994 coordinates. Mosaic A • University of California - Riverside number of continuous aerial photographs overlapped and joined • University of Florida together by way of best fit to form a single non-rectified • University of Houston image. Orthophoto Aerial photograph images transformed using • University of Maine an orthophoto verification process to remove distortions and • University of Texas at Tyler capable of registering perfectly with cadastral data. Overlay • University of Wisconsin- Madison • University of Wyoming Outreach Information recorded on a transparent medium, superimposed • Vincennes University and registered to one or more other records. Peg Used to mark • Wake Technical Community survey corners on smaller portions or acreage. The size of the College peg was determined by the Rules and Directions for the • Westwood College of Technology Guidance of Surveyors editions. These referred to various landEDUCATION IN LAND SURVEYINGEducation in Surveying: Why Go to College? acts of the time from the 1860s onwards. Photogrammetry TheIn the formal surveying area, it is important to science of obtaining reliable measurements by photography.have core mathematical skills such as algebra, Photolithography The process used in a semiconductorgeometry, trigonometry, and calculus. operation, which transfers the pattern of an image held on aThis article appeared in the November 2004 photomask, onto a flat substrate surface. It follows similarissue of Professional Surveyor.Land Surveying Scholarships Available principles to conventional lithography. PLI The PropertyColleges and Universities Offering Land Location Index is a database which provides a link between theSurveying Programs parcel identifier (lot on plan) and its location address. It isABET Accredited Surveying/Geomatics considered the point of truth for location addresses.Programs Rectification The mathematical and calculated correction madeONLINE SCHOOLS FOR CERTIFICATION to an aerial photograph to show its true ground position at a consistent scale. Rhumb line A straight line connecting two AUBURN UNIVERSITY points on the earths surface which cuts all meridians at the same angle. The line maintains a constant bearing. RIME The • 2007 National Readjustment of the North Resource Information Management Environment provides for American Datum 1983 the storage, management and dissemination of extensible digital • ALTA/ACSM Land Title Survey (V06E topographic data held within the Department of Natural hrs changed 04-01-07) Resources and Water. It is a seamless, multi-scale environment • Colonial Land System and the Building of covering Queensland. Run A large area of land in which America squatters could depasture their stock without a lot of fencing • Construction Surveying necessary. Employed shepherds looked after various areas of • Geodesy for Engineers and Surveyors the runs. Runs became consolidated pastoral holdings. Many of • History of Surveying Instruments: Impact the runs were about 25 sq miles in area and later became and Accuracy parishes. Sahul This is the name given to the continent when
  14. 14. • History of the Government Land Office Australia and New Guinea were a single landmass during the Pleistocene era. During this period, sea levels were • Improving Surveying Field Procedures approximately 150 metres lower than present levels. using the Total Station Sandy Blight A laymans term for chronic infection of the eyes • Improving Surveying Field Procedures with the trachoma organism, possibly leading to blindness. It is using the Total Station believed early European settlers brought the trachoma to • Land Surveying Ethics - Mississippi Australia. Their poor hygiene evident in the low standard • Professional Ethics for the Kentucky Land housing conditions, along with the dirt, heat and flies, caused Surveyor the disease to become widespread. As living conditions • Professional Ethics for the Land Surveyor improved, Sandy Blight in Australia had all but disappeared by • Rectangular Land System: Subdivision of the 1930s. SCDB The Survey Control Database is a Public Lands computerised record of the States geodetic survey control data. • Role of Engineers and Surveyors in Surveyors place and connect to these survey control points. The Geographic Information Systems geodetic network provides a spatial reference framework for all • Soils for Pavements surveys. • Standards of Practice for Surveying in Selection Runs were subdivided into selections for farming, Alabama agriculture and grazing homesteads. After a period of yearly • State Plane Coordinates rental payments, the selector could often obtain freehold • Surveying with GPS (V05D hrs ownership. SMIS SmartMap Information Services is an changed 05-01-07) electronic application that accesses, integrates and delivers • Understanding Boundary Law - Case Law (through the SmartMap interface) data available from many and Principles of Surveying Law land-related datasets. These include ATS, DCDB, CISP, PLI, • Vertical Datums and Leveling SCDB, Place Names and Aerial Photography Databases. SpatialCOLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES information Data that has a geographical reference to a location on the earths surface. This includes latitude and longitude co-Cincinnati State Technical & Community College ordinates, street address and lot number on plan. SunPOZ- Engineering Technologies Developed within the Dept of Natural Resources and Water, SunPOZ uses Virtual Reference Station technology by bringingEast Tennessee State University - Surveying together GPS architecture, networked computers and mobileand Mapping Science Program phone communications to output centimetre-accurate positionsMichigan Technology University - Surveying in real time. Survey post Posts used on corners of large ruralProgram size blocks of land or town section corners. They were sharpened to a point, buried in the ground and exposedNew Jersey Institute of Technology - SurveyingEngineering and Technology Program approximately 36" out of the ground. Theodolite Instrument used by a surveyor for measuring horizontal and vertical angles.The Ohio State University - Dept. of Civil and Tindale, Norman A well known Australian anthropologist bornEnvironmental Engineering & Geodetic Science in 1900. He was the curator of anthropology at the South Australian Museum for over 30 years. He is remembered for hisOregon Institute of Technology - SurveyingProgram work with the Australian Aborigines where he undertook the task of mapping Aboriginal Australia into language andPenn State Wilkes-Barre - College of territory groups along with the recording of numerousEngineering and Surveying Program Aboriginal genealogies. Topographic map A detailed
  15. 15. representation of cultural, hydrographic relief and vegetationPurdue University - School of Civil Engineering features. These are depicted on a map on a designatedhttp://rangerschool.esf.eduSuny - ESF Ranger School projection and at a designated scale. Transverse Mercator Projection A projection similar to the Mercator projection, but hasTexas A&M University - Corpus Christi - Dept. of the cylinder tangent at a particular meridian rather than at theComputers & Mathematics equator. Trigonometrical survey A concise method of surveying in which the stations are points on the ground located at verticesUniversity of Wyoming - Civil and ArchitecturalEngineering of a chain or network of triangles. The angles of the triangles are measured instrumentally and the sides are derived byUniversity of Folorida - Geomatica Student computation from selected sides termed as baselines. True northAssociation The direction to the Earths geographic North Pole. VRS VirtualLAND SURVEYING HISTORY Reference Station. See SunPOZ Weichsel glaciation The last glaciation of the ice age. An ice age is known as a period of low Virtual Museum of Virtual Archive of Wild temperatures in the earths climate causing an expansion of the Surveying Heerbrugg earths polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers. There have been Tesseract - Antique approximately four distinct ice ages during the earths history. The Compleat Surveyor Scientific Instruments LAND SURVEYORS UNITED ELSEWHERE ON THE WEB Vimeo World Boundaries - Cadastral,com Vox Walter J. Robillard Lingr (chat) Smithsonian Institute The Gemmary Myspace Whipple Museum Openzine Youtube Ohio History Central - Rittenhouse Journal Surveying Jobs Thomas Hutchins Scribd Mount Diablo Flickr Surveyors Historical Facebook Society SURVEYING BLOGS AUTODESK BLOGS Autodesk University Blog (BLAUG)LEGAL RESEARCH Autodesk University Blog (BLAUG)Vermont Statutes Between the Lines Beyond the PaperVT Supreme Court Opinions Heidi Hewetts Blog It’s Alive in the Labsupct.html(VT Reports 161-169) Knowledge Base Knowledge BaseUS Supreme Court Opinions Knowledge Base LT Unlimitedindex.html(1990 to Present) Lynn Allens BlogCornell Law Library The Dirt
  16. 16. Self Help Law Through the Interface CAD RELATED BLOGSSelf Help Law AECnews.comVT Bar Association AutoCAD Tips Newsletter AutoCADderVT Law School AutoCAD� GUI Test Beside the Cursor...EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS Beths CAD BlogPadding are passed to p, h1 and h3. blog nauseam • Occupational Outlook Surveyors, CAD - DRAFTING - CORNER Technicians — Surveyors, CAD Insider Cartographers, Photogrammetrists, CAD Monkeys and Surveying Technicians CAD Shack • Worlds Most Popular GPS Information CAD-e-Corner Resource — Mostly for consumer CADDHELP grade gps users CADDManager Blog • Surveying Units and Terms — list of Blog units of measure, surveying terms, CADing && Coding surveyors slang and abbreviations Caveat emptor. • CIA World Factbook — provides CG Users Blog national-level information on Circle Around (Ralph S) countries, territories, and Deelip Menezes dependencies, but not subnational Gizmos Grabowski administrative units within a HyperPics: Beyond the UI country. JTB World Blog • Global Positioning System (GPS) Kenneth Wong Blog Resources — GPS Resources Knowing What You Dont Know About CAD • Make your own Graph Paper LT is still AutoCAD • FEMA Elevation Certificate and Map 3D and Murphs Law Instructions (pdf format)— Download Mistress of the Dorkness the revised FEMA Elevation NOVEDGE Newsletter - February 2008 Certificate - mandatory January 01, OpenDCL 2007 Outside The Box • FEMA Elevation Certificate (doc format) Rockmasters CAD Resources — Download the revised FEMA The CAD Geek Blog Elevation Certificate - mandatory The CAD Industry January 01, 2007 The Lazy Drafter • NGS Datasheet Page — Datasheets, The LT Side of Things ShapeFiles, Tidal Benchmarks, The Mad Cadder Recovery Sheets… The Source TLConsulting Using Raster Design with AutoCAD
  17. 17. • Partial Index to Articles Authored or Co- Will render for food... Authored by Knud E. Hermansen — WorldCAD Access Aticles by Knud hermansen covering a variety of subjects, all of SURVEYING IMAGES AND MAPS ONLINE value to the practicing Land • Aerolist Photographers Online Photos Surveyor • BLM Oregon and Washington GLO Plats• Set Up a Wireless Network in a Small • Digital Globe Office — Microsofts excellent • EarthaMaps tutorial on Wireless Network Setup • Earth From Space• NGS Manual- State Plane Coordinate • Globe Explorer System 1983 — The Official NGS • Imagery Intelligence Gallery Document in pdf format • Land Survey Information System• BLM 1973 Surveying Manual — If you • Map of Principal Meridians dont have a hard copy of this • MapQuest manual, read or download a pdf • copy here • MapTech Map Server• Restoration of Lost or Obliterated Corners • Nebraska State Survey Maps and Subdivision of Sections — A • NOAA EVP retyped copy of the original • TerraFly document in pdf format.. see • Microsoft TerraServer disclaimer • NASA Photo Gallery• Virtual Museum of Surveying — • NIMA Geospatial Engine consists of exhibits which cover a • National Atlas of the United States variety of topics related to • Terra: The EOS Flagship surveying history. •• Museum of Surveying — The Museum • TopoZone of Surveying is the only museum in • University of Texas Map Library North America dedicated solely to • University of Wisconsin Satellite Images the surveying and mapping • US Census TIGER Maps profession. • USGS EROS Center• Land Surveyor Rules & Regulations — • USGS GISDATA Map Studio Compiled by Land Surveyors • USGS Mapping Reference Page - very good • Visible Earth reference • Yahoo Maps• MIT Free Online Courses — Free • Washington Shoreline Aerial Photos Surveying, Engineering, Math and USENET NEWSGROUPS OF INTEREST TO SURVEYORS Science Classes by MIT • sci.engr.surveying - Surveying Newsgroup• POB - — The first and the • sci.geo.satellite-nav - GPS Newsgroup best online forum for Professional • comp.infosystems.gis - GIS Newsgroup Land Surveyors • sci.engr.civil - Civil Engineering Newsgroup • comp.cad.autocad - AutoCAD Newsgroup
  18. 18. • Surveying and Mediation: New SATELLITE TRACKING Opportunities in an Old Role— Jerry D. • Sam Wormleys (Iowa State)GPS/Glosnass Satellite Taylor, P.S., J.D. Tracking Page • A collection of geodesy and related • NASA Satellite Tracking -- for IBM PC resources — Michael R. Craymer, • Satellite FAQ Ph.D., Geodetic Survey Division, • Photos of the GPS Satellites (Block IIa) Geomatics Canada MISCELLANEOUS LAND SURVEYING LINKSUNITS OF MEASURE • Civil Engineering Resources • Acre - The (English) acre is a unit • Purdue University - Land Surveying Engineering • Autocad Shareware of area equal to 43,560 square feet, • U.S. Geographic Name lookup -Locate creeks and other or 10 square chains, or 160 square features named in deeds poles. It derives from a plowing • U.S. GenWeb - Gateway to local history and genealogy area that is 4 poles wide and a • Cyndis List of Land Record Sites - An excellent list of furlong (40 poles) long. A square related sites mile is 640 acres. The Scottish acre • FindLaw - Legal resources, including Property Law is 1.27 English acres. The Irish acre • Search US CENSUS Bureau is 1.6 English acres. • Arpent - Unit of length and area American Congress on used in France, Louisiana, and Surveying and Mapping Canada. As a unit of length, approximately 191.8 feet (180 old French pied, or foot). The (square) National Society of Professional arpent is a unit of area, Surveyors approximately .845 acres, or 36,802 square feet. Michigan Technological • Chain - Unit of length usually University Surveying Program understood to beGunters chain, but possibly variant by locale. See also Ferris State University Rathbones chain. The name comes Surveying/Engineering Program from the heavy metal chain of 100 links that was used by surveyors to measure property bounds. • Colpa - Old Irish measure of land equal to that which can support a horse or cow for a year. Approximately an Irish acre of good land. • Compass - One toise. • Engineers Chain - A 100 foot chaincontaining 100 links of one foot apiece.
  19. 19. • Furlong - Unit of length equal to 40 poles (220 yards). Its name derives from "furrow long", the length of a furrow that oxen can plow before they are rested and turned. See Gunters chain.• Ground - A unit of area equal to 2400 sq. ft., or 220 sq. meters, used in India.• Gunters Chain - Unit of length equal to 66 feet, or 4 poles. Developed by English polymath Edmund Gunter early in the 1600s, the standard measuring chain revolutionized surveying. Gunters chain was 22 yards long, one tenth of a furlong, a common unit of length in the old days. An area one chain wide by ten chains long was exactly an acre. In 1595 Queen Elizabeth I had the mile redefined from the old Roman value of 5000 feet to 5280 feet in order for it to be an even number of furlongs. A mile is 80 chains.• Hectare - Metric unit of area equal to 10,000 square meters, or 2.471 acres, or 107,639 square feet.• Hide - A very old English unit of area, a hide was of variable size depending on locale and the quality of the land. It was the amount of land to support a family, and ranged from 60 to 180 acres. After the Norman conquest in 1066 it became standardized at around 120 acres.• Hundred - An adminstrative area larger than a village and smaller than a county. In England it was 100 hides in size, and the term was used for early settlements in Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware.
  20. 20. • Labor - The labor is a unit of area used in Mexico and Texas. In Texas it equals 177.14 acres (or 1 million square varas).• League (legua) - Unit of area used in the southwest U.S., equal to 25 labors, or 4428 acres (Texas), or 4439 acres (California). Also, a unit of length-- approximately three miles.• Link - Unit of length equal to 1/100 chain (7.92 inches).• Morgen - Unit of area equal to about .6309 acres. It was used in Germany, Holland and South Africa, and was derived from the German word Morgen ("morning"). It represented the amount of land that could be plowed in a morning.• Out - An out was ten chains. When counting out long lines, the chain carriers would put a stake at the end of a chain, move the chain and put a stake at the end, and so on until they ran "out" of ten stakes.• Perch - See pole .• Point - A point of the compass. There are four cardinal points (North, South, East, West), and 28 others yielding 32 points of 11.25 degrees each. A survey lines direction could be described as a compass point, as in "NNE" (north northeast). To improve precision, the points would be further subdivided into halves or quarters as necessary, for example, "NE by North, one quarter point North". In some areas, "and by" meant one half point, as in "NE and by North".• Pole - Unit of length and area. Also known as a perch or rod. As a unit
  21. 21. of length, equal to 16.5 feet. A mile is 320 poles. As a unit of area, equal to a square with sides one pole long. An acre is 160 square poles. It was common to see an area referred to as "87 acres, 112 poles", meaning 87 and 112/160 acres. • Pueblo - A Spanish grant of less than 1000 acres. • Rancho - A Spanish grant of more than 1000 acres. • Rathbones Chain - A measuring chain two poles, or 33 feet, in length. • Rod - See pole • Rood - Unit of area usually equal to 1/4 acre. • Toise - Traditional French unit of length equal to 6 old French pieds or feet, or 6.4 English feet. • Vara - Unit of length (the "Spanish yard") used in the U.S. southwest. The vara is used throughout the Spanish speaking world and has values around 33 inches, depending on locale. The legal value in Texas was set to 33 1/3 inches early in the 1900s. • Virgate - An old English unit of area, equal to one quarter of a hide. The amount of land needed to support a person.SURVEYORS SLANG • Balls - Slang for numeric .00, as in 4-balls (4.00) • Beep - Verb. To use a magnetic detector to look for iron pipe, etc. • Boot - To raise the levels rod some number of inches so as to be visible to the instrument man, e.g. "Boot 6!" means "raise it 6 inches."
  22. 22. • Blue topping - In road or grading work the surveyor sets stakes and paints their tops blue to represent the required elevation. Graders then work to just cover the blue tops of the stakes.• Bug - To use a magnetic locator to search for an iron pipe.• Bullseye - Zero degrees of inclination.• Burn - See shoot• Burn one - Measure from the one foot mark on the tape rather than from the end of the tape in order to increase the accuracy of the measurement.• Cut line - To clear vegetation for a line of sight between two survey control points.• Double nickel - Slang for .55, as in 6-double nickel (6.55)• Dummy or dummy-end - The base or zero end of a tape or chain, as in "hold dummy at the face of the curb."• EDM - Electromagnetic Distance Measurement device, the instrument used by modern surveyors that replaces the use of measurement chains. It determines distance by measuring the time it takes for laser light to reflect off a prism on top of a rod at the target location.• Ginney - A wooden dowel 6-9 inches in length with a sharpened end. Set in the ground to mark survey points.• Glass - The EDM prism.• Gun - Originally, a transit, but potentially any measurement instrument in use, e.g. theodolite,EDM, or Total Station.
  23. 23. • Hours - Degrees • Hub and Tack - A 2" by 2" stake that is set in the ground and that contains a nail ("tack") that precisely marks the point being set. • Jigger - Transit (Australia and New Zealand) • Legs - Tripod • Pogo - Prism pole • Punk - See railroad. • Railroad - Slang for eleven, as in 42-railroad (42.11) • Rodman - The person holding the rod with theEDM prism. This person is the modern version of a chain carrier or chain man. • Shoot - Measure distance with an EDM • Spike - Usually a 60 penny nail used to mark survey points in hard ground. • Stob - In the southeast U.S., a wooden stake or post, but in modern surveying, a piece of rebar used to mark a property boundary. • Tie - To locate something with the transit or other measuring device. • Top - Slang for eleven. See railroad. • Trip - Slang for triple digits, as in trip5 means 555, and 43trip7 means 43.777 • Turn - The rodman is told to stay in place while the gun or level is moved to a new location. • Zero - Zero degrees, minutes, and seconds. A perfect zero.SURVEYORS ABBREVIATIONSB.R.L. - Building restriction line.FD - FoundIPF - Iron pipe foundIRF - Iron rod found
  24. 24. L.O.D. - Limit of Disturbance. The area tobe cleared, graded, etc.MAG - New concrete nails are magneticnails and are stamped with MAG on thehead and are easier to find with metaldetectors.NPP - Nail in power poleNTCFP - Nail on top of corner fence postNTFP - Nail on top of fence postPI - Point of intersectionPK - Point Known, PK nailPK nail - A concrete nail made by ParkerKaelon, stamped PK, that marks a surveypoint. See also hub and tack.SR - Steel rebarSRS - Steel rod set (rebar or other steel)WC - Witness cornerg