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The First Amendment CP


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The First Amendment CP

  1. 1. THE FIRST AMENDMENT Five Freedoms that Make Us American
  2. 2. Find the Freedoms: Warm Up <ul><li>Observe the images on the following slides and choose which of the freedoms are evident in the image. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, the first amendment contains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Press </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petition </li></ul></ul>
  3. 13. The First Amendment <ul><li>Originally adopted into the Constitution in 1791 </li></ul><ul><li>A product of the ratification delay by Anti-Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>By itself, it protects Americans from the national government ONLY. </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Incorporation: The combination of the 1 st and other amendments to protect our freedoms at all levels. </li></ul><ul><li>First Amendment + 14 th Amendment </li></ul>
  4. 14. First Amendment <ul><li>Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; </li></ul><ul><li>or abridging the freedom of speech, </li></ul><ul><li>or of the press; </li></ul><ul><li>or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, </li></ul><ul><li>and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. </li></ul>
  5. 15. 14 th Amendment <ul><li>No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; </li></ul><ul><li>nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; </li></ul><ul><li>nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. </li></ul>
  6. 16. Who Decides How Far Our Rights Go? <ul><li>The Federal Courts decide (including Supreme). </li></ul><ul><li>The Balance Test </li></ul>People’s Rights Govt . Interest
  7. 17. Common Misconceptions <ul><li>Our freedoms are NOT UNLIMITED. </li></ul><ul><li>Limits usually arise when safety, order, or others’ rights are jeopardized. </li></ul><ul><li>Rule of Thumb : You have the right to express yourself in many ways unless others are offended or put in harm’s way. </li></ul>
  8. 18. Freedom of Speech <ul><li>Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. </li></ul><ul><li>The freedom of speech does not limit expression to only verbal communication. Non verbal expression is also protected and restricted. </li></ul>
  9. 19. 5 Restrictions to Free Speech <ul><li>The freedom of speech is very broad, but has 5 restrictions on the content expressed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defamation of Character </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obscenity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fighting Words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subversive Speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial Speech </li></ul></ul>
  10. 20. Restrictions to Free Speech: Defamation of Character <ul><li>Defamation: An act of communication that causes someone to be shamed, ridiculed, held in contempt, lowered in the estimation of the community, or to lose employment status or earnings or otherwise suffer a damaged reputation. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of the consequences of someone spreading lies about you at your age. at 25. at 35. at 45… </li></ul><ul><li>Defamation is found in two forms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slander : spoken lies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Libel : written lies (pertains to press) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 21. Restrictions to Free Speech: Obscenity <ul><li>For something to be &quot; obscene &quot; it must be shown that the average person, applying contemporary community standards and viewing the material as a whole, would find (1) that the work appeals predominantly to &quot;prurient&quot; interest (in the interest of sex); (2) that it depicts or describes sexual conduct in a patently offensive way; and (3) that it lacks serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value. </li></ul><ul><li>The main problem with obscenity is the VAGUE nature of its criteria. </li></ul>
  12. 22. Obscene? <ul><li>Holy Virgin Mary  by British artist Chris Ofili. </li></ul><ul><li>The work incorporated elephant feces.  </li></ul><ul><li>Personally offended by the piece New York City mayor, Rudy Giuliani threatened to cut about $7 million a year in funding to the museum unless the exhibit of the Holy Virgin Mary was cancelled . </li></ul>
  13. 23. Obscenity: The 2 Live Crew <ul><li>The 2 Live Crew was arrested in 1990 in Broward County, Florida for performing their popular track: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Me So Horny” from </li></ul><ul><li>their album, As Nasty </li></ul><ul><li>As They Wanna Be. </li></ul><ul><li>The American Family </li></ul><ul><li>Association put pressure </li></ul><ul><li>on Florida governor Bob </li></ul><ul><li>Martinez to pursue the </li></ul><ul><li>group in search of </li></ul><ul><li>obscenity violations. </li></ul>
  14. 24. Restrictions to Free Speech: Fighting Words <ul><li>Fighting Words: words intentionally directed toward another person which are so venomous and full of malice as to cause the hearer to suffer emotional distress or incite him/her to immediately retaliate physically. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of fighting words is not protected by the free speech protections of the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Come and hit me, you jerk!” </li></ul>
  15. 25. Restrictions to Free Speech: Subversive Speech <ul><li>Subversive : Expression that threatens the security of the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: resisting the draft during wartime, threatening public officials, and joining political organizations aimed at overthrowing the U.S. government. </li></ul><ul><li>“ If they ever make me carry a rifle, the first man I want in my sights is L.B.J.&quot; Watts v. United States </li></ul><ul><li>The Court ruled that the government could not punish an anti-war protester who yelled, “We'll take the f***ing street later,&quot; because such speech &quot;amounted to nothing more than advocacy of illegal action at some indefinite future time&quot; Hess v. Indiana </li></ul>
  16. 26. Subversive Speech: An accident <ul><li>During a Fox News broadcast, Geraldo Rivera began to disclose an upcoming operation, even going so far as to draw a map in the sand for his audience. The military immediately issued a firm denouncement of his actions, saying it put the operation at risk, and nearly expelled Rivera from Iraq. </li></ul><ul><li>Two days later, he announced that he would be reporting on the Iraq conflict from Kuwait </li></ul>
  17. 27. Restrictions to Free Speech: Commercial Speech <ul><li>Advertising deserves more protection than other types of speech because of the consumer's interest in trustworthy information about products. </li></ul><ul><li>We depend on information regarding the quality, quantity, and price of various goods and services. </li></ul><ul><li>Courts must decide: </li></ul><ul><li>Is it puffing or false advertising? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puffing: making your product look better than it is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>False advertising: lying to the consumer to sell more products </li></ul></ul>
  18. 28. Commercial Speech: false advertising <ul><li>Dannon accused of lying in advertisements about the &quot;clinically proven&quot; ability of Activia, to &quot;regulate digestion&quot; or improve the body's &quot;immune system&quot;. The products cost about 30 percent more than ordinary yogurt. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Dannon's own studies fail to support this advertising message, and a number of them flatly contradict Dannon's claims,&quot; the complaint says . </li></ul>
  19. 29. Other Types of Speech: <ul><li>Expression can be in a non-verbal form. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic Speech: Expression that may use actions, symbols, signs, or inaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Texas v Johnson (1989) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flag burning to protest Ronald Reagan in 1984 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tinker v Des Moines (1969) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Armbands in school to protest the Vietnam War </li></ul></ul>
  20. 30. Texas v Johnson (1989) <ul><li>1984:in front of the Dallas City Hall, Gregory Lee Johnson burned an American flag as a means of protest against Reagan administration policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson was tried and convicted under a Texas law outlawing flag desecration. </li></ul><ul><li>He was sentenced to one year in jail and assessed a $2,000 fine. After the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals reversed the conviction, the case went to the Supreme Court. </li></ul>Is the desecration of an American flag a form of speech that is protected under the First Amendment?
  21. 31. Texas v Johnson (continued)… <ul><li>In a 5-to-4 decision, the Court held flag burning was protected expression under the First Amendment. The Court found that the actions were expressive conduct and had a political nature. </li></ul><ul><li>“ If there is a bedrock principle underlying the First Amendment, it is that the Government may not prohibit the expression of an idea simply because society finds the idea itself offensive or disagreeable.“ </li></ul>
  22. 32. Tinker vs. Des Moines <ul><li>What is the case about? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is involved? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the action that caused a problem? </li></ul><ul><li>What did the Supreme Court say about the actions of the school? </li></ul><ul><li>What term, empowering schools, comes out of the decision ? </li></ul>Symbolic Speech The Tinkers and their schools The school suspended the Tinkers for wearing armbands to show opposition to the Vietnam War. The school acted BEFORE any disruption was evident. “ substantial disruption”
  23. 33. Protected “school speech”?
  24. 34. Morse v Frederick (2007) <ul><li>In 2002, high school principal Deborah Morse suspended 18-year-old Joseph Frederick after he displayed a banner reading &quot; BONG HITS 4 JESUS ” across the street from the school during the 2002 Olympic Torch Relay. </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick sued, claiming his constitutional rights to free speech were violated </li></ul><ul><li>Ruling: the school did not violate Frederick’s freedom of speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ School speech&quot; doctrine should apply because Frederick's speech occurred &quot;at a school event&quot;; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>second, that the speech was &quot;reasonably viewed as promoting illegal drug use&quot;; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and third, that a principal may legally restrict that speech </li></ul></ul>
  25. 35. Other Considerations about Speech <ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time/Place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ fire/ bomb” in a theater </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being aware of how expression is read or said </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Teacher/ Student </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is “hello” simply “hello”? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student exchanges </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 36. Freedom of Press <ul><li>Freedom of Press: the right to publish newspapers, magazines, books, etc. without government interference or prior censorship </li></ul><ul><li>33% of the world’s countries do not have free press </li></ul><ul><li>A close relative of free speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar restrictions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defamation (Libel) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obscenity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sedition (against the government) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 37. Freedom of Press <ul><li>Advances in technology have redefined the format in questioning freedom of press. </li></ul><ul><li>Newest to Press </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Email/ text messaging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Difficult to control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs, satellite TV, Internet conversation </li></ul></ul>
  28. 38. Freedom of the Press: Hazelwood v Kuhlmeier <ul><li>The principal at Hazelwood School District deleted 2 pages of edition of the school newspaper before publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>He felt as though the articles on teen pregnancy and divorce: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not keep the students' identity secret </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should not have discussed girls’ use or non-use of birth control based on younger student audiences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not fairly represent a father in a divorce </li></ul></ul>
  29. 39. Freedom of Press: Hazelwood v Kuhlmeier <ul><li>In a split 5-3 decision, the Court ruled that the principal did have the constitutional grounds to censor the school newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>The paper itself was not a &quot;forum for public expression&quot; but was rather a &quot;regular classroom activity.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Schools can censor material that is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;ungrammatical, poorly written, inadequately researched, biased or prejudiced, vulgar or profane, or unsuitable for immature audiences.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  30. 40. Freedom of Religion <ul><li>Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. </li></ul><ul><li>Two clauses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment Clause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Exercise Clause </li></ul></ul>
  31. 41. Freedom of Religion <ul><li>ESTABLISHMENT CLAUSE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The government cannot establish a national religion nor promote any one religion over another. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FREE EXERCISE CLAUSE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The government cannot restrict someone from worshipping any religion they choose. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 42. Freedom of Religion: Establishment <ul><li>The establishment clause is referred to as </li></ul><ul><li>“ the wall of separation between church and state” . (Thomas Jefferson) </li></ul><ul><li>DESPITE the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious sects are tax exempt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chaplains serve in all military branches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oaths of office “under God” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress opens with prayer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pledge of Allegiance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currency </li></ul></ul>
  33. 43. Freedom of Religion: Education <ul><li>Most establishment clause cases involve schools, because public schools are funded by taxes and occasionally restrict/encourage religious activities . ( state / church ) </li></ul><ul><li>Controversy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prayer in School </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student Religious Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching Evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aid to parochial schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal displays </li></ul></ul>
  34. 44. Freedom of Religion: Religion and Education <ul><li>Engel v. Vitale, (1962) - Court finds NY school prayer unconstitutional. </li></ul><ul><li>Abington School District , PA v. Schempp, (1963) - Court finds Bible reading over school intercom unconstitutional </li></ul><ul><li>Stone v. Graham, (1980) - Court finds posting of the Ten Commandments in schools unconstitutional </li></ul><ul><li>Wallace v Jaffree, ( 1985) “ moment of silence” law ruled unconstitutional a one-minute period of silence for “meditation ro prayer” every day </li></ul><ul><li>Lee v. Weisman, (1992) - Court finds prayer at public school graduation ceremonies violates the establishment clause and is therefore unconstitutional. </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe, (2000) - Court rules that student-led prayers at public school football games violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. </li></ul>
  35. 45. Deciding Freedom of Religion: Lemon Test <ul><li>Based on the case ( Lemon v Kurtzman, 1971 ) involving public money provided to parochial schools for teacher’s salaries and materials, a test was provided by the courts. </li></ul><ul><li>The Lemon Test says public aid must: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>be secular, or non-religious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not promote nor hinder religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not create an excessive entanglement between government and religion. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 46. Freedom of Religion: Free Exercise <ul><li>No law and no government action can violate this absolute constitutional right. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A state can not force Amish to attend school beyond the 8 th grade. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A religious official can not be refused the right to run for public office. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A school can not force a student to pledge the flag if it conflicts with their religious beliefs. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 47. Freedom of Religion: The Pledge <ul><ul><li>Original version: Francis Bellamy (1892) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I pledge allegiance to my flag and the republic for which it stands: one nation indivisible with liberty and justice for all. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cold War version: Eisenhower authorized (1954) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America and to the republic for which it stands: one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 48. Freedom of Assembly <ul><li>Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble , and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. </li></ul>
  39. 49. Freedom of Assembly <ul><li>Assembly, like the other five freedoms, was intended for unpopular expression. </li></ul><ul><li>The right to show power in numbers can be an effective tactic to creating change. </li></ul>