B. RIZAL’S EARLY INFORMAL EDUCATION(BINAN, ATENEO, AND UST)1. The HERO’s FIRST TEACHER (Zaide and Zaide)- Teodora Alonzo y Realonda – good character andrefined was Rizal’s first teacher- At the age of three she taught Rizal arithmetic,alphabet and prayers in Latin, Spanish and Tagalog- Story of the Moth- By age six Rizal become adept at drawing, claymodeling and carving- Maestro Celestino and Lucas Padua – 1st private tutors- Don Leon Monroy – taught Rizal Latin and Spanish butdied five moths later.
2. EARLY FORMAL EDUCATION (BINAN) June 1869-Dec. 17, 1871a. Rizal accompanied by Paciano left Calamba for Binanin June 1869 – With his poker face Paciano gaveRizal a cue on how a man should behave duringpartings and sentimental occasions. Stayed in hisAunt Tomasa Mercado.b. Tomasa had an unmarried daughter Margarita and awidower son Gabriel. Rizal’s young kinsfolk wereLeandro (mischievous), Florentina (vulgar type) andArcadia (hot headed, simple and honest) whobecame his friend.
c. Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz – tall, thin andstooped with a large neck and sharp nose, hebelieved in “not sparing the rod”. Rizal complainedthat rare was the day when he did not suffer five orsix “palmetazos” on his hands or his behind eventhough he surpassed all of his classmates in Spanish,Latin and other subjects.d. Pedro teased Rizal uttering “un poco Senor” 2x whobecame so vexed, he challenged Pedro to a fightwhom he defeated, Rizal having been taught the artof wrestling by his Tio Manuel.e. Old Juancho – gave and taught Rizal lessons inpainting and drawing.
f. His bitterness against these barbarous methods ofinstruction never left him. In the Noli, the first thingIbarra proposes when he came home was to build ahouse in San Diego where “the primer would not be ablack book bathed in children’s tears but a friendlyguide to marvelous secrets”. “Not a torture-chamberbut a playground of the mind”.g. Other Binan memories:- Playing in the streets in the evening under themoolight, remembered his beloved father, idolizedmother and loving sisters.- Rizal was shoved by his naughty nephew Leandrointo the river where he nearly drowned if not caughtby someone on his feet.
- Tasked to deliver viand to her Tia Tomasa’schildren, only to be suspecteded of consuming partof it.- Supper – one or two helpings of rice and singlepiece of fishLunch – sent first on errand before allowed to sat.h. For all of these he told his sisters Narcisa and Mariahe wanted to go home but was told he can’t gohome. Rizal must have felt he was in prison.i. Rizal in Binan was a struggle, an initiation, cruelty forone so young, felt displaced and as outsider.- He left the country at aged 21, how can Rizalcreate so detailed a portrait of San Diego – Noli MeTangere and El Fili?
j. Martyrdom of GOMBURZA- Jan. 20, 1872 – 200 Filipino soldiers and workmenof the Cavite arsenal and La Madrid a Fil. Sergeantstaged mutiny for abolition of their exemption fromtribute and polo y servicio.k. Gomburza were implicated and by order of Gov. Gen.Rafael Izquierdo, they were executed by garrote onFeb. 17, 1872.l. INJUSTICE TO HERO’s MOTHER (Zaide)- In 1872 – Jose Alberto, Dona Teodora’s brotherfound his children abandoned and his wife livingwith another man.- Dona Teodora prevailed over J. Alberto not todivorce his wife as he announced.
- The wife was in no way repentant and resented thereconciliation.- J. Alberto frequented Dona Teodora in Calamba towhich the wife interpreted as they were plottingsomething criminal against her.- The wife filed a case against Dona Teodora and herbrother Don Jose Alberto and with the connivance ofSpanish Lieutenant of guardia civil and assistance ofAntonio Vivencio del Rosario, Gobernadorcilio ofCalamba, succeeded in arresting Dona Teodora.Forced to walk from Calamba to Sta. Cruz.- Dona Teodora was defended by Messrs. Francisco deMarcaida and Manuel Marzan, most famous lawyers ofManila. She was acquitted by Manila Royal Audienciaand was released after two- and- half years.
3. STUDIES IN ATENEO- On June 10, 1872 Jose accompanied by Pacianowent to Manila and took the entrance examination atthe College of San Juan de Letran managed by theDominicans.- Returned to Calamba on June 24 for the town fiestain honor of St. John the Baptist.- Paciano following the instruction of Don Franciscoenrolled Jose in Ateneo using Rizal as Jose’ssurname to avoid suspicion by the Dominican’s,Mercado being used by Paciano and marked by thefriars as liberal having been a desciple of PadreBurgos.
- Fr. Magin Ferrando refused to admit Jose for being late,sickly and undersized but with the help of Manuel XerezBurgos nephew of Padre Burgos Rizal was finallyadmitted in Ateneo.- Boarded in Dona Titay’s a spinster who owed theMercado’s 300 pesos/dollars?- Rizal and bosom friend Pastor Millena daily hoppedacross the Pasig river on the Puente de Barcas.- SUBJECTS: Christian Doctrine, Spanish, Latin, Greekand French; World Geography and History, History ofSpain and the Phil. Arithmetic, algebra, geometry,trigonometry, mineralogy, chemistry, physics and botanyand zoology, Poetry rhetoric and philo.- First day of class in Ateneo in June 1872, first he heardmass. First Teacher – Father Jose Bech
- Some classmates: Florencio G. Oliva, a Lagunense,great talent but mediocre industry; Joaquin Garrido,mestizo of poor memory but much talent; MoisesSantiago, mathematician and penman Gonzalo Marzan –interno and Roman Emperor of their class.- Rizal an externo Carthaginian was at the bottom butwithin 3 months became the Emperor and awarded a holypicture for prize and crowned with a grade ofSOBRESALIENTE/excellent but got in prolonged sulk forresenting some of Fr. Bech’s remarks – awarded onlyACCESSIT – meaning, Rizal was among the leaders butnot top of his class.- Visited his mother, he said “How I enjoyed surprising her!.Afterward we embraced each other and both of us wept.We had not seen each other for more than a year.”
- Won medal the next year, visited his mother againand predicted her release after 3 months which cametrue.- Took private Spanish lesson in Sta. Isabel CollegeSECOND YEAR IN ATENEO – 1873-74- Rizal moved inside Intramuros and boarded at DonaPepay de Ampuero’s boarding house at No. 6Magallanes St.- “I was able to win prizes in all the semesters and Iwould have won a medal if some mistakes inSpanish, which unfortunately I spoke badly, had notenabled a young European to have advantage ofme.”
The landlord was “very strict with me, which was all tothe good because I had to keep regular hours.” ButRizal was distracted by four grandsons, Jose, Rafael,Ignacio and Ramon which caused him to receive onlyone first prizeand a medal in Latin.- Carved an image of the Virgin; His Jesuit professorasked him to carve a Sacred Heart which he didusing batikuling wood and penknife. Statuetteenshrined at the dorm, later in his execution wouldask from the Jesuit Chaplain if the Sacred Heartcarving is still there.- Don Agustin Saez a peninsular – Rizal’s professor indrawing/painting.- Romualdo de Jesus, Filipino – Rizal’s instructor insculpture
- To remedy his defect in Spanish, he read DUMAS’“Conde de Monte Cristo” – Edmond Dantesamazingly escaped from dungeon of Chateau d’lf,found a buried treasure on the rocky island of MonteCristo, returned in disguise to wreak vengeance onhis enemies.- Persuaded his father to buy costly set of CesarCantu’s historical work “Universal History”- Read “Travel’s in the Philippines” by Dr. FeodorJagor, a German scientist who visit the Philippinesin1859-1860- contains observations of defects ofSpanish colonization and prophecy that Spain wouldlose the Philippines to the USA.
THIRD YEAR IN ATENEO – 1874-1875- Dona Teodora was released from prison- Excellent in all subjects, won only one medalFOURTH YEAR IN ATENEO- His professor Francisco de Paula Sanchez, greateducator and scholar inspired Rizal to study harder and towrite poetry. Became admirer of Rizal and Rizalconsidered him his best professor. – model ofuprightness, earnestness and love for the advancementof his pupils.- Topped all his classmates in all subjects and won fivemedals.LAST YEAR IN ATENEO- Most brilliant Atenean, “The Pride of the Jesuits”- Obtained highest grades in all subjects – philo., physics,biology, chemistry, languages, mineralogy, etc.
EXTRA CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES (Zaide)• Marian Congregation – religious society – as member & later on assecretary/because of his devotion to Our Lady of the ImmaculateConception.• Academy of Spanish Literature – member being gifted• Academy of Natural Sciences literature and sciences• Rizal cultivated his literary talent under Fr. F. Sanchez• Fr. Jose Villaclara advised Rizal to stop communing with the Musesand pays more attention to Philosopy and Natural Sciences.• He studied painting under Augustin Saez, a Spanish and sculptureunder Romualdo de Jesus• Jesuits father were amazed and impressed by Rizal’s scultural talent,Father Lleonart requested him to carve Sacred Heard, now placed onthe door of their dormitory.
SOME POEMS WRITTEN IN ATENEO (Zaide)• Mi Primera Inspiracion (My First Inspiration – written by Rizalbefore turning 14yrs. Old (1874) dedicated to his mother in herbirthdayPOEMS WRITTEN IN 1875• Felicitacion (Felicitation); El Embarque: el Primero en dar la Jueltaal Mundo (And He is Spanish: Elcanon, the First toCircumnavigate the Globe; el Combate: Urbistondo, Terror de Jolo(The Battle: Urbistondo, Terror of Jolo); POEM WRITTEN IN 1876:Alianza Intima Entre la Religion y la Buena Education (IntimateAlliance Between Religion and Good Education); Por la EducacionRecibe Lustre la Patria (Through Education the Country ReceivesLight); El Cautiverio y el Triunfo: Batalla de Lucena y Prision deBodbil (The Captivity and the Triump: Battle of Lucena and theImprisonment of Boadbil); La Entrada Triunfal de los ReyesCatolices en Granada (The Triumphal Entry of the CatholicMonares Into Granada)
1877 POEMS• El Heroismo de Colon (The Heroism of Columbus);Colon y Juan II; Gran Consuelo en la Mayor Desdicha(Great Solace in Great Misfortune); Un Dialogo Alusivoa la Despedida de los Colegiales ( A farewell Dialogueof the Students)OTHER POEMS• Al Nino Jesus (To the Child Jesus); Ala Virgen Maria(To the Virgin Mary)• DRAMA – San Eustacio, Martir (St. Eustace the Martyr)finished by Rizal in June 2,1876 upon the request of Fr.Sanchez
JESUITS INFLUENCE (Leon MA. Guerrero)• Jesuit RATIO STUDIORUM – under tight and constantdiscipline, with every incentive of competition and reward• Control of the minds of men from infancy*RATIO STUDIORUM –”compilation of general principles anddetailed instructions for teachers, rather a spirit and a methodthan a mechanical formula or a blind pedagogical technique”• SPIRIT which is infused was the spirit of classical humanities,the arts of human culture;• METHOD – combined memory and understanding, t he dailylesson being explained in a “prefection” and recited the nextday.
*AD MAJOREM DEI GLORIAM - For the greater gloryof God; to make steadfast lifelong Catholics, Thephilosophy of man as creature of a personal God –was the climax of the collegiate course; classesbegan and ended with prayers and the wholeschool life was centered on the Chapel; Highestlevel of extra-curricular activities was found onCongregacion Mariana or Sodality of Our Lady andthe Apostatolado de la Oracion, the Apostleship ofPrayer – members were students with highestqualities of scholarship and leadership.
*Rizal was a pious child – Mother “taught me how toread and say haltingly the humble prayers that Iraised pervently to God”; Pilgrimage in Antipolo, OurLady of Good Voyage; Family praying the rosaryevery night; “Went often to the Chapel of Our Ladyof Peace” (Binan)• First day in Ateneo – “How fervently I went to theChapel of the Jesuit to hear mass, what ferventprayers I raised to God.”• Year of Graduation “prayed fervently in the chapeland commended my life to the Virgin”.
*RIZAL’s SENSITIVENESS and SELFASSERTIVENESS Blumentritt’s short biography ofRizal• Rizal felt deeply the little regard with which he wastreated by the Spanish. He strove to find out whatmoral right the Spanish xxx has to despise a manwho thought like them, learned the same things andhad the same capabilities, simply because he had abrown skin and wiry hair…• In school there was no difference in the standard ofintellect between whites and the Indios.
“ A KIND OF RACE JEALOUSY HAD TAKEN HOLD ONRIZAL” He rejoiced whenever he solved difficultproblems which his white classmates had been unableto tackle. Had CONVICTION that other things beingequal, whites and Indios had the same capacity formental work and made the same progress. White andIndios had the same mental ability.• This explain his sudden improvement in his scholasticrecord. It was a RACIAL PRIDE as much as theMONASTIC discipline and SECLUSION of boardingschool life which had driven him to win five medals ayear.
• In school, the whites were taught in their mothertongue while the Indios have to struggle to learn;hence the Indios were mentally superior to theSpaniards if they succeeded not only in keepingpace with the whites but even in managingoccassionally to surpass them.• Evaluating “the two years (his last in Ateneocollegiate course) which I considered the happiestin my life, if happiness can be said to consist in theabsence of disagreeable cares”.
• Jose found that the study of poetry and rhetoric”had elevated my feelings”; also that “patrioticsentiments as well as exquisite sensibility haddeveloped greatly in me.”• We are bound to interpret those “patrioticsentiments” in the light of his successfulexperiments in racial capacities.
UNIVERSITY LIFE AT UST- Jose Rizal to Blumentritt, 8th November 1888 – “xxxI was sixteen when my mother told my father: Don’tsend him to Manila any longer; he knows enough; ifhe gets to know any more, they will cut off his head!”“Did my mother perhaps have a foreboding of whatwas to happen to me” Does a mother’s heart reallyhave a second sight?” (Guerrero)
- Rizal uncertain as to what profession to follow :Priesthood – natural propensity in youngboys/girls in religious school –Rizal – a Jesuit.Farming – seem to have been suggested by theJesuit- Paciano to Jose 1883 “ I do not think that the studyof law will suit you but rather the arts; in this I am ofthe same view as our parish priest.” “Those who dopractice law collect their fees for defending one sideor the other, whether it is right or wrong, something
which would run against the grain of yourconscience. While there are few who practicemedicine and the arts, they make progress here andthey live peacefully, the one thing we should look forin this world.” (Guerrero) What if Rizal became alawyer???- Enrolled Surveying in Ateneo got excellent gradesand won 2 medals in Topography and Agricultureduring his first day in UST (1877-1878). At age 17passed examination in surveying but was issuedonly the title on November 25, 1881.
- In April 1877, nearly 16 years old enrolled in USTand took Philosophy and Letters for 2 reasons:a) Rizal still uncertain what course to take;b) his father liked it. TOOK MEDICINE – upon theadvice of Ateneo Rector and to cure hismother’s growing blindness (Zaide)“But so little taste did I have for if that I did not evenbuy the textbook.” (Rizal reaction to his course inPhilo and Letters) – Got EXCELLENT grades incosmology, theodicy and the history of philosophy.(Guerrero)
- 1881 – 1882 4th yearMed. Pathology, Surgical Pathology and Obstetrics- Very Good- Reasons for unimpressive grades – perhapsmedicine was not his real vocation; Unhappy withthe Dominicans; His “race jealousy appears to havebeen outraged by professors who played favoritesand treated their Filipino students with contempt;Exciting destructions for youth – boarding awayfrom school; His first infatuation – SegundaKatigbak; Leonor Rivera and Leonor “Orang”
Valenzuela; Saturnina asking him to buy her a drumat Escolta; Paciano asking him to check a forecastof floods and to deliver to the Jesuits for theirmuseum a white iguana; Soledad who wanted takenout of convent school because the nun beat her andsaid all she did was eat, eat and eat; Parties, andgang fights and flirtations. (Guerrero)- VICTIM OF SPANISH BRUTALITYSummer vacation in Calamba in 1878 – he dimlyperceived a figure of a man which turned out to beLieutenant of the Guardia Civil who whipped andbrutally shashed the latter (Rizal’s) back for not
saluting or greeting the former (lieutenant). “ I wentto the Captain General (Primo de Rivera) but I couldnot obtain justice; my wound lasted two (2) weeks.SOME IMPORTANT LITERARY WORKS- A La Juventud Filipina an inspiring poem of flawlessform wherein Rizal beseeched the Filipino youth torise from lethargy, to let their genius fly swifter thanthe wind and descent with art and science to breakthe chain that have long bound the spirit of thepeople. Won first prize and Rizal was awardedsilver pen-feather-shaped and decorated with a goldribbon (Zaide).
-El Consejo de Los Dioses (Council of the Gods) –Rizal won first prize and was awarded a gold ring onwhich was engraved the bust of Cervantes despiteobjections by the Spaniards. This is the winningallegory of literary master piece based on the Greekclassics. (Zaide)-Junto al Pasig – a zarzuela staged by the Ateneanon December 8, 1880, on the occasion of the annualcelebration of the feast day of the ImmaculateConception containing subtle attire of Rizal’snationalist ideas. (Zaide)
-A Filipinas – A sonnet written by Rizal urging Filipinoartists to glorify the Philippines. (Zaide)- Al M.R.P. Pablo Ramon – Expression of Rizal’saffection to Fr. Pablo Ramon the Ateneo Rector whohad been so kind and helpful to him. (Zaide)- Abd-el-Azis y Maleoma – composed by Rizal in1879 which was declaim by an Atenean, ManuelFernandez, on the night of December 8, 1879 inhonor of the Ateneo’s patroness. (Zaide)