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World war i

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World war i

  1. 1. WORLD WAR I
  2. 2.  There had been relative peace in Europe for 100 years prior to WWI. But……..
  3. 3. “The Long Peace ” 1815- 1914 1815- 1914 - Battle of W.W.I. WaterlooThe Napoleonic Wars left 3 W.W.I. would kill 8.5 millionmillion dead
  4. 4. Europe in 1914
  5. 5. CAUSES Alliances  Like the nation’s buddy system  When one country goes to war then many countries become involved. **Triple Alliance/Central Powers – Germany, Austria Hungary, Italy (Changes sides) **Triple Entente/Allied Powers – France, Russia, Britain, Serbia, Belgium and USA
  6. 6. 1. The Alliance SystemTriple Entente: Triple Alliance:
  7. 7. Two Armed Camps!Allied Powers: Central Powers:
  8. 8. Powerful nation-states form in Europe after The French Revolution European states engage in a “ scramble for empire” - frequently threaten war Glorification of war and military influence spreads in all countrieTariff wars strangle free trade and threaten globaleconomy
  9. 9. The Major Players: 1914-Allied Powers: 17 Central Powers:Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Enver Pasha [Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Franz Josef [A- H]
  10. 10. Aggressive Nationalism
  11. 11. BALKANS Powder Keg of Europe Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia  This infuriated the Serbs Archduke Francis Ferdinand (Austria-Hungary) is assassinated and Serbia is held responsible.
  12. 12. The“Powder Keg” of Europe
  13. 13. Europe 1890 Russia isolated, seeks allies Balance of power prevails Great Britain pleasedFrance fears Germany Germany & Austria fear RussiaItaly & Ottoman Empire weakbut strategically located
  14. 14. France German EmpireRussian Empire Austria-Hungary ItalyGreat Britain WAR!The Allies The Central Powers France German Empire Russian Empire Austria-HungaryGreat Britain Ottoman Empire Italy Bulgaria SerbiaRomania
  15. 15. The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip
  16. 16. Alliances Central Powers • Triple Entente  Germany – France  Austria-Hungary – Great Britain  Italy – Russia
  17. 17. Nationalism Nationalism-devotion and loyalty to one’s own nation; patriotism. Proliferated by propaganda. Used to get the masses excited for war.
  18. 18. Public Domain
  19. 19. France Ferdinand Assassinated France Ferdinand was the Archduke of Austria- Hungary. Assassinated June, 28, 1914. By Serb Nationalist group “Black Hand”. The Spark of WW1. Public Domain
  20. 20. Ultimatum After the assassination Austria-Hungary declared an ultimatum on Serbia. Ultimatum says that the Serbian government was responsible for the assassination. Serbia declines this ultimatum; Austria- Hungary declares war on Serbia.
  21. 21. Declaration of War Austria- Serbia Hungary Germany Russia Germany France Britain Germany *Arrows=Declared war on. *Before American Involvement.
  22. 22. WWI BEGINS Austria-Hungary and Serbia go to war Russia declares war on Austria-Hungary because they are allied with Serbia (Czar Nicholas does not believe that Germany – Kaiser Wilhelm (cousin of the Czarina) will declare war on Russia.
  23. 23. Who’s To Blame?
  24. 24. WWI BEGINS Germany – supporting Austria Hungary declares war on Russia and France because France is allied with Russia. In order to get to France Germany invades Belgium which causes Britain to declare war on Germany
  25. 25. The Schlieffen Plan
  26. 26. German Atrocities in Belgium
  27. 27. Mobilization Home by Christmas! No major war in 50 years! Nationalism!Its a long way to Tipperary, Its a long way to go; Its a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, Its a long, long way to Tipperary, But my hearts right there!
  28. 28. Recruitment Posters
  29. 29. A Young Australian Recruit
  30. 30. Recruits of the Central Powers A German Soldier Says Farewell to His MotherAustro-Hungarians
  31. 31. New French Recruits
  32. 32. A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier
  33. 33. Soldiers Mobilized 14 12 10Millions 8 6 4 2 0 France Germany Russia Britain
  34. 34. WOMENAND THEWAREFFORT
  35. 35. Financing the War
  36. 36. For Recruitment
  37. 37. Munitions Workers
  38. 38. French Women Factory Workers
  39. 39. German Women Factory Workers
  40. 40. Working in the Fields
  41. 41. A Woman Ambulance Driver
  42. 42. Red Cross Nurses
  43. 43. Women in the Army Auxiliary
  44. 44. Russian Women Soldiers
  45. 45. Spies “Mata Hari” Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle German Spy!
  46. 46. POSTERS:WARTIMEPROPAGANDA
  47. 47. Australian Poster
  48. 48. American Poster
  49. 49. Financing the War
  50. 50. German Poster
  51. 51. A Multi-Front War
  52. 52. THE WESTERNFRONT: A “WAR OF ATTRITION”
  53. 53. WESTERN FRONT 3 year stalemate Trench warfare  Huge casualities  Example – Battle of Verdun – Germans lost 330,000 – took 11 months  By 1916 there were 2 million casualities
  54. 54. The Western Front
  55. 55. Verdun – February, 1916 German offensive. Each side had 500,000 casualties.
  56. 56. The Somme – July, 1916 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
  57. 57. War Is HELL !!
  58. 58. Sacrifices in War
  59. 59. Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun
  60. 60. THEEASTERNFRONT
  61. 61. EASTERN FRONT Russians and Serbs VS Germans, Austrians and Turks Millions died Germans had to fight on 2 fronts but they began to freeze to death in Russia. Russia Pulls out because of Revolution
  62. 62. The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915
  63. 63. Turkish Cavalry in Palestine
  64. 64. T. E. Lawrence& the “Arab Revolt”, 1916-18
  65. 65. T. E. Lawrence & PrinceFaisal at Versailles, 1918-19
  66. 66. The Tsar with General Brusilov
  67. 67. THE“COLONIAL”FRONTS
  68. 68. Sikh British Soldiers in India
  69. 69. Fighting in Africa Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa] British SikhMountain Gunners
  70. 70. Fighting in Africa3rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade
  71. 71. Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry from Cochin, China - 1916
  72. 72. COLLAPSE OF EASTERN FRONT With Russia out the Central Powers put all of their resources into western front. Situation looks grave until Italy and the US join forces with the allies.

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