ANTHROPOLOGY Classifications 1. Physical or Biological Anthropology 2. Cultural Anthropology: Subdivisions a.) Archaeology b.) Linguistics c.) Ethnology 3. Applied Anthropology
Anthropology <ul><li>* Greek words anthropos- man, human and </li></ul><ul><li>logos-study </li></ul><ul><li>*Anthropologist seeks answers to an enormous variety of questions about humans. They are interested in discovering when, where , and why humans appeared on the earth, how and why they have changed since then, and how and why modern human populations vary in certain physical features. </li></ul><ul><li>It is interested to all people of all periods. It traces the development of humans until the present. </li></ul><ul><li>It is holistic or multifaceted. It study not only all varieties of people but many aspects of human experience e.g.. physical environment, political & eco. system etc. and deals with typical characteristics (traits, customs) of particular population </li></ul>
Physical Anthropology studies the emergence of humans and their later evolution. This is called human paleontology or paleoanthropology. Anthropologist, psychologists, and biologists who specialize in the study of primates are called primatologists. Biological anthropologists use the principles, concepts, and techniques of at least three other disciplines: human genetics, population biology and epidemiology.
Cultural Anthropology refers to the customary ways of thinking and behaving of a particular population or society. It includes language, religious beliefs, food preferences, music, work habits, gender roles, how they rear their children, how they construct their houses, and many other learned behaviors and ideas that have come to be wildly shared or customary among the group.
Archaeology is the study of past cultures, primarily through their material remains. They seek not only to reconstruct the daily life and customs of peoples who lived in the past but also to trace cultural changes and to offer possible explanations of these changes. Most archaeologists deal with prehistory, the time before written records. But there is specially within archaeology, called historical archaeology, that studies the remains of recent peoples who left written records.
Linguistics or the study of languages, is somewhat older discipline than anthropology, but the early linguists concentrated on the study of languages that had been written for a long time- languages such as English that had been written for nearly thousand years. Historical linguistics the study of how languages change over time and how they may be related. It is also concern with the emergence of language and also with the divergence of language over thousands of years. Structural or descriptive linguistics is interested in how contemporary languages differ, especially in their construction. Sociolinguistics is the study of how language is used in social context.
Ethnology is the study of existing and recent cultures. It is concern with patterns of thought and behavior, such as marriage customs, kinship organization, political and economic systems, religion, folk art, and music, and with the ways in which these patterns differ in contemporary societies. It also studies how various cultures develop and change. The ethnologists gather data through observation and interview of living peoples. Ethnographer spends a year or so living with, talking to, and observing the people whose customs he or she is studying. It provides detailed description of peoples thought and behavior called ethnography . Ethnohistorian tries to reconstruct the recent history. It relies on the report of others. By trying to put all together all these information to make sense of the history of the people who did not themselves leave written records. Cross-cultural researcher collect and analyze the data collected by the ethnographer and ethnohistorian.
Applied anthropology refers to the application of method and theory in anthropology to the analysis and solution of practical problems. Inasmuch as anthropology proper comprises four sub-disciplines -- biological, cultural, linguistic, and archaeological anthropology -- the practical application of any of these sub-disciplines may properly be designated "applied anthropology". For example, ethnography may involve assessing the current and recent historical cultural characteristics of the community, linguistics may be applied to restoring language competence, and biological, or more specifically "medical" anthropology may be applied to determine the factors contributing to dietary deficiency diseases, etc.
Examples of questions that an applied anthropologist would attempt to solve might be: If an American buys diapers at 2AM on a Saturday in a grocery store, what is likely to be his/her next purchase? How can public health authorities promote condom use amongst members of a particular subculture? Why do people migrate to XYZ place or from PQR place?