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Contagious Cancer Research Paper

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Contagious Cancer Research Paper
Cancer is not contagious– it isn't like the flu. For that, people tend to see Cancer as a terrible disease
that could be worse but isn't. While it can take their family members from them, which can be a
dismal pain, it cannot spread from person to person; it is not a threat to the world like the bubonic
plague was. Ordinarily, the question of a contagious Cancer existing in the future ponders in the
minds of scientist, mostly because it already does in animals.
People are for a most part unaware of the existence of transmissible cancers, mostly because it is
extremely rare. Apart from cases with oncoviruces, there has only been two recorded cases of a
contagious cancer in humans. Both of these cases happened after accidentally inserting cancer cells
in the body. One of them was a 19 year old who accidentally injected herself with the cancerous
cells. The other was a surgeon who cut himself with an infected scalpel. Moreover, both of them are
extreme and rare situations. Nevertheless, these types of cancers are relatively a lot more common in
animals.
There is four (Five if counting both types of DFTD) types of Cancers that are contagious: ... Show
more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor, or otherwise known as CTVT, is the oldest known Cancer to
exist, having started about 11,000 thousand years ago with a husky–like dog. Scientists know this
because when a person has cancer the cells die with the person and this is not true with CTVT. The
Cancer cells from the original dog are still around today, these cells transferred to another dog
during mating and have spread further from there. The Cambridge Research team of transmissible
cancer has said that sometimes the mitochondrial DNA is swapped and create a "genetic flag" that
has helped the researchers know how the cancer has spread. There are five varieties of
mitochondrial DNA or "clades" today. The clades also help to learn the differences between each
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Contagious Cancer Research Paper
Personal Statement Cancer Research Interest
Personal Statement of Cancer Research Interest
Biological sciences have always been the interest of my academic path. Later, in my high school
career it became increasingly clear that oral study was my passion. I have since dedicated my efforts
to becoming a general dentist, however dentistry is not where I would like to settle. I plan to conduct
research of various oral diseases and hopefully provide more insight into the issues that affect that
region of the body.
Cancer research is very necessary considering the number of people who fall victim to the currently
incurable disease. As a biology major my needs for scientific exploration are being met, however, I'd
like to further my knowledge. My goal is to advance in the field of science
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Contagious Cancer Research Paper
A Research Study On Cancer Telephone Helplines
Cancer telephone helplines have been in existence for nearly four decades and continue to gradually
grow in popularity. Trained specialists are available 24 hours a day to answer any questions, provide
information, and offer callers emotional support in order to help them cope with what they may be
experiencing. These helplines are not only for cancer patients, but also for their caregivers, friends,
family, or anyone with a general interest in learning about or discussing cancer with a specialist. The
purpose of this literature review is to ascertain the types of information that has been examined in
studies of cancer information telephone helplines. With the number of people affected by cancer
steadily increasing, it is important that ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Although cancer information telephone helplines seem to have grown in popularity over the years,
they are still not used frequently enough to provide accurate results for researchers. By conducting
more research studies on how to improve helplines for users, additional information could be
generated on how to achieve a higher rate of usage.
A predominance of studies conducted on cancer telephone helplines have focused on the types of
clients calling the cancer information helplines. Since cancer affects not only the patient who is
diagnosed, it can be expected that an assortment of clients will be calling in. In a study done in the
Netherlands on the Dutch Cancer Society, Reubsaet, Lechner, and De Vries (2006) found that cancer
patients accounted for 39 percent of clients, relatives/friends of patients accounted for 35 percent of
clients, and the general public account for 26 percent of clients who contacted the Dutch Cancer
Society Hotline. With respect to age, the callers' ages ranged anywhere from 20 to 85 years old. In
terms of gender, 78 percent of callers were female. Education level was the final client characteristic
to be analyzed. Approximately one–third of the callers had a higher level of education (college or
university degree) and 36 percent reported receiving only a lower level of education such as primary
school. It was also determined that the callers who were patients were significantly older than the
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Contagious Cancer Research Paper

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Contagious Cancer Research Paper

  • 1. Contagious Cancer Research Paper Cancer is not contagious– it isn't like the flu. For that, people tend to see Cancer as a terrible disease that could be worse but isn't. While it can take their family members from them, which can be a dismal pain, it cannot spread from person to person; it is not a threat to the world like the bubonic plague was. Ordinarily, the question of a contagious Cancer existing in the future ponders in the minds of scientist, mostly because it already does in animals. People are for a most part unaware of the existence of transmissible cancers, mostly because it is extremely rare. Apart from cases with oncoviruces, there has only been two recorded cases of a contagious cancer in humans. Both of these cases happened after accidentally inserting cancer cells in the body. One of them was a 19 year old who accidentally injected herself with the cancerous cells. The other was a surgeon who cut himself with an infected scalpel. Moreover, both of them are extreme and rare situations. Nevertheless, these types of cancers are relatively a lot more common in animals. There is four (Five if counting both types of DFTD) types of Cancers that are contagious: ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor, or otherwise known as CTVT, is the oldest known Cancer to exist, having started about 11,000 thousand years ago with a husky–like dog. Scientists know this because when a person has cancer the cells die with the person and this is not true with CTVT. The Cancer cells from the original dog are still around today, these cells transferred to another dog during mating and have spread further from there. The Cambridge Research team of transmissible cancer has said that sometimes the mitochondrial DNA is swapped and create a "genetic flag" that has helped the researchers know how the cancer has spread. There are five varieties of mitochondrial DNA or "clades" today. The clades also help to learn the differences between each ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 3. Personal Statement Cancer Research Interest Personal Statement of Cancer Research Interest Biological sciences have always been the interest of my academic path. Later, in my high school career it became increasingly clear that oral study was my passion. I have since dedicated my efforts to becoming a general dentist, however dentistry is not where I would like to settle. I plan to conduct research of various oral diseases and hopefully provide more insight into the issues that affect that region of the body. Cancer research is very necessary considering the number of people who fall victim to the currently incurable disease. As a biology major my needs for scientific exploration are being met, however, I'd like to further my knowledge. My goal is to advance in the field of science ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 5. A Research Study On Cancer Telephone Helplines Cancer telephone helplines have been in existence for nearly four decades and continue to gradually grow in popularity. Trained specialists are available 24 hours a day to answer any questions, provide information, and offer callers emotional support in order to help them cope with what they may be experiencing. These helplines are not only for cancer patients, but also for their caregivers, friends, family, or anyone with a general interest in learning about or discussing cancer with a specialist. The purpose of this literature review is to ascertain the types of information that has been examined in studies of cancer information telephone helplines. With the number of people affected by cancer steadily increasing, it is important that ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Although cancer information telephone helplines seem to have grown in popularity over the years, they are still not used frequently enough to provide accurate results for researchers. By conducting more research studies on how to improve helplines for users, additional information could be generated on how to achieve a higher rate of usage. A predominance of studies conducted on cancer telephone helplines have focused on the types of clients calling the cancer information helplines. Since cancer affects not only the patient who is diagnosed, it can be expected that an assortment of clients will be calling in. In a study done in the Netherlands on the Dutch Cancer Society, Reubsaet, Lechner, and De Vries (2006) found that cancer patients accounted for 39 percent of clients, relatives/friends of patients accounted for 35 percent of clients, and the general public account for 26 percent of clients who contacted the Dutch Cancer Society Hotline. With respect to age, the callers' ages ranged anywhere from 20 to 85 years old. In terms of gender, 78 percent of callers were female. Education level was the final client characteristic to be analyzed. Approximately one–third of the callers had a higher level of education (college or university degree) and 36 percent reported receiving only a lower level of education such as primary school. It was also determined that the callers who were patients were significantly older than the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 7. Cancer Research Paper The diagnosis of cancer upon a loved one can be hard, not only for the person diagnosed, but also for close family and friends. There is no reduced list of strategies that can really be given when coping with the emotions of a loved one being diagnosed, fighting, or surviving cancer. As a family member or friend, it is important to understand that each person with cancer is different and deals with it in their own way. Cancer is a journey and is different for everyone, not only for the diagnosed, but also for you a co– survivor. Coping emotionally can be hard and a long–term process for both survivor and co – survivor and the diagnosis of cancer can bring out fear, anger, disbelief, sadness, and depression in some survivors. There are a ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... For spouses with kids, practical support could be taking and picking the kids from school. You will find several different coping mechanisms out there, but while on your journey here are a few ideas. Self–Care Self–care is important for co–survivors. An unhealthy co–survivor isn't very beneficial to the survivor. Exercise is a helpful tip to reduce stress levels and trying to maintain a healthy eating habits will also help reduce stress. Also, taking personal time to relax is important. Do something that is calming for you as a co–survivor even if it's just for a moment. Keeping yourself optimistic is going to aid in you helping your survivor continue to be optimistic. Listen Some may disagree but this is a vital component to social support. Listening is beneficial because relieving all your emotions can be an amazing stress relief. Have you ever had so much built up inside of you and before you knew it, you have went on this long rant about your horrible week and how you just don't want to go on? Then after you take a deep breath from ranting, you exhale, and doesn't it feel much better to get all of that off your chest. It's like a sigh of relief. It's like all of the pressure that had built up is now gone and some cry afterwards some laugh or smile, but the main point is you never know how meaningful a small conversation or just listening can be to a person battling something like cancer. Try listening without being judgmental or ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 9. Cancer Research : Cancer Medical Research Cancer Medical Research Introduction With the emergence of killer diseases such as cancer and diabetes, medical research institutions are devoting enormous resources to discover new and effective ways of tackling the problem. The United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) are the premier research facilities, boasting of the world's largest source of biomedical research funding. Started over a century ago, the institute has been at the forefront in advancing the understanding of health and diseases. As a result, the world is safe from traditional ailments that threatened life. Consequently, life expectancies have increased by at least three decades since the inception of the research facilities. Aided by modern technology, the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... There are about three common immunotherapies, which are: hybrid, passive or active. Immunotherapy operates under the scientific facts that lays out that cancer cells contain molecules that are attached onto their surface which the immune system can detect. In active immunotherapy, tumor associated antigens (TAAs) are directed at the cancer cells and they begin attacking them. Passive immunotherapy works by enhancing anti–tumor responses by the use of monoclonal antibodies, cytokines, and lymphocytes. In some cases, immune cells are transferred from the body of the patient, cultured, and returned to the body to attack the cancer cells (Collins, 2009). This form of cellular therapy commonly uses and dendritic cells and cytotoxic T–cells. History of Immunotherapy Immunotherapy traces its origin to the immunization programs of the 1796, when scientists discovered that introducing toxins to the body caused the body to form antitoxins. Later on, it was discovered that antibodies could be formed to target a specific disease in the body. It was until 1987 when researchers discovered that cytotoxic T–lymphocyte 4th antigen (CTLA–4) prevented T (thymus associated) cells from attacking and destroying tumor cells. This discovery made a breakthrough in cancer treatment. Researchers created an antibody against the CTLA–4 that allowed the human immune system to attack and destroy tumorigenic cells in the body (Marraffini, 2010). This discovery formed the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 11. Cancer Research: Immunotherapy Immunotherapy is a newer form of cancer research in which the treatments allow the immune system to detect and attack the cancer cells. According to the National Cancer Institute website, immunotherapy is a newer form of cancer treatment, which is being used in many different ways to target the multiple forms of cancer, as treatments may vary from patient to patient though they have the same type of cancer. One method of immunotherapy uses medicine to stop the release of certain proteins that would otherwise stop the immune system from attacking the cancerous cells. This method is used with tumours that secrete these proteins that normally stop the immune system from attacking healthy cells. Another method of immunotherapy, called adoptive ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 13. Research On Cancer (Moved up) Historically cancer research has focused on finding "a cure" for what has been thought of as a single disease with rogue cells dividing madly, but research and technologies have exposed how complex cancers really are with intricate genetic differences demonstrating patients are much less alike than we once thought. Genetic and environmental facts have provided myriad different tumor types with unique biological pathways insights. As immuno–oncology takes the spotlight in cancer therapeutics, pharma companies race to develop new treatments or improvements in the detection of cancers may be just as impactful. Liquid biopsies, top ten technology MIT Technology Review 2015 breakthroughs, are diagnostic tests to detect cancer ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Additionally, invasiveness precludes repeatedly biopsing???? – thus, the tumor cannot be monitored longitudinally and doctors cannot track tumor evolution and a patient's response to therapy. For instance, patients may be continuing treatment regiments to which their cancers have developed resistances which not only wastes money and resources but also allows the cancers to progress as if left untreated. (Quandt) Perhaps the biggest technical problem with surgical cancer biopsies today is their lack of accountability for true tumor heterogeneity (Ilié). We have recently been surprised to find out how different the genetic makeup and diversity of mechanisms of a single tumor can be and how different parts of a single tumor may strikingly vary (Schürch, Gerlinger). After several large–scale sequencing studies of solid cancers, scientists have identified numerous different genetic pathways that can coexist in the same tumor. A non–uniform sampling method, like surgical biopsies, can contribute to drug resistance and treatment failure as certain tumor sections can easily be left out of the diagnosis. (1–5) Even apart from the clinical disadvantages, biopsies still are invasive surgical procedures that further weaken already ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 15. The Cancer Research Society's (CRS) The Cancer Research Society's (CRS) purpose is to collect funds for cancer research on all kinds of cancer. The association commenced in the year 1945, and it is known to be the first Canadian organization that focuses on gathering finances for cancer research. The institution assists Canadian health care professionals, and researchers to further understand the causation of cancer. Additionally, the institute takes part in the advancement of successful treatments, which could perhaps improve the patient's life and aid in preventing cancer. The organization contributes to the progression of science, which particularly focuses on preventing, detecting, and treating cancer. The CRS is determined as they have been working on defeating cancer since ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 17. A Research Study On Cancer Essay Introduction Cancer Background Cancer is a disease that is characterized by rapid, unrestricted proliferation (cellular reproduction) of abnormal cells in an organism. Although there is not a single cause for cancer, there are several environmental and genetic factors that have been associated with the development of cancer. These factors include exposure to carcinogens such as tobacco, ultraviolet light, radiation, and various toxins; inheritance of damaged genes that promote tumorigenesis (the production of tumors); and repeated damage to cells that drive them into abnormally high proliferation rates. When noncancerous cells proliferate, they do so in a restricted manner that involves a complex relationship between cell senescence (cell aging), cellular signaling, and regulatory actions. The regulation of cellular reproduction involves apoptosis (programmed cell death), cyclin and cyclin– dependent kinase action, contact inhibition, and the G1 checkpoint of the cell cycle. Further explanations for each of these regulatory factors are given below. Apoptosis is the process by which the body destroys damaged or old cells that can no longer function properly. This can be thought of as the process by which organisms maintain the production and elimination of cells in order to maintain homeostasis in terms of cell numbers. When noncancerous cells become old or acquire too many mutations, the morphology of the cells take on a senescence phenotype (Kaldis, 2006). This change in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 19. Breast Cancer Research Breast cancer has definitely become a serious worldwide health challenge. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), public health data points shows that the global burden of breast cancer in women, measured by the number of times something happens, death, and financial based costs, is large and on the rise. Worldwide, it is estimated that more than one million women are diagnosed with breast cancer every year, and more than 410,000 will die from the disease (GIVE SOURCE). In low–and middle–income countries (LMICs), the setup and funds for common examination of medical breast examinations (such as mammography) are often not available. In these settings, breast cancer is therefore diagnosed at late stages and women may receive poor ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Therefore, a number of studies have depicted the need for BC screening/early detection in LMICs to prevent early deaths of women presenting with late stage at diagnosis. Yet, many complex issues harvest in the context of planning and implementation of BC screening in LMICs. So far, mammography has remained the main examination of BC screening throughout the world. Adequate evidence exists from some randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that mammography screening is associated with significant reductions in BC mortality. But in order to be effective, mammographic screening programs must be of high quality, with appropriate targeting and of sufficient frequency. In LMICs, BC incidence is lower and occurs more in younger age groups when breast tissue is dense. Promoting a need for another, more appropriate screening examination to take place. Also, there is a lack of resources for implementing any population level screening programs using mammography. Running a mammographic screening program becomes impossible and pointless in LMICs since the costs are too high and the benefits are insignificant. Maximum cost–benefit can only take place if screening is done in an age group which has a sufficiently high incidence of BC and sufficient ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 21. Outline On Cancer Research Paper Cancer Cancer is a family disease that can strike and part of the body that can result in an abnormal growth of cells. The disease typically first appears as an abnormal mass called a tumor. One fact is that tumors do not appear in cancers such as leukemia. Cancer is one of the leading of death worldwide and causes more that 16 percent of deaths each year. More than 1,600 Americans are from cancer every day. When talking about cancer, there are ways to treating cancer, detecting and preventing cancer and genetic disorders. When treating cancer one of the treatments is surgical removal of tumors. Many surgical procedures carry risks of complication such as bleeding, tissue and organ damage, infections or even death. Radiation therapy involves the uses of radiation such as gamma rays or electron beams to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy can increase the risk of developing addition cancers. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy can have patients experience pain, hair loss, nausea or even vomiting. Medical innovations beginning in the late 1950s have allowed patients to receive stem cells transplants to replace bone marrow damaged by cancer or cancer treatments. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... A fact about cancer in the United States, men are most likely to suffer from lung cancer, prostate and colon cancer. Over on the other end with women. They are most likely to deal with breast, lung and colon cancer. Some signs of lung cancer may include coughing, chest pains or trouble breathing. Cancer can cause people to lose weight or appetite, fever, or have chills. Humans with lighter skin, moles and history of sun damage take extra precautions to prevent developing skin cancer. Infectious diseases such as sexually transmitted infections can increase risk of developing ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 23. Cancer Research: Why Do Sources Cause Cancer? Cancer Research By lauren Southerland Lely High School Abstract This paper explores the category of cancer. The treatments for cancer, sources of cancer, what cancer and some of the remedies do to our bodies. There are resources that backup the information given. The Cancer.org organization provides information on Radiation and some types of treatment. The May Clinic includes information about chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Then Cancer.net organization provides information about mutation along with Cancerquest.org. Other topics in this paper will implicate the hereditary part on cancer and why the sources cause cancer. Inside there will also be a diagram that includes the parentages of treatments. This paper also ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This is why cancer occurs more often in older people who have had more opportunities for mutations to build up." From cancer.net. The role that mutations have in cancer is that they increase the chance a person has at getting cancer, usually as they get older. There are many types of mutations in cancer. One specific category is missense mutation which is a type of point mutation. This particular mutation causes the new codon, during the copying of a DNA strand, to, "...incorrect amino acid to be inserted into the protein. The effects on the function of the protein depend on what is inserted in place of the normal amino acid." From Cancerquest.org. The above mutation causes an unknown action to occur which then the cell starts reacting strangely to. Cancer could be inherited by the genes that are inherited from that parent. These genes are then duplicated multiple throughout the child's body, which causes cancer. The cancer is then spread throughout their whole body because it is in every cell in their ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 25. A Research Project On Colon Cancer Research Project Outcome Colon cancer claims the lives of 12 Australians each day and is the second largest cancer killer (1). Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer in the Australian population after the age of 50. It is essential that Australian men and women are aware of the aggressiveness and severity of the disease (2) and the primary preventative methods. The Indigenous Australian population, in comparison to the non–indigenous population, have a higher prevalence of the disease and experience higher mortality rates (3). Due to the lack of medical resources and awareness, men and women living in rural areas have an increased risk of developing colon cancer (4). For these reasons, I have decided to conduct an investigation on the significance, the primary preventative methods and the impact they can have on the health and awareness of the Australian population. I conducted my initial research by investigating the internet and books, both of which encompassed the anatomy of the stomach and allowed me to gather a greater understanding of Colon Cancer. Bowel cancer is a malignant growth that develops most commonly in the lining of the large bowel. The vast majority of bowel cancers develop from growths called 'polyps '. Not all polyps become cancerous. The larger that a polyp grows, the more likely it is to become malignant (cancerous). Polyps can be easily re moved without surgery by a procedure called a colonoscopy (inspection of the bowel with a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 27. Liver Cancer Research Paper Liver cancer Humans simply can not live without the liver; it is even in the name "Liver". The liver is composed of four lobes and is located in the right side of the body. As the heaviest organ, the liver performs a plethora of functions simultaneously. It acts as a refinery by filtering and purifying blood. Moreover, the liver stores carbohydrates by converting it to simple sugars. The liver also takes a major part in digestion by producing bile. Bile is an essential component in processing fats. Bile is originally made in the liver but is stored in the gallbladder. Furthermore, the liver also takes part in the body's immunity and the production of important blood proteins. Blood is transported to the liver via two vessels: the hepatic artery (blood from the heart), and the hepatic portal vein (blood from the guts). Blood leaves the kidney through the hepatic vein that leads to the heart. For such an important organ, it is no surprise that having a defective ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... They all damage the liver because they force it to overwork when trying to filter the blood and remove all the toxins. So once the liver exceeds its limit, it begins to deteriorate and stop functioning properly. Additionally, research have shown that these substances can have a part in causing liver cancer. There are two forms of liver cancer: hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma (which is actually cancer of the bile duct). Hepatocellular carcinoma is the more prevalent form of both and is the 3rd leading cause of cancer–related deaths in the US. Signs of liver cancer include the feeling of pain or a lump in the right side of the body right under the ribcage. Jaundice is another clear symptom of liver problems. Jaundice is the yellowing of the skin and eyes, accompanied by a dark colored urine. It is caused by the liver's inability to filter blood, so the toxins pile up and can be observed in the skin or ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 29. Informatic Cancer Research Paper Brandon Stanton, the mind behind Humans of New York, has taken a couple weeks off from shooting in the streets of New York City to take photos and gather stories within the Pediatrics Department of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Center in New York City. "Obviously, these are not going to be easy stories to read. These are war stories. The treatment of cancer can be nearly as violent as the condition itself, and even the doctors will frame their efforts in terms of warfare. But the fight against pediatric cancer is uniquely tragic because the battlefield is the body of a child. So these are definitely war stories," said Stanton, on a pinned post on the HONY Facebook page's timeline. "But as with every war, there are heroes." Stanton isn't just ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It infiltrates the brain stem. Everything your body feels or experiences passes through that stem. You can't violate it with a knife. It's futile to even think about. So I had to figure out how to insert a catheter into the brain and inject chemotherapy directly into the tumor. There is zero room for error," said Souwedaine via one the HONY's Facebook posts. Souwedaine has been researching DIPG since 1990 and has made progress to where one patient has lived 3 years past the diagnosis of DIPG, a significant feat given DIPG's past history of killing 100% of the children diagnosed. Another story on HONY's Facebook page was a six–part story following a young girl named Grace, who was diagnosed with Stage 4, high–risk neuroblastoma, and her mother. Prior to going to Sloan, Grace's mother spoke of the doctors that were ready to give up: "They told me: 'We're no longer treating her to cure her.' In the beginning, they were so optimistic. They were telling me about all these options and all this stuff they were going to do. And now they were telling me to give up. And I'm looking at Grace. And she looks OK. She looks strong. She doesn't look like the girl that I'm reading about in these medical charts. But they're telling me to give up on her," said Grace's ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 31. Cervical Cancer Research Paper Cervical Cancer: Teal is the New Pink Cervical Cancer is a type of cancer that is caused by an abnormal growth of cells in a woman's cervix. The cells reproduce very rapidly and can become cancerous or remain benign. Every woman is considered at risk for developing this form, but it is seen more in women who are 30 years or older. Around 12,000 women will get cervical cancer each year (CDC, 2012). No one wants to hear a that they have a diagnosis of cancer, but the good news is that with early diagnosis and treatment survival rates for women with cervical cancer are extremely high. Here we will discuss risk factor, signs and symptoms, prevention, and treatments for cervical cancer. Like any other disease, cervical cancer ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It usually comes about after an abnormal pap or positive HPV screen. There are many treatment options out there today. First thing the patient will be referred to a gynecological oncologist to figure out what the best treatment will be. The doctor will perform a biopsy to remove the cancerous tissue from the cervix. Some biopsies can be used to remove all of the cancer. Some of these include endocervical curettage, cone biopsy, loop electrosurgical procedure (LEEP), and cold knife cone biopsy ("Cervical", n.d.). If these treatments are not successful the use of radiation and chemotherapy are used to eradicate any remaining cancerous tissues or tumors ("How is cervical",2014). To increase your survival rate and decrease your chances of reoccurrence you should receive prompt and effective treatment as soon as ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 33. Thyroid Cancer Research Paper To conclude, Age, gender, and exposure to radiation can affect the risk of thyroid cancer. There are a lot of measures taken to ensure a patient's safety. Making sure that they are aware of practices taken place is a huge part because when test are performed accurately it takes weight of their shoulders considering their shock of being diagnosed with cancer. Noting information into the patients EMR is essential incase they decide or have to go to another physician that may specialize in this specific cancer. Life becomes very difficult for those who are diagnosed with thyroid cancer. The struggles of having to wake up early morning to take these thyroid pills at the same time everyday becomes a hassle. If you wake up late and forget to take ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Not only will I be aware but also with my knowledge from this research I can help them become aware with what they will encounter further down the road. To add, I can also branch out my knowledge in this field I can into nuclear medicine where I could work with radioactive material. The stages that pair with each type of thyroid cancer are pretty serious. The sooner that they are found the easier that they can be to diagnosed and treated. Stages 0–4 also decide what type of treatment shall be carried out and how aggressively you will need to act. Prognosis for kids can be very diverse as symptoms can be very different from adults. With children their immune system isn't as strong as an adults so the disease can spread faster. That's why it is important to regularly keep up with scheduling doctors appointments for children. Their symptoms can be mistaken a lot easier. The other thing is that this cancer is rarely found in kids and more in adults. Since its rare to find it in a child it lacks a little research therefore very diagnosis and procedure is based on what has been done to children ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 35. Research On Cancer And Psychology Qinyue Ban Prof. Scala WRI 102 14 Nov. 2014 Cancer and Psychology The common argue which in medical area is the scientist's keen to research about the relationship between the cancer and psychology. Cancer is comment disease, also as known as malignant tumors, has become a threat to human health and life of common disease, even become a major case of human death. Cancer occurred for any age, race, and gender. The reason and the result of the cancer are different because of the diverse of population and situation, and the mental activity of patients depends not only on disease. (American Cancer Society) Cancer is a kids of diseases which is the cells divided abnormal and uncountable. That cells can invade to other tissues of human's body through blood and lymph systems.( MediLexicon International) Cancer is the general term of that disease, actually is not just one disease. There are more than a hundred different types of cancer. Those kids of diseases are most orinage by the organ. In order to help the cancer people have well treatment, focus on their method and take care of their Mental Health is also one of the important part of the treatment. In order to express well, the sources which should be including the "comorbid major depression in patients with cancer" The pain from cancer will have an impact off psychology problem. "Find out what people need to know about the most common types of cancer treatment, learn how they work and why they are ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 37. Research Paper On Liver Cancer Cancer is a disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells. In a cancerous cell cycle, the cell ignores the signals that tell them to stop, and it just keeps dividing. Normal cells stop dividing when your body do not need anything else, but cancer cells just continue to go through cell cycle to make more copies. Also, cancer cells do not need anything to stimulated their growth, and it can spread to other parts of the body. The most common causes of cancer are tobacco, alcohol, overweight, obesity, dietary factors, physical inactivity, chronic infections, radiation, sun and UV exposure. The most common types of cancer are lung (158,080 deaths per year), liver (27,170 deaths per year), stomach (10,730 deaths per year),colorectal ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... If liver cancer has spread to surrounding tissues or organs and/or the regional lymph nodes, the 5– year survival rate is 11%. There are some treatments for liver cancer. Surgery has a 5–year survival rate of 50%. If the cancer is small, it may be possible to cut out the part of the liver which contains the cancer. In a tumor embolization a catheter is placed into the patient's groin and carefully navigated into the blood vessels supplying the tumor under X–ray guidance. After 1 year of follow– up care, the survival rate is 93%. There are others form of treatment, such as radiation therapy, that uses high–intensity radio waves or laser light are then passed through the needle, and heats the cancer cells and kills them. Chemotherapy, treatment which uses anti–cancer medicines to kill cancer cells, or to stop them from multiplying. Tumor ablation is a treatment that uses imaging guidance to place a needle electrode through the skin into a liver tumor. Targeted therapy are drugs that helps stop cancer from growing and spreading. The preventions for liver cancer are to avoid and treat hepatitis infections, limit alcohol and tobacco use, limit exposure to cancer–causing chemicals, treat diseases that increase liver cancer risk, get to and stay at a healthy weight. Another way to prevent liver cancer is making screening tests. Those tests are laboratory tests that help to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 39. Childhood Cancer Research Paper Cancer is very uncommon in children but, sadly, it does happen. Cancer does not discriminate. It can affect both boys and girls, those of any race or social class, and it can be diagnosed in babies as well as young adults. The most common types of childhood cancers are leukemia, lymphoma, and brain cancer. Most cancers in children result from mutations in the genes of growing cells, which is much different than cancer in adults where it is primarily attributed to lifestyle or environmental factors. Because the cause of childhood cancer is unknown, there is no way of preventing it. A diagnosis is often made during a child's regular checkup, when the doctor detects something abnormal. Some of the first symptoms include fever, swollen glands, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... No one expects to be told their child has cancer, but if that happens, parents need to know the critical role their attitudes and behavior will play in the outcome of their journey. There are many ways to disseminate this information and to make parents aware of importance of modeling self– efficacy for their child during this very traumatic and stressful time. At the time of diagnosis, the doctor should provide an abundance of information through pamphlets, brochures, fact sheets, etc. They can also direct parents to websites or journals and they should direct the parents to learn as much as they can about the type of cancer their child has and to research the treatments currently available to treat their disease. Chat rooms and other online communities are available for parents of cancer patients to provide additional education, as well as to help with emotional support. These chat rooms and online communities are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. There are usually child life specialists on pediatric floors at hospitals, whether it is the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), main pediatric unit, or pediatric emergency room. September is a big month for these specialists because they put a lot of effort in getting the word out about childhood cancer. I currently work at Hemby Children's ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 41. Pancreatic Cancer Research Papers History The first discovery of pancreatic cancer was thought to be during the 18th century, but the first cases were reported in the 1800s. As more cancers were discovered throughout the body, more research was done on it. It has been a problem for hundreds of years, but there was and still isn't a real cure. Within the last 10 years more light has been shed upon the subject and more research is being done. Pancreatic cancer, like all other cancers has no "cure", but there are ways to treat it. This type of cancer is one of the most deadly kinds, especially if it is not caught early on. According to Pancreatic Cancer Action, the risks of people ages 45–84 is about 84.6% and when people get diagnosed they are usually under the age of 65 ("Causes ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... One common symptom that usually appears first is jaundice. According to American Cancer Society, "Jaundice is yellowing of the eyes and skin. Most people with pancreatic cancer (and nearly all people with ampullary cancer) will have jaundice as one of their first symptoms" ("Signs and Symptoms of Pancreatic Cancer"). Although jaundice is a symptom of pancreatic cancer, it is a common symptom of other diseases and disorders too. "Jaundice is caused by the buildup of bilirubin, a dark yellow–brown substance made in the liver" ("Signs and Symptoms of Pancreatic Cancer"). Jaundice is caused by the cancer pressing on bile ducts, causing them to become blocked, which then leads to the buildup of bilirubin. Another common symptom is pain in the abdomen or surrounding areas. "Pain in the abdomen (belly) or back is common in pancreatic cancer. Cancers that start in the body or tail of the pancreas can grow fairly large and start to press on other nearby organs, causing pain" ("Signs and Symptoms of Pancreatic Cancer"). As the tumor grows, it can easily cause pain, pressing, and blockages of blood and different organ functions. Since the tumor can press on organs, it can cause nausea or vomiting. "If the cancer presses on the far end of the stomach it can partly block it, making it hard for food to get through. This can cause nausea, vomiting, and pain that tends to be worse after eating" ("Signs and Symptoms of Pancreatic Cancer"). A final common symptom is blood clots. "Sometimes, the first clue that someone has pancreatic cancer is a blood clot in a large vein, often in the leg" ("Signs and Symptoms of Pancreatic Cancer"). Blood clots are pretty common though, and can be caused by many other ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 43. Why Cancer Research Is Important. Essay e number of deaths from cancer continues to increase each year. Cancer is a disease has touched every family at least once. It is a disease that can kill you in a matter of years or months. There are several different types of cancer, some of which both men and women can be diagnosed with and some of which only one sex can actually be diagnosed with. Today researchers are finding more and more advances into what causes cancer. I myself am a cancer survivor and my treatment at the time in 1992 was considered experimental. My older brother who is now 32 years old was diagnosed with Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, when he was 2 years old; he too was a part of a research study that he is still participating in today. Cancer research is ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... There is several different method of treatment for cancer. The Method that a patient would receive is based on the form of cancer and the patient. The main fact taken into consideration when determining the best treat is the severity of the cancer. What stage and the type of cancer are also considered when researching the best method of treatment. A patient's age is also a big factor in what method a patient is considered for. Chemotherapy is the most commonly used form of treatment used to fight cancer. Over half of all patients that are diagnosed with cancer receive this form of treatment. There are several different methods that this drug can be administered. It can be given by IV, oral drugs, rectally or all three can be used at the same time. Many of the chemotherapy treatments lead to hair loss during the course of the treatment (www.medicalonline.com, 1997). One other major form of treatment would be radiation therapy. The method "zaps" the cancer from the body by focusing on the infected area. It damages the existing cancer cells and discourages new cells from growing. The method of treatment can be given to a patient externally exposing the affected area with high levels of radiations. There are also implants that can be placed under the skin that ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 45. Research On Cancer Therapy And Prevention Essay Introduction: With upwards of 100 000 new cancer cases diagnosed yearly in Australia, research into cancer therapy and prevention has continued to increase, with approximately $252 million in funding going into this field over the past two years in Australia alone (Cancer Australia, 2016). Current cancer therapies can involve invasive surgeries or the destruction of healthy cells (Cancer Health Centre, 2011), which is why new technologies are currently in development to provide patients with an effective treatment option with limited side effects. According to Scott, Alison & Wolchok (2012), "monoclonal antibody–based treatment of cancer has been established as one of the most successful therapeutic strategies for both hematologic malignancies and solid tumours in the last 20 years". While monoclonal antibodies are a commonly used biopharmaceutical product, bispecific antibodies are being increasingly utilised due to their ability to bind to two different entities. The use of monoclonal bispecific antibodies for targeting and delivering nanomedicines to cancer cells has been explored by Taylor et. al (2015), and their research has been outlined in 'Nanocell targeting using engineered bispecific antibodies'. Through the use of commonplace methodology and systematic analysis, Taylor et. al provides much needed progress in the field of cancer therapy biopharmaceuticals, only let down by minor omissions in practical elements regarding further applications of the conclusions ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 47. Skin Cancer Research Paper The Cause and Effects of Skin Cancer Introduction A. Did you know that over the past 30 years more people have had skin cancer than all other cancers combined? 1 in 5 Americans will develop skin cancer in their lifetime. B. By the age of 18, you have already accumulated 23% of skin damage by exposure from the sun. Between the age of 19 – 40, that rate goes up to 47%. C. My name is Kelly, and not only have I been a licensed skin care professional for the last 10 years; but I have also had a family member affected by skin cancer. D. Today I want to speak on the types of skin cancer, who it affects, early detection and the steps to take preventative measures. II. A. First I will discuss the 4 types of skin cancer. 1. The first ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Limiting sun exposure is the next step. Reduce exposure between the hours of 10 am and 2pm, when the sun's rays are the strongest. Also wear wide brimmed hats, sunglasses, and protective clothing. 3. Most important is staying out of tanning beds. People who use a tanning bed before the age of 30 increase their risk of melanoma by 75% according to the Melanoma Research Foundation (2017). B. Lastly I will speak on early detection and pre cancer screenings. 1. Doing self examines at home monthly to check for abnormalities and knowing the ABCDE's of moles and irregular growths is key. 2. Scheduling a yearly skin check with a Dermatologist is also important. V. Conclusion A. In conclusion, it is so important to guard yourself against the sun and tanning beds to reduce the risk of developing skin cancer. B. Today I spoke to you about the types of skin cancer, who is at a greater risk, as well as early detection and preventive methods you can take to reduce your risk. C. Finally, I will leave you with these slogans from the Skin Cancer Foundation campaign ads (2012). "Keep tanning, you look great in Leather." Also, "Want a killer tan? You might just get ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 49. Research Paper on Breast Cancer According to the American Cancer Society, Each year, more than 200,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer; furthermore Twelve percent of all women will contract the disease, and 3.5% of them will die from breast cancer (American Cancer Society, 2005). There are risk factors that may lead to breast cancer. There are 4 stages of breast cancer and several treatments, although treatments vary from types and stages of breast cancer. Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women who are 40 to 55 years old (Breast Cancer, 2009).Cancer occurs when cells divide uncontrollably. It changes from a normal cell to cancerous cells that require gene alterations. Therefore the altered genes and the uncontrolled growth may lead to tumors. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... A family history of breast cancer may increase your risk of getting breast cancer. Although someone in your family has breast cancer does not mean you will have it too. About 75% of patients with breast cancer do not have a family history of breast cancer. Girls who have a menstruation before the age of 12 and women who has menopause after the age of 50 can increase your risk of cancer. Older women are at higher risk then younger women. Women over 40 who have there first pregnancy is at risk of getting the disease. White woman are more likely to get breast cancer than African–American women, but African–American women are more likely to die from cancer. Asian, Hispanic, and American Indian women have a lower risk of getting breast cancer then white or black women. According to a study, woman who takes birth control has a slightly greater risk of getting breast cancer. Most studies suggest that use of HRT (Hormone Replacement Therapy) for relief of menopause symptoms for more than 5 years may slightly increase the risk of breast cancer (Breast Cancer Statistics, 2008). There are four stages of breast cancer. The Stage 0 is noninvasive breast cancer, that is, carcinoma in situ with no affected lymph nodes or metastasis. Stage zero is the most favorable. Now Stage 1 breast cancer is less than two centimeters in greatest dimension and is only in the breasts. In Stage 2, the cancer is no larger than two centimeters but it has spread to the lymph nodes under the arm. The ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 51. Lung Cancer Research Paper I decided to do my cancer research paper on Lung cancer because a lot of people i know smoke . There are many ways to get Lung cancer as in smoking, or being around someone who is smoking (2nd hand smoking). Smoking is responsible for over 80% of deaths and 2nd hand for many more. This cancer can cause you to have trouble breathing, coughing up blood, changes in voice, or pain in chest, shoulders, or back. Lung cancer can be found right in your lungs any day. You could go to an any day X–Ray for any reason and come out knowing u have lung cancer. If you end up with this cancer you and your doctor will go over treatments u could go though based on your health and and what you feel like doing. The stages of lung cancer are indicated by Roman ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 53. Pediatric Cancer Research Paper Student Name Tutor Course Title Date of Submission Impact of Pediatric Cancer on Child Survivors Introduction Cancer is an exceptionally uncommon infection in kids. Every year about eight thousand children are identified to have some type of cancer (Cancer.org). Evidently, the Cancer.org site identifies that due to the recent advances in medical treatment a number of these children have been cured. Notwithstanding, there have been great improvements in survival rates with increases of the number of children beating pediatric cancer increasing daily, and these have been accomplished using chemotherapy and national and global clinical trials. Today with more than sixty percent of youngsters identified to have cancer cured by surgery, chemotherapy, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In light that a considerable number of survivors of pediatric cancer do not experience marked disease burden including other psychological factors that is not evident until their adolescence and mid adult years, it is critical to understand their plight in order to create strategies to enable them to have better lives. Cancer is an impending problem currently with nearly all families having interacted with or are related to individuals who have experienced these problems. In light of the increase in childhood cancer, it is critical to equip families and individuals for the implication of the problem socially and culturally, the problem of reintegrating the individuals who have suffered childhood cancer back into the community or even the learning circles is a difficult task. The ability to understand the basis of the problem will enable everybody to have the knowledge of why it is difficult and help in the integration ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 55. Research on American Cancer Society American Cancer Society, established in 1913, is a national community–based organization that is dedicated to fighting and eliminating cancer through prevention, research, education, advocacy, and service. The organization was established by 15 physicians and businessmen, in New York City, under the name American Society for the Control of Cancer. The name was changed to American Cancer Society in 1945, when the society was reorganized to recognize the new era. The symbol is composed of two serpents and a sword of hope which represent the scientific medical focus and the crusading spirit of the movement against cancer. The society is currently run by volunteers. The number one goal of the organization is to "save lives and create a world ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The lodge gives patients and caregivers a free place to stay since getting the best possible cancer treatment sometimes requires traveling away from home. According to M.R (personal communication, March 4, 2013), "Hope Lodge allows patient and their caregivers focus on getting well and it is a place to share a meal, join different patient centered activities and unwind." The service is free of charge but the requirement is that the patient must live at least 40 minutes away from the cancer treatment center. It is a home away from home. The ACS also provides certain psychosocial benefits for their patients through support groups, counseling, and exercise programs. The programs are an important component in helping cancer patients and survivors to achieve the optimum quality of life. The ACS has partnered up with the Y in a program called Strive and Thrive: Live strong at the YMCA. This is a health and well–being program for cancer patients and survivors which help to achieve the goal of holistic health. The focus of this exercise program is to "reduce fatigue, improve muscle strength and energy levels, as well as to increase flexibility, endurance, confidence, self–esteem, mood and overall well–being. The program also helps to prevent cancer recurrence while increasing survival rate, "(ACS, 2013). ACS also partners up with many different support groups which help patients through their cancer journey. The groups include: Reach to Recovery, Man to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 57. Thyroid Cancer Research Paper HASSAN DEEN (age 18) BRAIN TUMOR SURVIVOR ASTROCYTOMA DIAGNOSED ( Age 7 months) I intend to walk the survivor lap of the relay for life event to raise money for The American Cancer Society. The reason I want to do this is to raise awareness and to help eliminate cancer so that no one has to suffer. I have been extremely lucky that I was treated at Childrens in Seattle by some great doctors and my hero Dr Ellenbogen the chief of neurological surgery. I have since spent many hours at the hospital. Being very small when this all happened other than a scar on my head I have no reminder of what I went through though my family talks about it. I have had to undergo various therapies to get back on track including fine motor skill gross motor skills ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Although all of my history makes me a unique individual I would like to be just like everyone else my age. I have some short term memory issues so learning new things at school can be very frustrating. I'd like to help anyone not to have to go through the things that my family and I have had to undergo. Even my mom had thyroid cancer seven years ago; it made me very scared and upset. I am also walking for my Friends is currently receiving treatment for cancer. I want to get RID OF CANCER FOR GOOD. Please help and pledge to this Cause. HASSAN DEEN (age 18) BRAIN TUMOR SURVIVOR ASTROCYTOMA DIAGNOSED ( Age 7 months) My name is Hassan Deen. At a very young age my parents learned that I had cancer. Because it was close to the stem in my brain I wasn't likely going to be able to walk or even talk.. It wasn't an easy journey, after surgery I wasn't able to move or even communicate. I had therapy till I reached age 9 to help me walk, talk, and even eat solid food. I can remember all those visits in the doctor's office. Having to listen to all those Hannah Montana songs while having MRI scans and getting my smiley face sticker after each lesson or jab. Eventually I made it
  • 58. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 60. Stomach Cancer Research Paper Stomach Cancer Stomach Cancer is cancer of the stomach which is also known as Gastric Cancer. It is a disease where malignant cells arise from the lining of the stomach which could eventually grow into a tumor found in the upper part of the abdomen and just below the ribs. Since the stomach is a part of the body's digestive system, it produces acids and enzymes that break down food before passing through the small intestine which can cause the cancer to develop in any part of the stomach and spreads up towards the esophagus. The cancer happens over a period of a few years of bad acids being ate or inhaled which causes inflammation in your gut called gastritis, long–lasting anemia that continues to grow in the stomach that can also put you at a higher risk to get cancer. Although, not knowing exactly what makes stomach cancer cells, smoking, being overweight, exposure to coal, metal, timber industries all put you at a higher risk of receiving the cancer. There are four stages of the cancer, 0 being that the cancer has not yet spread beyond the surface layer to stage 4 being the worst, meaning that the cancer has spread completely through the stomach wall, lymph nodes, and organs. However, there are treatment options available for curing stomach cancer but for those trying to avoid gastric cancer, stay away from those listed above that increase your chance of getting the disease. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or targeted therapy. The surgery is the removal of the tumor ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2017. . "Stomach Cancer." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2017. . "Stomach Cancer." Stomach Cancer – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis – Canada.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2017. . "Stomach Cancer: Treatment Options." Cancer.Net. N.p., 14 Nov. 2016. Web. 18 Apr. 2017. . Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2017. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 62. Research Paper On Cancer Pirate Paper My question being why is cancer becoming more common in firefighters and what are we going to do to help this situation? It's not a faceless issue...it's an issue affecting the heroes that put their lives on the line everyday serving and saving others. Now the lives of our firefighters are at risk and they need help. Research indicates that cancer is one of the most dangerous threats to firefighters...in some cases they are at 102% greater risk, on the lower end 32% greater risk than the general population. According to the University of Arizona, cancer is a leading cause of death among firefighters. Thirty–six year old Gilbert Aguirre is one the the faces behind these statistics. He's a 17–year veteran firefighter that ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... "They've denied me. We went from almost being debt free to bankrupt and almost homeless in less than two years because of my condition". Austin says that in addition to the emotional devastation, he and his family have also suffered financial devastation. They now live with Austin's parents. He says he's battling for his life, but having to battle the insurance companies is taking a toll. "It's harder to fight insurance than to fight cancer," Peck said. Gilbert's cancer is currently on the list of covered cancers, Austin's cancer is not...yet. Bryan Jeffries is the president of the Professional Firefighters of Arizona and on the front lines of enacting policy and procedural changes by trying to expand the presumptive cancer coverage laws in Arizona. "They're finding that there is a direct, causal link between the chemicals that are produced in the buildings and the cancers and cardiac problems these firefighters are having," said Jeffries. Jeffries, among with the thousands of men and woman of the Professional Firefighters of Arizona, International Association of Firefighters and the United Phoenix Firefighters Local 493, are fighting hard for these procedural changes and to pass legislation to increase protections to firefighters. House Bill 2161 would expand cancer coverage and provide workmen's compensation to include additional forms of cancers that have ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 64. A Research Study On Cancer Essay Cancer remains a leading cause of death in the United States, with 590,000 adults and 2,000 children and adolescents succumbing to this disease in 2015 (NCI, 2016d). The lesser known statistic is that survivorship has more than doubled in 22 years and survivors are expected to comprise more than 5% of the U.S. population by 2024 (NCI, 2016d). Cancer incidence remains relatively unchanged; a contributing cause for increased survivorship is effective therapy (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004; Simon, 2016). With advances in therapy, multiple therapeutic regimens have been developed for many malignancies. For example, non–small cell lung cancer has over 18 first–line chemotherapeutic regimens listed as a national standard of care (National Comprehensive Cancer Network, 2016). When considering multiple therapeutic regimens, a key deciding factor becomes a patient's medical fitness for therapy contrasted to a regimen's toxicity profile. Currently, a gap exists in that toxicity profile: patient reported outcomes. Addressing this gap impacts therapeutic decisions through two pathways: therapeutic dose adjustments (driven by adverse events) as well as empowering patients to understand what to expect during therapy by publicly providing patient–reported outcomes. Background and Significance Adverse events are defined by FDA as untoward medical occurrences regardless of causality to a drug. Adverse events define the drug's toxicity profile, which serves as a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 66. Cancer Research, Section 1 ( Basics Of Cancer ) Cancer Research, Section 1 (Basics of Cancer) What is cancer? Cancer is a disease where cells split uncontrollably and can invade other tissues, causing cells in the other tissues to have cancer. Where can cancer occur? Cancer can occur practically anywhere in the body. This is because cancerous cells can move anywhere in the amatomy through blood paths and lymph systems (lymph systems are lattice of organs, lymph intersections (nodes), tubes, and vessels that move lymph, a clear fluid containing white blood cells, from place to place. (– http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/cancerlibrary/what–is–cancer ) What is a tumor? What do benign and malignant mean? A tumor ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This is the stage that is the easiest to cure. Stage 1 cancer is cancer that hasn't grown too far into the tissues surrounding it and is also called early–stage cancer. Stages 2 and 3 cancers are cancers that are larger or have grown further into the neighboring tissues and have moved to the lymph nodes, but not to other body areas. Stage 4 cancer is cancer that has moved to organs and other body parts. This cancer is also called advanced or metastatic cancer. Cancer Type Specifics I am doing my project on retinoblastoma. I chose retinoblastoma because I thought not many people would pick it; it is a very rare type of cancer. Retinoblastoma is a fast developing cancer that develops from immature cells in the eye called the retina. It is the most common cancerous tumor of the eye in children. Retinoblastoma occurs mostly in children under five. Although it is very rare, Retinoblastoma can develop when a child is just past the age of six. Retinoblastoma occurs in the eye, developing from the light– sensing tissues of the retina. Worsening of vision, a red and irritated eye, and faltering growth (delayed development) are symptoms of Retinoblastoma. Some children with retinoblastoma can become cross–eyed, which means that their eyes are going in two different directions. There are many treatments of Retinoblastoma. One of the treatments is ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 68. Cancer Research In the United States alone, there was an estimated 1,685,210 new cases of cancer and an estimated of 595,690 people will die from the disease in 2016 ("Cancer Statistics"). Cancer is a very common aliment that affects men, women, children, and all races and ethnicities. There are many different types of cancers, and cancer research has been a focal point for many scientists. There are various treatments that a cancer patient to undergo. Surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and immune therapy are among the most common ones. Each treatment works differently, and has different positive and negative side effects. Surgery can be used in many ways to treat cancer. Biopsies are one example of a surgical procedure that is used commonly to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Chemotherapy drugs work by targeting the cells that divide and grow rapidly throughout the whole body. A downside of this is the fact some good cells are killed off as well as the cancerous ones. Cells that make up hair, skin, some intestine cells, and bone marrow are killed as well causing some of the harsh side effects of chemotherapy ("Chemotherapy: How It Works and How You'll Feel"). Blood cells are other examples of healthy cells that are damaged in chemotherapy treatment. White blood cells are the cells that help protect the body from infections. Too low of a white blood cell count is called neutropenia which is very common with patients who undergo chemotherapy treatment. Patients who are neutropenic do not have enough white blood cells meaning they are susceptible to easily contracting infections. Other blood cells that are impacted in a negative way are the red blood cells and platelets ("What is Chemotherapy?"). A patient will receive chemotherapy treatment in cycles, or treatment periods. A patient will receive chemo one or more days consecutively. Since chemo drugs kills cancerous and good cells, it is important for the patient to rest to allow those good cells to reproduce ("How Chemo Works"). Chemo drugs can be administered in various ways like injections, IV infusions, orally, topically, intra–arterially, or intraperitoneally. Sometimes cancer patients can receive a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 70. Lymphatic Cancer Research Paper There are so many diseases found worldwide that can either be cured or lead to death. Cancer is the name for a group of diseases in which the body's cells are changed in appearance and function. This disease is the second most leading cause of death in the United States. Cancer can also develop from genetic defect. A single gene in a single chromosome that gets passed on from generation to generation. Cancer can be treated and cured, but may also deal with recurrence of the disease. The American Cancer Society defines cancer as a group of diseases that are characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. They can be classified by function and location of the cells from which they originate. These cancer classifications include Carcinomas, Sarcomas, Leukemias, Lymphoma. The most common cancers are Carcinomas known to originate in the body. Sarcomas are derived from connective tissues, fat, bone, muscle, or cartilage. Leukemias involves the blood cells, bone marrow, and other blood– forming organs. Lymphoma takes place in the lymphatic system. These cancers involve diseases of the body's cells which have two primary sources called environmental factors and cellular factors. Environmental factors deals with lifestyle and environment exposure such as ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Soft tissue sarcomas are four times more common than primary bone tumors and they have no identified etiological factor. This type of cancer is rare in adults and include tumors that develop from fat, muscle, and nerve. The primary bone tumors arise from both bone and cartilage. Sarcoma can be cured if caught early and usually results in a 5 year survival rate for soft tissue sarcoma that exceeds 90%. Amputation versus limb salvage has no significant differences between 5 year survival rate and rehab period is longer for limb ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 72. Causes Of Cancer Research And Genetic Development Of... RESEARCH STRATEGY A. SIGNIFICANCE Cervical cancer incidence in the United States has decreased dramatically since the development of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in 2006. The vaccine, in combination with regular cervical cytological screenings (Pap tests), has since rendered cervical cancer preventable (1,2). However, worldwide cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates remain high, with 528,000 new cases and 266,000 deaths reported in 2012 (3). Critical barriers to progress in cervical cancer research and therapeutic development are evident: most people with HPV infections do not develop cervical cancer (4), and not all cervical cancers are HPV–induced (5,6). Moreover, not all causes of cervical cancer are known (7), and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... We have also shown that MALAT1, SRSF1, and SRSF protein kinase 1 (SRPK1) form a complex. Interestingly, SRSF1 has been demonstrated to stabilize tumor suppressor p53 by preventing its ubiquitin–proteasome system–mediated degradation via complex formation with mouse double minute 2 homolog (Mdm2), a ubiquitin ligase, in the nucleus (20). The resulting phenomenon is oncogene–induced senescence (OIS) (21), a protective antiproliferative mechanism activated by oncogenic signaling upon stress–induced inactivation of a tumor suppressor. Based on our preliminary results, in conjunction with literature evidence, we hypothesize that MALAT1 overexpression disrupts RRM2 and RS domain interaction in SRSF1, subsequently impairing RS domain phosphorylation and SRSF1 nuclear translocation. This change in subcellular localization destabilizes p53, leading to loss of OIS in HPV–negative cervical cancer (HNCC). The goal of our lab is to examine the role of MALAT1 in SRSF1/p53–mediated OIS via HNCC in vitro (Aim 1) and in vivo (Aim 2) experimental models utilizing MALAT1–specific antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) therapy. Completion of this project will lead to a clearer understanding of whether MALAT1 is an underlying cause of HNCC development. The results generated from this proposal will improve scientific knowledge and clinical practices by providing a new MALAT1–mediated mechanism underlying HNCC tumorigenesis and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 74. Breast Cancer Care And Research Cancer Care and Research Rebecca Anderson Dawn Tinder October 26, 2014 Abstract: In this paper, possible courses of treatment for cancer will be defined and discussed. Due to there being so many types of treatments, it can be difficult to determine which works better Through examination of case studies in lung cancer trials, it is evident which treatments are the most effective. One also has to take into account the issue of every individual being different, having different genetics, and different types of cancer. In conclusion, the most effective treatment, is in fact, the one that works best for the patient. Introduction: Cancer is one of the most ambiguous diseases. As Jenny Phillips, a researcher in the thoracic oncology field, said, "I think the thing you need to know most about cancer is that we don't know that much about it." Yes, it is known that cancer is the uncontrollable division of abnormal cells, but how can it be stopped? That is the question. There are a number of treatments for this disease. There are the traditional treatments: chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. There are also nontraditional treatments such as the use of oncolytic viruses, acupuncture, and the targeting of matrices. Aside from these treatments, are some other treatments that have recently been on the rise: personalized medicine, targeted therapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery. However, despite the number of treatments available for cancer, it is yet to be ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 76. Outline On Cancer Research Paper Cancer Cancer is one of the most lethal diseases that greatly contributes to the death toll of millions people around the globe. Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by out of control cell growth. There are over 100 different types of cancer, and the type of cell that is initially affected classifies each. In most cases, cancer harms the body when damaged cells divide uncontrollably to form lumps or masses of tissue called tumors. Untreated cancers can cause serious illness and death. The body is made up of trillions of living cells; producing new ones constantly while others die. Normal body cells grow, reproduce, and die in an orderly way. During the early years of a person's life, normal cells divide faster to allow the person to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... According to American Society of Clinical Oncology, "The cancer treatment options your doctor recommends depends on the type and stage of cancer, possible side effects, and the patient's preferences and overall health" (ASCO). Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. When most people use the word chemotherapy, they are referring specifically to drug treatments for cancer that destroy cancer cells by stopping their ability to continue to grow and divide. Different drugs cause different side effects. Each person's experience with chemotherapy is different, even though specific side effects may be predictable for certain drugs. With most types of chemotherapy, the presence and intensity of side effects are not signs of how well the treatment is working. In other words, because someone may be experiencing side effects, that does not mean that the therapy is being effective. However, some side effects of targeted therapy do, in fact, indicate the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 78. A Research Study On Pediatric Cancer Approximately 15,780 children and adolescents ages 0 to 19 are diagnosed with cancer each year. Of those 1,960 will die of the disease in the United States. Nobody should have to go through this in their life time, let alone an infant or child. Kids are suffering each and every second of their lives trying to fight the unbearable, frightening, terrible disease. For many, many years, doctors, researchers and nurses have been working to find cures for pediatric cancers. Progress has been made in treating some cancers but there are still many pediatric cancers, which have a high mortality rate. Institutions have spent millions of dollars on experimental treatments and Doctor's and researchers have put in endless amounts of hours just trying to cure cancer. What it has come down to is that there is little to nothing we can do to try to cure some of the rare and deadly cancers without proper funding for research. What we can do is make thoughtful decisions, be safe and stay positive. I have been around children who have been diagnosed with cancer at Memorial Sloan Kettering in New York City where my mom has been a nurse for 27 years. I watched as they received IV with medicine in my mom's hospital. I also was able to see them when they were ready to go home and fully recovered after surgery. It is an incredibly difficult time for their parents. It is so sad to see children in such pain at such young ages. I remember looking at them and no matter how hard their life was at the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...