Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Project Management- Unit III


Published on

Technical Analysis: selection of technology, material input and utilities, plant capacity, location & site,
machinery and equipment, structures and civil work, environmental aspects, project charts and layouts.
Financial Estimation: Project cost, source of finance, cost of production.

Published in: Education
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Project Management- Unit III

  1. 1. Unit III Project Management Technical Analysis: selection of technology, material input and utilities, plant capacity, location & site, machinery and equipment, structures and civil work, environmental aspects, project charts and layouts. Financial Estimation: Project cost, source of finance, cost of production.
  2. 2. Technical Analysis • It’s a continuous exercise. • Needs to be done simultaneously when project is being examined. • Two Broad Purpose: – To ensure that the project is technically feasible i.e. all inputs required are available. – To facilitate the most optimal formulation of the project in terms of technology, size, location and so on.
  3. 3. Selection of Technology • For manufacturing a product/service, sometimes two or more alternatives are available. Eg: – Steel - either from Bessemer process or open hearth process. – Cement - either by dry process or the wet process. – Soda – either by electrolysis or chemical process. – Soap – either by semi boiled process or fully boiled process.
  4. 4. The Choice of Technology • The choice of technology is influenced by variety of considerations: 1. Plant Capacity: Often there are close relationship between plant capacity and production technology. Certain product technology sometimes can meet the plant capacity. 2. Principal Inputs: In some cases, raw materials available also influences the technology chosen. Quality of limestones determines the process for cement manufacturing. 3. Investment Outlay and Production Cost: There can be an impact of technology on investment options and the overall production cost. It needs to be assessed carefully.
  5. 5. Contd.. 4. Use by Other Units: Technology adopted should be proven by successful use by other units, preferably in India. 5. Product Mix: Total product mix generated by the technology is important. 6. Latest Developments: Technology used should be carefully chosen keeping in mind the obsolescence in near future. 7. Ease of Absorption: The ease with which a particular technology can be absorbed also influences the choice of technology. Sometimes there is a scarcity of trained personnel when high level technology is used.
  6. 6. Appropriateness of Technology • It refers to those methods which are suitable for local economic, social and cultural conditions. The technology used should be evaluated in terms of following questions: • Whether the technology utilizes local raw materials? • Whether the technology utilizes local man power? • Whether the goods/ services produced cater to the basic needs? • Whether the technology protects ecological balance? • Whether the technology is harmonious with social and cultural conditions of the country?
  7. 7. Technical Arrangements • To obtain technical know how collaboration is sought. When collaboration is sought, following aspects of the agreement should be worked out in detail – The nature and support to be provided during the designing of the project, selection and procurement of equipment, installation and erection of the plant, operation and maintenance, training the project personnel. – Process and performance guarantees. – The price of technology in terms of licensing fee. – Benefit of any R&D services. – Period of collaboration agreement. – Termination of the agreement in case of failure in obligation. – Force Majeure situations.
  8. 8. Material Input and Utilities • Another important aspect of technical analysis is defining the materials and utilities required. • Material inputs and utilities are broadly classified into four categories: – Raw materials • Agricultural products • Mineral products • Livestock and forest products • Marine products – Processed industrial materials and components – Auxiliary materials and factory supplies – Utilities
  9. 9. Contd.. • Raw Materials 1. Agricultural Products – Quality needs to be examined. – Quantities available and future potential. 2. Mineral Products – Quantum of exploitable deposits and their properties. – Location, size and depth of deposits along with the viability of open cast or mining. – Composition of the ore, level of impurities, chemical properties etc. 3. Livestock and Forecast Products – Sometimes secondary data is not that accurate, therefore specific survey may be required to obtain more reliable data on livestock produce and forest products. 4. Marine Products – Assessing the potential availability of marine products and cost of collection is difficult.
  10. 10. Contd.. • Processed Industrial Materials and Components — Includes base metals, semi-processed materials, manufactured parts, components and sub assemblies. — These are important inputs for a number of industries. — Their properties (Physical, mechanical, chemical and electrical) are important to understand. — What is the total requirement of the project? — How much quantity from domestic and/or foreign sources? — Dependability of supplies? — Past and future trends in prices?
  11. 11. Contd.. • Auxiliary Materials and Factory Supplies – Like chemicals, additives, packaging material, paint, varnishes, oil, cleaning materials etc. – Feasibility study needs to be undertaken in order to understand the demand of such materials. • Utilities – Power, water, steam, fuel etc. – Detailed assessment of such utilities can be made only after project formulation w.r.t. location, technology and plant capacity. – Successful operation of project depends upon adequate availability of utilities. – What quantities are required? What are the sources of Supply? – What are the potential availability and likely shortage scenarios?
  12. 12. Capacity Planning & Facility Location
  13. 13. Capacity planning • Capacity is the maximum output rate of a production or service facility • Capacity planning is the process of establishing the output rate that may be needed at a facility: – Capacity is usually purchased in “chunks” – Strategic issues: how much and when to spend capital for additional facility & equipment – Tactical issues: workforce & inventory levels, & day-to-day use of equipment
  14. 14. Plant Capacity • Also referred to as production capacity. • Volume or number of units that can be produced in a given period. • Can be measured in two ways: – FNC (Feasible Normal Capacity) • Capacity attainable under normal working conditions – NMC (Nominal Maximum Capacity) • Capacity attainable technically (installed capacity)
  15. 15. Measuring Capacity Examples • There is no one best way to measure capacity • Output measures like kgs. per day are easier to understand • With multiple products, inputs measures work better Type of Business Input Measures of Capacity Output Measures of Capacity Car manufacturer Labor hours Cars per shift Hospital Available beds Patients per month Pizza parlor Labor hours Pizzas per day Retail store Floor space in square feet Revenue per foot
  16. 16. Capacity Information Needed • Design capacity: – Maximum output rate under ideal conditions – A bakery can make 30 custom cakes per day when pushed at holiday time • Effective capacity: – Maximum output rate under normal (realistic) conditions – On the average this bakery can make 20 custom cakes per day
  17. 17. Calculating Capacity Utilization • Measures how much of the available capacity is actually being used: – Measures effectiveness – Use either effective or design capacity in denominator (FNC or NMC)  100% capacity rateoutputactual nUtilizatio 
  18. 18. Example of Computing Capacity Utilization: In the bakery example the design capacity is 30 custom cakes per day. Currently the bakery is producing 28 cakes per day. What is the bakery’s capacity utilization relative to both design and effective capacity? 93%(100%) 30 28 (100%) capacitydesign outputactual nUtilizatio 140%(100%) 20 28 (100%) capacityeffective outputactual nUtilizatio (NMC)design (FNC)effective   • The current utilization is only slightly below its design capacity and considerably above its effective capacity • The bakery can only operate at this level for a short period of time
  19. 19. How Much Capacity Is Best? • The Best Operating Level is the output than results in the lowest average unit cost • Economies of Scale: – Where the cost per unit of output drops as volume of output increases – Spread the fixed costs of buildings & equipment over multiple units, allow bulk purchasing & handling of material • Diseconomies of Scale: – Where the cost per unit rises as volume increases – Often caused by congestion (overwhelming the process with too much work-in-process) and scheduling complexity
  20. 20. Best Operating Level and Size • Alternative 1: Purchase one large facility, requiring one large initial investment • Alternative 2: Add capacity incrementally in smaller chunks as needed
  21. 21. Factors Influencing Capacity Decisions • Technological Requirement – There is certain minimum economic size determined by the technological factor. • Input Constraints – In India, availability of certain inputs like power, basic raw material etc have impact on plant capacity decisions. • Investment Costs – Investment cost per unit of capacity decreases as the plant capacity increases.
  22. 22. Contd.. • Market Conditions – If market for the product is strong, high capacity plant is preferred and vice versa. – Sometimes market potential is expected to rise in future, then also capacity should be large. • Resources of the firm – A firm cannot choose large capacity beyond the available financial and managerial capability. • Government Policy – Concept of ‘minimum economic capacity’ has been adopted in several industries because of Govt. policies.
  23. 23. Facility Location • Facility location is the process of identifying the best geographic location for a service or production facility. • Is there any difference between “Location” and ‘Site”?
  24. 24. Location Strategy • Infrequent decision based on: – Demand outgrowing existing capacity. – Local changes in labor productivity, exchange rates, costs, local attitudes. – Shifts in demographics and customer demands. • Location options: – Don’t move, expand an existing facility. – Maintain current sites, add another facility. – Close an existing facility and move to another location.
  25. 25. Factors That Affect Location Decisions • General factors. • Global Region or Country decision.
  26. 26. General Factors • Globalization. • Market (customer) proximity – High population areas, close to JIT partners • Raw Material/Suppliers proximity – Transportation costs, perishability, bulk purchase • Labor proximity and productivity – Proximity—local wage rates, unions, special skills availability – Productivity—low cost may be linked to low productivity and vice versa) • Government Policies – Govt. restrictions and inducements. – Restrictions in urban congestion and inducements in backward areas. • SEZ, concessional finance, income tax benefits etc.
  27. 27. Contd.. • Availability of Infrastructure – Power, transportation, water and communications – Power: Useful in electricity intensive projects. • Quantum of power available, prices, stability etc. – Transportation: inputs transportation and output distribution. (rail, road, sea or air) • Availability, reliability and cost of transportation. – Water: Adequate water supply is essential given the plant capacity and type of technology. – Telephone and internet. • Competitor proximity – Clustering—due to a major resource in the area. • Others: Climatic conditions, General living conditions, Proximity to ancillary units, ease of coping with pollution.
  28. 28. Global Region or Country • Key International Locations – North America, Europe, Pacific Rim. • Key Considerations – Political/legal concerns. – Cultural issues (including business). – Infrastructure: supplies, communication, utilities. – International trade issues. • Exchange rates. – Market access issues. – Labor availability, attitudes, productivity, costs. – Quality-of-life issues.
  29. 29. Location Analysis Methods • Analysis should follow 3 step process: – Step 1: Identify dominant location factors – Step 2: Develop location alternatives – Step 3: Evaluate locations alternatives • Factor rating method • Load-distance model • Center of gravity approach • Break-even analysis • Transportation method
  30. 30. Factor-Rating Method • Six steps: 1. Develop a list of relevant factors. 2. Assign a weight to each factor reflecting its relative importance to the firm. 3. Develop a rating scale for the factors. 4. Score each location on each factor based on the scale. 5. Multiply the scores by the weights for each factor and total the weighted scores for each location. 6. Make a recommendation based on the maximum point score, considering other [quantitative?] factors.
  31. 31. Factor Rating Example
  32. 32. A Load-Distance Model Example: Matrix Manufacturing is considering where to locate its warehouse in order to service its four Ohio stores located in Cleveland, Cincinnati, Columbus, Dayton. Two sites are being considered; Mansfield and Springfield, Ohio. Use the load-distance model to make the decision. • Calculate the rectilinear distance: • Multiply by the number of loads between each site and the four cities miles4515401030dAB 
  33. 33. Calculating the Load-Distance Score for Springfield vs. Mansfield • • The load-distance score for Mansfield is higher than for Springfield. The warehouse should be located in Springfield. Computing the Load-Distance Score for Springfield City Load Distance ld Cleveland 15 20.5 307.5 Columbus 10 4.5 45 Cincinnati 12 7.5 90 Dayton 4 3.5 14 Total Load-Distance Score(456.5) Computing the Load-Distance Score for Mansfield City Load Distance ld Cleveland 15 8 120 Columbus 10 8 80 Cincinnati 12 20 240 Dayton 4 16 64 Total Load-Distance Score(504)
  34. 34. Center-of-Gravity Method 1. Place the locations to be supported on a coordinate system (like a graph). 2. Calculate the center of gravity: Where: xi = x-coordinate of location i. yi = y-coordinate of location i. li = quantity (load) of goods moved to/from location i.   i ii cg l xl coordinateX   i ii cg l yl coordinateY
  35. 35. The Center of Gravity Approach • This approach requires that the analyst find the center of gravity of the geographic area being considered • Computing the Center of Gravity for Matrix Manufacturing • Is there another possible warehouse location closer to the C.G. that should be considered?? Why? 10.6 41 436 l Yl Y;7.9 41 325 l Xl X i ii c.g. i ii c.g.      Computing the Center of Gravity for Matrix Manufacturing Coordinates Load Location (X,Y) (li) lixi liyi Cleveland (11,22) 15 165 330 Columbus (10,7) 10 165 70 Cincinnati (4,1) 12 165 12 Dayton (3,6) 4 165 24 Total 41 325 436
  36. 36. Break-Even Analysis • Break-even analysis can be used for location analysis especially when the costs of each location are known – Step 1: For each location, determine the fixed and variable costs – Step 2: Plot the total costs for each location on one graph – Step 3: Identify ranges of output for which each location has the lowest total cost – Step 4: Solve algebraically for the break-even points over the identified ranges • Remember the break even equations used for calculation total cost of each location and for calculating the breakeven quantity Q. – Total cost = F + cQ – Total revenue = pQ – Break-even is where Total Revenue = Total Cost
  37. 37. The Transportation Method • The transportation method of linear programming can be used to solve specific location problems • It could be used to evaluate the cost impact of adding potential location sites to the network of existing facilities • It could also be used to evaluate adding multiple new sites or completely redesigning the network
  38. 38. Machinery and Equipment • Selection of machineries and equipments is dependent upon – plant capacity and production technology – Type of project • In manufacturing, various machines can perform same function with varying degree of accuracy. • For selecting machinery and equipments for manufacturing industry: – Estimate the likely levels of production – Define various machining and other operations – Calculate the machine hours required for each operation
  39. 39. Contd.. • The equipments required for the project may be classified into: – Plant (process) equipments. – Mechanical equipments. – Electrical equipments. – Instruments – Controls – Internal transportation system – Spare parts and tools.
  40. 40. Contd.. • Constraints in selecting machineries and equipments – There may be limited availability of power for electricity intensive plant. (electrical furnace) – There may be difficulty in transporting a heavy equipment to a remote location – Workers may not be able to operate sophisticated equipments (CNC) – Import policy of govt. may preclude the import of certain machineries and equipments. • Procurement of Plant Machinery – Orders can be placed to different suppliers or turnkey contracts may be given. – Selection of supplier is dependent upon the quality, expected delivery schedules, payment terms and performance guarantee. – If in-house technical expertise is inadequate, external consultants may be employed.
  41. 41. Structures and Civil Work 1. Site preparation and development 2. Building and structures 3. Outdoor works
  42. 42. Site preparation and development • This covers the following: 1. Grading and leveling of the site 2. Demolition and removal of existing structures 3. Relocation of existing pipelines, cables, roads, power lines etc. 4. Reclamation of swamps and draining and removal of standing water 5. Connections for the following utilities from the site to the public network: power, water, communications, roads, railways etc.
  43. 43. Building and Structures • It can be divided into: 1. Factory or process building 2. Ancillary building required for stores, warehouses, laboratories, maintenance services, supply centers etc. 3. Administrative building 4. Staff welfare buildings, cafeteria, medical services 5. Residential building
  44. 44. Outdoor Works • Includes: 1. Supply and distribution of utilities (water, electric power, communication, gas etc.) 2. Handling and treatment of emissions, wastages and effluents 3. Transportation and traffic signals 4. Outdoor lighting 5. Landscaping 6. Enclosure and supervision (boundary wall, fence, barrier, gates, doors, security posts etc.)
  45. 45. Environmental Aspects • A project may cause pollution in various ways. It may throw gaseous emissions, may produce liquid and solid discharges, it may cause noise, heat and vibrations. • Some projects produce physical goods like cement, steel, paper, chemicals etc. are likely to cause more environmental damage. • Key issues that needs to be considered are: – What are the types of effluents and emissions generated? – What needs to be done for proper disposal of effluents and treatment of emissions? – Will the project be able to secure all environmental clearances and comply with all statutory requirements?
  46. 46. Project Charts and Layouts • After completion of principal dimensions of the project – market size, demand analysis, plant capacity, production technology, machineries and equipments, buildings and civil works, conditions obtaining at plant site and supply of inputs to the project- project charts and layouts may be prepared.
  47. 47. Contd.. Important charts and layout drawings are: 1. General Function Layout- shows relationship between equipments, buildings and civil works. • Primary function is to facilitate smooth and economical movement of raw materials, WIP and finished goods. – The flow of materials should be in one direction with minimum possible crossing. – Godowns, workshops etc. must be functionally situated with respect to main factory building. 2. Material Flow Diagram- it shows the flow of materials, utilities, intermediate products, final products, by products and emissions. Quantity flow diagram may also be prepared. 3. Product Line Diagram- these show how the production would progress along with the main equipments.
  48. 48. Contd.. 4. Transport Layout- This shows the distances and means of transport outside a product line. 5. Utility Consumption Layout- This shows the principal consumption points of utilities and their required quantities and qualities (water, power, gas etc.) 6. Communication Layout- This shows how various parts of the project will be connected by telephone, internet, intercom etc. 7. Organizational Layout- this shows the organizational set up of the project along with information on personnel required for various departments and their inter- relationships.
  49. 49. Contd.. 8. Plant Layout- It concerns with the physical layout of the factory. In some industries the plant layout is dictated by the production process adopted. The important considerations in preparing the plant layout are: – Consistency with production technology – Smooth flow of goods from one stage to another – Proper utilization of space – Scope of expansion – Minimization of production cost – Safety of personnel
  50. 50. Financial Estimation
  51. 51. • In a project appraisal exercise, three basic questions needs to be answered: – Can we produce goods or services? – Can we sell goods or services? – Can we earn a satisfactory return on the investment made in the project? • To answer these, technical appraisal, market and demand appraisal and financial appraisal is required.
  52. 52. Cost of Project • Conceptually, the cost of project represents the total of all items of outlay associated with the project which are supported by long term funds. In includes: – Land and site development – Building and civil works – Plant and machinery – Technical know-how and engineering fees – Expenses on foreign technicians and training of Indian technician abroad. – Miscellaneous fixed assets – Preliminary and capital issue expenses – Pre-operative expenses – Margin money for working capital – Initial cash losses
  53. 53. Contd.. • Land and site development – The cost of land and site development is the sum of: • Basic cost of land including conveyance and other allied charges • Premium payable on leasehold and conveyance charges • Cost of leveling and development • Cost of laying approach roads and internal roads • Cost of compound wall and gates – The cost of land varies considerably depending upon its location.
  54. 54. Contd.. • Building and civil works – It covers the following: • Building for main plant and equipment • Building for auxiliary services like steam supply, workshops, laboratory, water supply etc. • Godowns, warehouses and open yard facility. • Non-factory building like canteen, guest houses etc. • Quarters for essential staff • Silos, tanks, wells, basins, bins etc necessary for installation of plants and equipment • Garages • Sewers, drainage etc – Once the desired structures are identified, cost estimates can be carried out.
  55. 55. Contd.. • Plant and machinery – It consists of: • Cost of imported machinery – FOB value – Shipping, freight and insurance cost – Import duty – Clearing, loading, unloading and transportation charges • Cost of indigenous machinery – FOR Cost – Sales tax, Octroi and other taxes – Railway freight and transport charges etc. • Cost of stores and spare • Foundation and installation charges
  56. 56. Contd.. • Technical know-how and engineering fees – Often its necessary to engage technical consultants from abroad for advice and help in various technical matters. – The amount payable for such costs is a component for total project cost. • Expenses on foreign technicians and training of Indian technicians abroad – Services of foreign technicians are needed sometimes. Also domestic technicians may undergo training abroad to understand the technology involved. – Cost of travel, boarding, lodging etc. adds to the overall expenditure.
  57. 57. Contd.. • Miscellaneous Fixed Assets – Fixed machinery which is not the part of direct manufacturing process can be termed as miscellaneous fixed asset. It can be furniture, tools, office machinery, laboratory equipment, piping system and so on. • Preliminary and Capital Issue Expenses – Expenses incurred for identifying the project, conducting the market survey, preparing the feasibility report, drafting the memorandum of articles of association and incorporating the company are referred to preliminary expenses. – Expenses borne in connection with raising the capital from the public are referred to as capital issue expenses.
  58. 58. Contd.. • Pre-operative expenses – Expenses incurred till commencement of the project like establishment expenses, rent, rates and taxes, travelling expenses, insurance charges, mortgage, start up expenses etc. – If delay in project is there, then these expenses are pushed up. • Provision of contingencies – It is provided to take care certain unforeseen expenses and price increase over and above the normal inflation rate. – Total cost can be divided into: • Firm cost (those items which have been acquired already) • Non-firm cost (Provision of 5-10% estimated cost contingency)
  59. 59. Contd.. • Margin money for working capital – Principal support for working capital is provided by banks and trade creditors. However certain part of working capital requirement comes from sources of long term finance. This is referred to as ‘margin money for working capital’. – Mostly required to meet overruns in capital cost. A margin of working capital is blocked by the financial institutions initially so that it can be utilized later when needed. • Initial cash losses – Most of the projects incur cash losses in the initial years. – Sometimes they are not disclosed to make the project appear attractive and public investment can be easily initiated. – Provision for such losses are important. Failure to do so, it may impact the firms liquidity and can impair the operations as well.
  60. 60. Sources of finance
  61. 61. Introduction: Decision making Decide which assets to buy Determining what is total investment required for buying assets. How much working capital required. To decide sources to tap the total investment.
  62. 62. Parameter for choosing sources of fund • Cost of source of fund. • Tenure. • Leverage planned by the company. • Financial condition prevalent in the economy. • Risk profile of both the company as well as the industry in which the company operates.
  63. 63. Types of finance
  64. 64. Classification according to term finance • Short term finance. • Medium term finance. • Long term finance.
  65. 65. Short Terms Finance • Short term finance are required primarily to meet working capital requirements. • The focus is on maintaining liquidity at a reasonable cost.
  66. 66. Short Term Finance Working Capital finance Trade Credit Inter- Corporate Deposits Commercial Paper
  67. 67. Working Capital Finance By Commercial Banks • Commercial banks grants short terms finance to business firms which is known as “Bank Credit”. • Bank Credit may be granted in the following ways:- Loans Purchase/ Discounting of bills. Cash Credit
  68. 68. Trade Credit • Trade credit represents credit granted by the suppliers of goods, etc. as an incident of sale. Merits Demerits Credit for the purpose of raw material or finished goods. Less flexible No security No interest payable
  69. 69. Inter Corporate deposits • A deposit made by one company to another is called as inter-corporate deposit. • It is generally for working capital funding & is for period not exceeding six months.
  70. 70. Commercial Paper (CP) Commercial paper is an unsecured money market instrument issued in the form of a promissory note.
  71. 71. Advantages • High credit ratings • Flexibility. • Provides exit options. Disadvantages • Limited applicability. • Low bank credit limits. • A high degree of control.
  72. 72. Medium Term Finance Medium term finance is defined as money raised for a period for 1 to 5 years. The medium term funds are required by a business mostly for the repaired and modernizing the machinery.
  73. 73. Medium Term Finance Commercial Banks & State Financial Institutions Lease Financing Hire Purchase External Commercial Borrowings
  74. 74. Lease financing • It is a contract In which the assets is purchased initially by the lessor (leasing company) and thereafter leased to the user(leasee company) who pays a specified rent at periodical intervals.
  75. 75. Advantages & Disadvantage  The holder only pays for use.  Better liquidity.  Fixed rate.  Minimal sales risk.  Commitment to contract for entire valid period.  Higher fixed cost per month.  More expensive than purchase.
  76. 76. Hire Purchasing • Hire purchase transaction, the goods are delivered by the owner to another person on the agreement that such person pays the agreed amount in the periodical installment.
  77. 77. Advantage • Cheaper than a (‘unsecured’) personal loan. • relatively quick. • Deposits are lower than with personal loans. Disadvantages • Higher monthly payment; • hidden fees
  78. 78. External Commercial Borrowing 1. ECB’s refer to commercial loan in the form of bank loans, buyers credit, suppliers credit, securitized instruments.(E.g. Floating rates notes and Fixed rates bonds) availed from non-resident lenders with minimum average maturity years. 2. ECBs mean foreign currency loan raised by residents from recognized lenders. Financial leases and Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds are also covered by ECB guidelines.
  79. 79. Long Term Finance • Long term finance refer to those requirements of funds which are for a period exceeding 5-10 years.
  80. 80. Long term finance Share Debentures New Debt Instruments Retained Earnings Depository Schemes Venture Capital Securitization
  81. 81. Shares A shares indicates a smaller unit into which the overall requirement of a company is subdivided. TYPES OF SHARES THERE ARE TWO TYPES: Equity shares Preference shares
  82. 82. Debentures • It means a document containing acknowledgement of indebtedness issued by a company and giving an undertaking to repay the debt at a specified date.
  83. 83. New Debt Instrument • Zero interest bond (ZIB) • Deep discount bonds (DDB) • Junk bonds • Convertible debenture
  84. 84. Retained Earnings • Retained earnings means that part of trading profits which is not distributed in the form of dividends but retained by directors for future expansion of the company.
  85. 85. Merits & Demerits Of Retained Earnings Merits :- Ready Availability Cheaper than External Equity No Ownership Dilution Positive Connotation Demerits :- Limited Finance High Opportunity Cost
  86. 86. Global/ American/ Indian Depository Receipts • GDRs :- A negotiable certificate held in the bank of one country representing no. of shares traded on the exchange of another country. • ADRs :- It allows US investors to buy shares of ADS companies without the cost of investing directly in Foreign Stock Exchange. • IDRs :- It allows foreign companies to raise the funds from Indian markets.
  87. 87. Venture Capital • The venture capital financing refers to financing & funding of the small scale enterprises, high technology & risky volumes.
  88. 88. Securitization • Securitization is a process in which illiquid assets are pooled into marketable securities that can be sold to investors. Advantages Disadvantages Reduces assets liability mismatch Cost Locking in profits Size limitation Liquidity Risk
  89. 89. Others • Incentive sources – The govt. and its agencies may provide financial support to certain type promoters or setting up industrial units in certain locations.
  90. 90. Cost of Production • Given the estimated production, the cost of production may be worked out. The major components of cost of production are: – Material cost – Utilities cost – Labour cost – Factory overhead cost
  91. 91. Material Cost • The most important element of cost, the material cost comprises of the cost of raw materials, chemicals, components and consumables required for production. • While estimating the material cost, the following points should be kept in mind: – The requirement of various material inputs per unit of output may be established on the basis of theoretical assumption, experience of the industry, performance guarantees and specification of machinery suppliers. – Total requirement of inputs can be calculated by multiplying requirement per unit of output with expected output – The prices of material inputs are defined in CIF terms. – The present cost of various material inputs is considered. – If seasonal fluctuations in the prices are regular, the same must be considered in estimating the cost of material inputs.
  92. 92. Utilities • It mainly consists of water, power and fuel. • It can be determined on the basis of norms, consultants etc or the consumption standards in the industry (whichever is higher). • Power tariff must be considered on the basis of power tariff structure of the concerned electricity board. • Cost of captive power will reflect the cost of fuel. • The cost payable to local authorities and charges payable to some other firms of water may be shown separately.
  93. 93. Labour Cost • Labour cost is the cost of all the manpower employed in the factory. • The requirement of workers depends on the number of operators/helpers required for operating various machines and manning various services. • Supervisory personnel and administrative staff should be calculated on the basis of general norms prevailing in the industry. • In estimating remuneration rates, the prevailing rates in the industry/area should be taken into account. Remuneration include basic pay, dearness allowance, concession, PF contribution, bonus payments etc. • It is advisable to make detailed analysis, at least in the beginning. • Appraisals should also be considered depending upon the industry/company norms.
  94. 94. Factory Overheads • The expenses on repairs and maintenance, rent, taxes, insurance on factory assets and so on are collectively termed as overhead expenses. • Repairs and maintenance expense are lower in initial years and become higher in later years. • Rent, taxes and insurance may be calculated on existing rates. • A provision should be made for meeting miscellaneous factory expenses. In addition, a contingency margin may be provided on the items of factory overheads.