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6/19/2013 2BRM-Types Of Research (•Research is defined as a scientific and systematic searchfor relevant information on a specific topic involving asystematized effort to gain new knowledge.•Research comprises defining and redefining problems,formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions;collecting, organizing and evaluating data; makingdeductions and reaching conclusions; and at lastcarefully testing the conclusions to determine whetherthey fit the formulating hypothesis.
6/19/2013 3BRM-Types Of Research (Descriptivevs.AnalyticalAppliedvs.FundamentalQuantitativevs.QualitativeConceptualvs.Empirical
DESCRIPTIVE ANALYTICAL•Descriptive research includes surveysand fact-finding enquiries of differentkinds.•The major purpose of descriptiveresearch is description of the state ofaffairs as it exists at present.•The main characteristic of this method isthat the researcher has no control overthe variables; he can only report whathas happened or what is happening.•Example 1: Examining the fluctuations ofU. S. international trade balance during1974-1995.•2.Starting from late 1986, the value of U.S.dollar value has steadily increased against theJapanese yen and German Mark. Examiningthe magnitude of this trend in the value ofU.S. dollar is another example of descriptiveresearch;•In analytical research, on theother hand, the researcher has to usefacts or information already available,and analyze these to make a criticalevaluation of the material.•Analytical research attempts to explainwhy and how. It usually concerns itselfwith cause–effect relationships amongvariables.•Example1:Explaining why and how U.S.trade balance move in a particular wayover time.•2. While explaining how and why thissurge in the value of U.S. dollar is goingto affect the U.S. Is analytical research.6/19/2013 4BRM-Types Of Research (
APPLIED FUNDAMENTAL•Applied research aims at finding asolution for an immediate problemfacing a society or anindustrial/business organisation.•The central aim of applied research isto discover a solution for somepressing practical problem.•Examples: Research aimed at certainconclusions (say, a solution) facing aconcrete social or business. Researchto identify social, economic or politicaltrends that may affect a particularinstitution or marketing research orevaluation research are examples ofapplied research.•Fundamental research is mainlyconcerned with. generalisations andwith the formulation of a theory•Basic research is directed towardsfinding information that has a broadbase of applications and thus, adds tothe already existing organized body ofscientific knowledge.•Examples: Research concerningsome natural phenomenon, humanbehaviour carried on with a view tomake generalisations about humanbehaviour6/19/2013 5BRM-Types Of Research (
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH•Qualitative research is concerned withqualitative phenomenon, i.e.,phenomena relating to or involvingquality or kind.•Qualitative research is speciallyimportant in the behavioural scienceswhere the aim is to discover theunderlying motives of human behaviour.•This type of research aims atdiscovering the underlying motives anddesires, using in depth interviews for thepurpose.•For instance, when we are interested inInvestigating the reasons for humanbehaviour, we quite often talk of‘Motivation Research’•Quantitative research is based on themeasurement of quantity or amount.•It is applicable to phenomena that canbe expressed in terms of quantity.•It usually involves collecting andconverting data into numerical form sothat statistical calculations can be madeand conclusions drawn.•Example- Total sales of soap industryin terms of rupees cores and orquantity in terms of lakhs tones forparticular year, say 2008,could beresearched, compared with past 5 yearsand then projection for 2009 could bemade.6/19/2013 6BRM-Types Of Research (
CONCEPTUAL RESEARCH EMPIRICAL RESEARCH1. Research related to some abstract ideaor theory generally used by philosophersand thinkers to develop new concepts orto reinterpret existing ones.2. The researcher breaks down a theoremor concept into its constituent parts togain a better & deeper understanding ofthe issue concerning the theorem.Conceptual research is a useful methodbut should be used in conjunction withother methods to produce better &understandable results.1. Research done on experience orobservation alone, without due regardfor system and theory. It is also calledExperimental research as the conclusionscan be verified by observation orexperiment.2. The researcher provides himself with aworking hypothesis to get the probableresults. Facts are found to prove ordisprove the hypothesis after whichexperimental designs are made to bringforth the desired information.6/19/2013 7BRM-Types Of Research (
Lack of ascientifictrainingInsufficientinteractionQuestion ofConfidentialityUntimelyavailabilityof dataLack ofsecretarialassistancelack of acode ofconduct forresearchersOverlappingof researchstudies6/19/2013 8BRM-Types Of Research (
Lack of a scientific training• There is paucity of competent researchers• Many researchers take a leap in the dark withoutknowing research methodsConsequences:• Most of the work, which goes in the name ofresearch is not methodologically sound.• The research results, quite often, do not reflect thereality or realities.Solution:• Efforts should be made to provide short-durationintensive courses to make researchers well equippedwith all the methodological aspects.6/19/2013 9BRM-Types Of Research (
Insufficient interaction• A great deal of primary data of non-confidential natureremain untouched/untreated by the researchers forwant of proper contacts.Solution:• Efforts should be made to develop satisfactory liaisonamong all concerned for better and realistic researches.• Industry interaction programme6/19/2013 10BRM-Types Of Research (
Question of Confidentiality• Most of the business units in our country do nothave the confidence that the material supplied bythem to researchers will not be misused.Consequences:• Reluctance in supplying the needed information toresearchers.Solution:• Generate the confidence that the Information will beconfidential.6/19/2013 11BRM-Types Of Research (
Overlapping of research studies• Research studies overlapping one another areundertaken quite often for want of adequateinformation.Consequences:• DuplicationSolution:• Proper compilation and revision, at regular intervals6/19/2013 12BRM-Types Of Research (
Lack of a code of conduct for researchers• There does not exist a code of conduct forresearchers and inter-university and inter-departmental rivalries are also quite common.Solution:• Develop a code of conduct for researchers6/19/2013 13BRM-Types Of Research (
Lack of secretarial assistance• Many researchers in our country also face thedifficulty of adequate and timely secretarialassistance , including computerized assistance.Consequences:• Delay in the completion of research studies.Solution:• University Grants Commission must play a dynamicrole in providing secretarial assistance.6/19/2013 14BRM-Types Of Research (
• There is also the difficulty of timely availability of publisheddata from various government and other agencies.• published data vary quite significantly because of differencesin coverage by the concerning agencies.Consequences:• The time and energy of researchers are spent in tracing outthe books, journals, reports, etc.,Solution:• Efforts should be made for the regular and speedy supply ofall governmental publications to reach our libraries.Untimely available of data6/19/2013 15BRM-Types Of Research (
PRESENTED BYGROUP NO: 7Utkarsh Garg - 121Sangam Lalsivaraju- 138Sugandha Arora 140Dhruv Mahajan -141Nitish Dubey -1776/19/2013 16BRM-Types Of Research (