The community mapping proposal project will focus on the Aboriginal community in the Campbell River area. As a service provider, I work with many First Nations clients therefore it makes sense for me to chose the Aboriginal community for the community mapping project. I will help me learn more and identifying the needs of the community, gaps in services, and how I can become an effective social service provider. Campbell River is a beautiful town located on the northern end of Vancouver Island. The total population in 2007, is 31,553, according to Stats Canada. Campbell River is known for its richness in resources. The industry sector consists of tourism, fishing , logging, cannery, and mill righting. Due to the recent economic downturn, Campbell River suffers from the mill foreclosure resulting in job loss, homelessness, market drops in logging, fishing and exports and business bankruptcies. Another significant problem is the drug trade especially heroine due to the easy access being a port town. It has often been referred to as the "heroine capital" of the island. As a result crime rate is on the rise, drug trafficking, and gang related activity. According to (Stats Canada 2007), there are 2500 registered Indians. I believe there are more First Nation people that are not identified in the Census report due to the problems of the Indian Act in regards to Status of Indians. There are two reserves centrally located within the town and one located on Quadra Island, 7 minute ferry ride from Campbell River called Cape Mudge reserve. Some of the significant problems still today is due to the history of colonization. Many of the people living on the reserves have been affected by the residential school that was located in Fort Rupert called St Michaels closed in the 1940's. The Aboriginal people in the area are members of the Kwakiutl nation. Some of the significant problems are:; grief and loss, addictions, family violence, poverty, suicide, loss of family structure, high rates of foster care, oppression, loss of culture, racism, and loss of right to Aboriginal ties, community, resources, and intergenerational trauma.Some of the current issues from history that the Kwakiutl face today is a direct result of the Douglas treaties for land claims rights, marine and logging resources, rights to their cultural identities and self government. The Kwakiutl people operate under their set of custom election regulations and under the tight restraints under the legislation of the Indian Act. The Kwakiutl are affected through the Douglas treaties but have temporarily backed down in treaty negotiations due to complications of the negotiations. The whole community of Campbell River, is feeling the economical downturns and apparent to people that drive into the area. It is evident due to all the empty abandoned buildings due to the loss of jobs in the mill foreclosure, lack of jobs in fishing and tourism. Many families have left the area to other provinces to seek employment.
After listening to my client I realized that Aboriginal people are a diverse group of people and if I was going to be culturally sensitive, it is important for me to educate myself through the Aboriginal ways of knowing, visions, experience, relationships and theory that helps guide wellness, planning, dialogue, and evaluation. It is important for me to promote empowerment to my clients to obtain self worth, efficacy, and sense of self power. It is important for me to provide them with access to information, resources, and skills. It helps to identify existing strengths and encourage personal power and proactive actions to prevent threats and promote positive aspects to their lives. This includes learning political systems, social systems, economy, and environment that strives to maintain balance and harmony for the achievement of family, community, and individual wellness.As I reflect on as a service provider using the aboriginal approach and what this means to me is to client centered, passive, and supportive. It is imperative that listen to them and become comfortable with silences and long pauses. The belief is that the answers come to them out of silence through the spiritual connection.It is very important to learn and grow through shared experience as much as you can about their cultural practices, languages, and traditions. The relationship with the client should consist of interdependence and considered helpful by respecting individuality, and working with them indirectly.Cultural imperatives are non-interference, sharing, non-competitiveness, acceptance of responsibility for ones actions, the distancing of problems, and acknowledgement of the wisdom of all are expressed through the medicine wheel teachings. These are reinforced through ceremonies, teachings, and behaviours of elders, family members, and community role models that help support healing and traditional values. Emphasis needs to focus on relationships, communities, spirituality, nature and the environment. As a social worker we need to understand the our environment in spiritual terms through respect, expression, and celebrate our connectedness.
Aboriginal cultures have unique issues and needs that are very different from non- Aboriginal people. Some of the issues throughout the life span is the effects of colonization, dispossession from land and resources and residential schools. Other needs to review is poverty, legacy of loss of culture, and little employment or economic development within the Kwakiutl nation. Over centuries, many Aboriginal communities have experienced crisis events in forms of various epidemics, imposition of land, dislocation, and residential schooling that has caused historical trauma.
As a service provider it is important to look at the needs of the community through the history and intergenerational trauma model. This helps to identify the needs, culturally specific programs and services for healing First Nations communities.
Campbell Rver Aboriginal Community Mapping Proposal
Campbell River Aboriginal Community Mapping Presentation Laloni Everitt
Kwakiutl NationMy name is Laloni Everitt. For mymapping proposal, I have chosen to usethe Aboriginal Community in CampbellRiver which are from the Kwakiutl Nation. I have been raised in the Comox Valleymost of my life. I am Métis descenthowever, I have many friends , familymembers, and my own 2 children arefrom the Kwakiutl Nation, on their dadsside of the family.Due to the loss of culture, my childrenand many other Kwakiutl people no verylittle about there cultural heritage,beliefs, value systems, and culturaltraditions.As a service provider, working crossculturally with First Nations people, thismeans to me is to gain an understandingof the culture, traditions, and history.It is also important to look at the powerimbalances associated with my role,social location, and power differenceswithin different organizations.
History Kwakiutl NationThe Kwakiutl term and context isconfusing, the term can be used toaddress a language, a dialect, anassembly of social groups, or a singletribe that originally comes from FortRupert. Over time the groups haverelocated to areas throughout theCampbell River area, Quadra Island, andthe Comox Valley. The Kwakiutl people over history weregroups of people that merged togetherdue to significant factors that took placeover time, due to the changes indemography, economic conditions,seasonal patterns, geo-politicalmovements, warfare, fur trade, goldexplorations, and the establishment ofthe Hudson Bay company trading post inFort Rupert. As a result four groupsmoved to the area; Kwakiutl, Walas,Kwisa, and Komkuitus into Fort Rupert.Another group formed were themovement of Ligwildaxs group to QuadraIsland ( Cape Mudge) and other groupsformed at Comox B.C. around 1847. Thiswas the formation of the Kwakiutl nation.
St Michael Residential School 1877-1974St Michaels Residential school opened in1877 in Alert Bay, nearby Fort RupertKwakiutl territory. This was part of theassimilation process developed by themissionary policy, implemented throughthe Anglican church missionaries. Thevast majority of children attendingresidential schools were “status Indian”(as defined by the Indian Act). Forgovernment, the ultimate goal remainedthe assimilation of educated nativepeoples into the non-aboriginal world. The procedure was known asenfranchisement, by which graduates ofthe system would apply and qualify forcitizenship. In doing so, they would losetheir Indian status and benefits but, witha small start-up grant, they wereexpected to succeed in the mainstreamworld of the Canadian/European society.After 45 years of operation, St Michaelsclosed the doors in 1974. Many Kwakiutlresidents from Campbell River areresidential school survivors from StMichaels resident school.
History of Intergenerational Trauma Nation Negative stereotypes Social policiesIndian Act promote colonialism Child Welfare Lack of support for holistic programs and services Individual Lack of support in Lack of belonging to community for self family, community and determination nation Community Abandonment Alcohol and drug use Lack of cultural belief Lack of cultural systems opportunities including Inability to sustain language Intergenerational personal or intimate History traditional values relationships trauma and spirituality Involvement of mental Low Levels of Social Capital health systems including trust reciprocal History of substance helping relations and abuse social engagement Involvement of criminal Family justice systems Chronic abuse Low self esteem Lack of emotional bonding Alcohol and Drug AbuseResidential Schools Negative stereotyping Traditional Culture Irregular contact with family members
Revitalization of the PotlatchThe potlatch is a significant cultural andsocial feature of the Kwakiutl people. Itaddressed all major aspects of social life:economically, politically, religious, andsocial organizations for Kwakiutl people.It is marked by institution which sponsorsrituals, social transfers of titles,marriages, first menstruations,corrections of wrong doings, and socialtransfers of hierarchy order through giftgiving, songs, dance, masks, andceremonies. The ceremonies were divided into two,sacred winter ceremonies and sacredsummer ceremonies. The winterceremony was inclusive only to nobilityand spiritual powers according to rank,the summer ceremony was open foranyone. Hudson bay blankets were a significantfeature in the Potlatch ceremony.The Potlatch was outlawed in Canadianlaw prohibited the potlatch in 1884,tribes in British Columbia lost a centraland unifying ceremony.Potlatching is now legal and is beingrevitalized in the Kwakiutl Nation.
Negative Media CoverageDue to many traumatic events in theKwakiutl district, it has causedsignificant damage to the communitythrough negative media attention.Often times, the media paints apicture, focusing on the poor healthand negative social/ cultural portrayalsand impacts First Nation people andprovides a deficit paradigm which isthe main focus on First Nations peopleacross Canada.Research is now using Aboriginalleaders that are working on capturingcommunity voices and actions, thatare relevant to Aboriginal communitiesacross Canada.The review and research projects areusing participatory research andcommunity involvement, incorporationof traditional knowledge, culturallyappropriate, and community basedresearch in communities.
Best PractisesUntil recently, the trend has beenfollowing Western models ofleaderships in communities, in regardsto leadership, organization, andcommunity development. New bestpractise models now can be foundthrough the Aboriginal HealingFoundation and Aboriginal BestPractise Awards of Distinction. Other community development isthrough the revitalization of Languagethrough the Aboriginal PeoplesTelevision Network, Performance ArtNetwork of Native Earth PerformingArts, and Aboriginal Multi MediaSociety.The Kwakiutl people are in the midst ofgetting their own multi media societyup and going in the Campbell Riverarea.
Aboriginal Framework for Social Inclusive Services and Programs• Community Centered Model• Strengths and Resiliency• Deeply rooted in traditional Practises• Community Engagement• Strong leadership, fosters success and embraces asset based and capacity focus opposed to deficient model• Promotes healing and wellness• Sacred Circle of Life• Seven Sacred Teachings• Aboriginal Code of Ethics and Aboriginal protocols.
Community NeedsRespectful RelationsSocial InclusionAccessibility to Food and SecurityPublic SafetyHealth and Well BeingShelter and HomelessnessChild, Youth, and FamiliesCommunity DevelopmentCulturally Specific to First NationsTraditions, Beliefs and WorldviewCulturally Appropriate Models
" The Indigenous way is about teaching how to be, not what to do"Aboriginal ways of knowingVisionsHistorical ContextExperiencesRelationshipsLandSpiritIndividualFamilyCommunityNationPolitical SystemsSocial SystemsEconomyEnvironmentNatureBalanceHarmonyInterdependenceCollective Decision MakingInterconnection of all things
Primary Building Blocks PrimaryThe world view and teachings from theSacred Circle of life provides vision, strength,and healing. Individuals, Youth, Elders, Cultural, Teachers, Spiritual Leaders, Families,The teachings and wisdom is guided by Elders Community, Nation.that helps to understand humanity and theimpact of relationships and the environment, Strong Relationships to engagewhich is a crucial element in identifyingcultural Identity. community members, from youth to Elders, in reassertion of fundamentalCultural teachings and practises, using the belief structures, values, andAboriginal perspective strives to achievehealing healthy families and strengthening ceremonial practises. Taking backour communities. and Revitalizing “our own ways” willThe Community based model is where ensure Aboriginal people willAboriginal people are involved in healing continue to re-connect theirtheir own traditions, repairing, and restoringtraditional knowledge and asserting their traditions and practises andcollective identity and power. strengthen the sacred circle of lifeThe Sacred circle of Life provides anawareness that each of us are part of afamily, community, and a nation.The Sacred circle of Life represents continuityand the interconnection of all living things.
Secondary Building Blocks • Campbell River Aboriginal Visioning Group • First Nations Circle Network • Aboriginal MCFD & Child mental health • Kwakiutl District Band Office • KDC Health • Laichwiltach Family Life Society • MCFD Aboriginal Supported Child Development • Aboriginal Youth and Mental Health • FASD Key Worker: Mary Katherine Bellamy • North Vancouver Island Sundance Committee • Aboriginal Elders, and traditional Healers. • All Nations Healing Rooms • Schools, Colleges • Libraries • Parks, recreational areas • John Howard North Island • Campbell River Arts Counsel • Salvation Army • Ann Elmore Transition House • Second Chance Recovery House for Men • Campbell River First Nation bands • Campbell River Family Services • Delta Resources • Island Jade Society • Foster Parents Association • Campbell River Child Care Society • Campbell River District and Community Living • Banks
Potential Building Blocks PotentialTruth and reconciliation Commission. Aboriginal Healing FoundationInter-Tribal Health Vancouver IslandPublic Health and Safety CommissionFour Worlds International Aboriginal Commission Canadian Aboriginal Portal NAAADAP Turtle Island Native Network
Reaching in and Looking Out in Aboriginal OrganizationsOften times Aboriginal organizations use a process of “ Reaching inand Looking out” for the health and wellness of their organizations. By reaching in, it is a way of reaching into the organization thatacknowledges the gifts of the people working within theorganization which helps to strengthen the goals and objectives.This process shows the organization ways to acknowledge areasthat need improvement in response to the changing world aroundus.Looking out is a way of looking out of the organization toacknowledge that we dont know everything, that there is still muchlearning and growth that needs to go on and that as oneorganization, we cannot meet the needs and unique problems forAboriginal individuals, families, and communities.The reaching in and looking out is a continuous process thatincludes monitoring, review, evaluation, reflection, reaffirmationand renewal, all which involves a commitment to time, includingnetworking in the community at large.This approach to the health and wellness is consistent withtraditional teachings and the guiding principles as they relate to theseven sacred teachings of humility, respect, wisdom, honesty, truth,love, and bravery.These seven sacred teachings help us understand relationshipsbetween individuals, families, and community combined with theSacred Circle of Life Teachings, help guide us in our behaviours aswe move in and out of the various environments in which wefunction.
Aboriginal Healing Foundation (AHF) Around The Healing From The Legacy Of Residential Schooling • Community healing is connected to individual healing. Rebuilding family and community support networks will help stabilize the healing of individuals have experienced childhood trauma and family disruption. • Culture is good medicine. Culture-based outreach and healing mediated by survivors, local personnel and Elders has proven successful in reaching individuals who had previously resisted interventions. • Resilience in individuals and communities can be tapped. Healthy individuals in distressed communities were found to be good at promoting change. • It takes time to heal. AHF funding was limited to a few years, which proved to be enough to get the healing process started in many of the communities where projects were conducted, but not enough to see complete healing. • Services must be put in place and kept in place to encourage individual healing and help communities with their healing journeys. Typically, programs are short-term and project- based, but research indicated that services using local capacity and Indigenous knowledge are effective and economical. • As individuals and communities heal, the depth and complexity of needs can be seen, creating generating demand for training.
Community Development & Assets of the People Identity and culture External Strategic vision and Relationships Planning Wise CollaborationLeadership and Practises Partnerships Governance and Performance Management Evaluation Accountability and Stewardship
Revision of Aboriginal NationhoodSolution orientated focus that is community driven.Train staff to be culturally sensitive and integrateaboriginal traditions and service providers are part ofour delivery systems.Develop innovative, culturally appropriate solutions,rather than adapting existing programs and services,when working with Aboriginal people.Understanding and identifying problems; similaritiesand differences regarding geographical locations incomparisons to reserves or urban locations.Programs need to be developed by AboriginalLeaders and service providers.Outside support systems professional areas beyondthe scope the program and in our aboriginalcommunities...
First Nations Self Governance• Strategic vision• Meaningful information sharing.• Participation in decision making.• Territorial integrity• Respect for spirit of land• Expansion for jurisdiction• Rule of law• Transparency and fairness• Results based organizations• Cultural alignment of institutions• Effective intergovernmental relations• Human resource capacity• Financial management capacity• Performance evaluation• Accountability and reporting• Diversity of revenue sources