Global Warning And Carbon Credit


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  • Global Warning And Carbon Credit

    3. 3. What is GLOBAL WARMING? <ul><li>Global warming is a significant increase in the Earth's climatic temperature over a relatively short period of time as a result of the activities of humans. </li></ul><ul><li>In specific terms, an increase of 1oC or more in 100 or 200 years would be considered global warming. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Global average temperature increase during 21 st century ranges from 1.4 to 4 degree C. SOURCE-IPCC REPOT 2007
    5. 5. <ul><li>The average sea level rose by 10 to 20 cm during the 20th century, and an additional increase of 18 to 59 cm is expected by the year 2100. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of Land Portion of many country will be occupied by sea water . </li></ul><ul><li>The average temperature of the earth's surface has risen by 0.74 degrees C since the late 1800s. </li></ul><ul><li>It is expected to increase by another 1.8° C to 4° C by the year 2100 </li></ul><ul><li>INDIA, INDONESIA, CHINA, JAPAN, AMERICA, AUSTRALIA these country will be suffered by Great Catastrophe like Cyclone, Hurricane, Famine . </li></ul>Paris, 2 nd Feb 2007
    6. 6. cont………… <ul><li>around 20 crores people are going to migrate because of sudden change of climate . </li></ul>
    7. 7. How Does It Occurred?
    8. 8. <ul><li>Greenhouse gases (GHG) keep our planet warm. </li></ul><ul><li>GHGs exist naturally in the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Heating GHGs by trapping energy that has originally come from the Sun is called the greenhouse effect . </li></ul><ul><li>Without the greenhouse gases the surface of the Earth would be as cold as the surface of the Moon (-18°C). </li></ul>GREEN HOUSE EFFECT
    9. 12. GHGs water vapour 7 23900 SF6 6 6500-9200 PFC 5 140-1170 CFC 4 Ocean , lightening, N-fertilizers . 310 N 2 O 3 Wetland ,livestock ,paddy fields , 21 CH 4 2 Burning of fossil fuels & biomass, deforestation ,cement industry 1 C0 2 1 SOURCE GWP GHGs
    10. 13. Cont..
    11. 14. CFC'S 14% RELATIVE CONTRIBUTION GHG METHANE 18% CARBON DIOXIDE 49% OTHER 13% NITROUS OXIDES 6% Relative contribution of Green House Gasses to Global Warming
    12. 16. <ul><li>Rice field </li></ul><ul><li>Wetland </li></ul><ul><li>Manure lagoons </li></ul><ul><li>Enteric fermentation </li></ul>Major Sources of Methane
    13. 17. CATTLE 63% GOAT 4% SHEEP 2% Contribution of Methane by different Ruminant Livestock BUFFALO 31%
    15. 23. <ul><li>Rise in the Global Sea Level Melting of ice on the Mountains, Arctic, Antarctic areas & expansion Of Water there is a rise in global sea level </li></ul><ul><li>sea level will raised above 50 cm in next few yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Salt-water intrusion from rising sea levels will reduce the quality and quantity of freshwater supplies. </li></ul><ul><li>Rise in temp of sea sea ecosystem will affected. </li></ul>Global Warming Effects on Oceans
    16. 24. <ul><li>Extreme weather </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>catastrophic storms </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic change in local climates </li></ul><ul><li>Change in monsoon pattern </li></ul>Global Warming Effects on weather
    17. 25. <ul><li>Retreat of glaciers cause flooding initially & then drying. </li></ul>Global Warming Effects on Glacier
    18. 26. <ul><li>Changes in the boundaries between Grassland, Forest & Shrub Land </li></ul><ul><li>increased water scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>increased drought & high rainfall threat to the biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>shift in forest types </li></ul><ul><li>altered species composition </li></ul><ul><li>Time of plant flowering & bird arrival will affected . </li></ul><ul><li>dates of breeding </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion & weathering of mountain </li></ul><ul><li>change in bird habitat. </li></ul>Changes in vegetation zone & Ecosystem
    19. 27. Incidences of Weather & Flood Catastrophe DRAUGHT FLOODS TSUNAMI
    20. 28. <ul><li>Agri. Production will decrease . </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation route will change </li></ul><ul><li>Slowdown of insurance industry </li></ul><ul><li>Migration </li></ul><ul><li>Hunger </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in prices </li></ul>Global Warming Effects on Economy & people
    21. 29. <ul><li>some 25 per cent of mammals and 12 per cent of birds -- may become extinct over the next few decades as warmer conditions alter the forests, wetlands, and rangelands they depend on, and human development blocks them from migrating elsewhere. </li></ul><ul><li>Species extinction as polar bear. </li></ul>Impact on Biodiversity
    22. 30. <ul><li>Incidences of Out break (MALARIA, </li></ul><ul><li>DENGUE, YELLOW FEVER) has already increased </li></ul>An increased disease level
    23. 31. <ul><li>1 . India is one of the hot spot of global warming. </li></ul><ul><li>is projected to experience a warming of 2-6 degree C by 2100. </li></ul><ul><li>Glaciers of the Himalaya will melt flooding </li></ul><ul><li>initially then draught. </li></ul><ul><li>Rise in mean sea level coastal area will submerged migration of people. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapidly changing & increasingly unpredictable pattern of monsoon & rainfall. </li></ul><ul><li>Decline in crop yield up to 30% by 2080.(ipcc report Aug 2008) </li></ul>IMPACT ON INDIA
    25. 33. <ul><li>coal to liquid involves crushing & heating coal to produce gas. </li></ul><ul><li>capture carbon emission from coal & gas fired plants & pump them underground. </li></ul>CLEAN ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES 1.CLEAN COAL 2.CARBON CAPTURE
    26. 34. CONT.. <ul><li>fuel that if processed in fuel cell, </li></ul><ul><li>generates electricity & water as </li></ul><ul><li>by-product. </li></ul><ul><li>capture it from landfeild, coal mines, livestock. </li></ul>3.HYDROGEN 4. METHANE
    27. 35. Cont.. combine carbon & hydrogen elements in natural gas molecules to make synthetic LPG as liq diesel. next generation reactors. use super heated steam from deep underground to drive turbines to generates electricity. 5.GAS TO LIQUIDS 6.NUCLEAR 7.GEOTHERMAL
    28. 36. Cont… <ul><li>it is oldest form of energy known to uses wood & manure. </li></ul>8. BIOFUEL 9. HYDOPOWER
    29. 37. cont 10. WIND 11. SOLAR 12. TIDAL
    30. 38. <ul><li>Hybrid vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>run by fuel cell </li></ul>
    31. 39. <ul><li>Improvement in animal productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Control grazing </li></ul><ul><li>Disease Control & Herd Health </li></ul><ul><li>deworming & vaccination </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding of Ionophore </li></ul>MANAGEMENT OF LIVESTOCK TO MITIGATE GLOBAL WARMING
    32. 40. cont <ul><li>PROBIOTICS </li></ul><ul><li>DEFAUNATION </li></ul><ul><li>USE OF CONDENSED TANNINS </li></ul><ul><li>TYPE OF DIET high conc. Diet is good </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Supplementation </li></ul><ul><li>molasses, urea decrease CH 4 production by 40% </li></ul>
    33. 41. <ul><li>Animal waste and dung are fermented to CO2 & CH4 </li></ul><ul><li>CO2 & CH4 used as cocking gas lighting & to keep houses warm . </li></ul>BIOGAS
    34. 42. Carbon credits are tradable credits earned for investing in projects aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions . One carbon credit is equivalent to one tonne of carbon dioxide reduced. CARBON CREDIT
    35. 43. <ul><li>May 1992: UN FCCC establishes framework for containing global warming. </li></ul><ul><li>Dec 1997: Following intense negotiations in Kyoto (Japan), a protocol is agreed upon by over 100 countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Feb 2005: 141 countries, including EU, Japan, Canada, and Russia sign the Kyoto Protocol and it gets ratified w.e.f. 16-Feb-05 – The US remains a key non-signatory </li></ul>Kyoto Protocol: An overview
    36. 44. Cont…. <ul><li>The Kyoto Protocol sets legally binding targets for reducing green house gases (GHGs) </li></ul><ul><li>– Developed countries have a target to reduce GHG emissions by 5.2% below 1990 levels, by year 2012 </li></ul><ul><li>– EU members committed to reduce their average emissions by 8 % </li></ul><ul><li>– India, China, and Brazil are classified as emerging countries and hence exempted from this protocol </li></ul>
    37. 45. Cont… <ul><li>It covers 181 countries globally but only 60% in terms of emissions as the USA, the only developed country to have signed but not ratified. </li></ul><ul><li>It commits developed country (called Annex 1 countries) to return their emissions of greenhouse gases to an average of approximately 5.2% below 1990 levels over the period 2008-12 . </li></ul><ul><li>The developing countries (non-Annex I countries) have been exempted from quantified commitments under the Protocol. </li></ul>
    38. 46. <ul><li>The CDM, defined in Article 12 of the Protocol, allows a country with an emission-reduction or emission-limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Party) to implement an emission-reduction project in developing countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Such projects can earn saleable certified emission reduction (CER) credits, also called as CARBON CREDIT each equivalent to one tonne of CO2, which can be counted towards meeting Kyoto targets. </li></ul><ul><li>These CERs can be traded and sold, and used by industrialized countries to a meet a part of their emission reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol. </li></ul>Clean Development Mechanism
    39. 47. <ul><li>The CDM has a two-fold purpose: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) to assist developing country Parties in achieving sustainable development, thereby contributing to the ultimate objective of the Convention. </li></ul><ul><li>(b) to assist developed country Parties in achieving compliance with part of their quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments under Article 3. </li></ul><ul><li>Following aspects should be considered while designing CDM project activity: </li></ul><ul><li>Social well being. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic well being. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental well being. </li></ul><ul><li>Technological well being. </li></ul>
    40. 48. <ul><li>A CDM project activity might involve, for example, a rural electrification project using solar panels or the installation of more energy-efficient boilers. </li></ul><ul><li>The projects must qualify through a rigorous and public registration and issuance process. Approval is given by the Designated National Authorities. </li></ul><ul><li>The mechanism is overseen by the CDM Executive Board, answerable ultimately to the countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>the project-based Kyoto mechanisms are, on the one hand, that they potentially reduce industrialized countries’ costs of meeting the Kyoto Protocol targets, whereas, on the other hand, they are to support the host countries objectives regarding sustainable development. </li></ul>Cont….
    41. 49. <ul><li>The Central Government constituted the National Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Authority for the purpose of protecting and improving the quality of environment in terms of the Kyoto Protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>It receives projects for evaluation and approval as per the guidelines and general criteria laid down in the relevant rules and modalities pertaining to CDM in addition to the guidelines issued by the CDM Executive Board and Conference of Parties serving as Meeting of Parties to the UNFCC. </li></ul>
    42. 50. <ul><li> </li></ul>
    43. 51. THANKS