Acssc gender portrayal revised


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Acssc gender portrayal revised

  1. 1. Gender  Portrayal  on     Comedy  Cinema  in  Indonesia  Lala  Palupi  Santyaputri  Lecturer  in  University  of  Pelita  Harapan  PhD  Candidate  at  the  Bandung  Institute  of  Technology       Asian  Cinema  Studies  Society  Conference  2012   University  of  Hong  Kong,  16-­‐20  March  2012  
  2. 2. Introduction  ¤  A  media  culture  in  which  images,  sounds,  and  spectacles  help   produce   the   fabric   of   everyday   life,   dominating   leisure   time,   shaping  political  views  and  social  behavior  and  providing  the   materials  out  of  which  people  forge  their  very  identities.  A  :ilm   can   help   us   to   understand   what   is   going   on   in   contemporary   societies  and  cultures…(Kellner,  D.,  1995)  
  3. 3. ¤  It  is  at  once  read  the  discourses  and  cultural  developments   that  occurred  in  Indonesia.  Discourse  and  culture,  and  read   between  the  lines  in  the  Qilm  through  its  visual   language.  Therefore  the  visual  language  is  very  important  on   Qilm.  Each  element  of  the  Qilm  to  support  the  visual  language,   these  elements  consist  of:  Script  /  Screenplay,  Cast,  Director,   Actor/Actress,  Property,  Planning  and  the   Spectator.  Important  aspect  of  this  arrangement  consists  of   makeup,  fashion,  lighting,  and  sound.  
  4. 4. Gender  Differences  as     Visual  Objects    ¤  Masculinities  and  Femininities  as  objects  of  visual  in  the   cinema,  is  often  become  an  object  of  interest  in  a  movie.  As   objects,  they  are  receiving  treatment  visits,  value,  and   appreciation  in  a  variety  of  media  discourse  context.    ¤  Visualization  of  gender  in  media  characterized  by   stereotyping  and  as  commodiQication  in  a  media.  This   discourse  exists  in  various  forms  of  mass  media,  ranging   from  fairy  tales  and  folklore,  to  the  magazine,  advertising   and  feature  Qilms.  
  5. 5. Table  1.  Development  of  the  Qilm  in  Indonesia,  (2006)  Gayus  Siagian     1999-1926-1942! 1950! 1955-1969! present! 1942! 1942-1945! 1945-1949! 1969-1998! Birth & Birth of Civil War ReformatioDevelopme Verbal Japanese Transition National and New New Order n & Young Movies ! Era! Era! Era! nt Era! Production! Order! Director Era!
  6. 6. ¤  Comedy    genre  on  cinema  production  parallel  with  the   national  cinema  development  according  to  Eric  Sasono   (2007).  ¤  In  the  era  of  1979-­‐1994  comedy  genre  in  cinema  production   is  23,4  %  out  from  national  production  in  every  genre.  (JB   Kristanto,  Katalog  Film  Indonesia,  194)  
  7. 7. ¤  In  Indonesia  comedian  world  is  dominated  by  a  group   comedy.  And  many  of  that  group  member  is  male.  ¤   Warkop  Qilm  comedian  Indonesia  is  considered  to  represent   an  exists  representation  because  of  its  presence  in  the   period  for  15  years.  And  when  the  Qilm  fell  fallen  in   Indonesia  1990-­‐2000  Warkop  still  has  its  own  place  in  the   Indonesian  moviegoers.  ¤  Warkop  DKI  movie  has  been  chooses  as  a  subject  of  research   because  this  comedian  group  is  produced  33  Qilm  since   1979-­‐1994  (15yrs)  and  29  Qilms  is  considering  as   blockbusters  by  PerQini  (Indonesian  National  Film   Asociation)  
  8. 8. Warkop  Dono  Kasino  Indro  Warkop  or  before  Warkop  Geronimo,  is  a  comedy  group  formed  by  Nanu  (Nanu  Mulyono  real  name),  Rudy  (Rudi  Badil),  Dono  (Wahjoe  Sardono),  Kasino  (Kasino  Hadiwibowo)  and  Indro  (Indrodjojo  Kusumonegoro).      Warkop  considered  to  represent  the  people  of  Indonesia  with  a  different  cultural  background  of  the  tribe.  Warkop  DKI  is  a  comedy  group  that  has  the  prime    time  of  the  NewOrder  era  the  years1979-­‐1994.  Group  originally  started  as  a  radio  comedy  and  develops  into  the  cinema.    Badil,  Rudy  &  Indro  Warkop.  (2010).  Main-­‐Main  Jadi  Bukan  Main.  
  9. 9. Gender  Stereotypes  on     Comedy  Cinema  ¤  Gender  is  selected  as  the  artists  companion  has  a  certain   stereotype.  There  are  several  techniques  used  in  the   shooting  that  took  the  charge  that  it  is  sexist.  A  technique   often  used  is  cutting  -­‐  showing  separate  parts  of  the  gender   differences  -­‐  for  example,  his  legs,  on  his  own.  This  suggests   that  the  difference  is  entirely  separate  to  the  mind,  and  if  he   looks  better  and  its  just  a  foot  is  the  most  important.  
  10. 10. ¤  In  the  table  Tudor  1973,  135  in  the  book  An  introduction  of   Film  Studies  by  Jill  Nemmes,  Comedy  genre  comparable  in   horror  and  thriller  genre  is  in  the  process  enter  the  criteria   Intended  effect  or  effects  of  the  element  of  intent  is  expected   to  produce  humor  in  general.  In  Indonesia  comedy  Qilm   starring  men,  women  never  missed  his  presence  as  a  movie   player.  ¤  In  Indonesia,  most  of  theme  the  comedy  Qilm  is  musical   comedy  and  satire  comedy  that  can  be  distinguished  as   sarcastic.  
  11. 11. Humor  of  linguistic  terms1.  The  theory  of  liberation,  that  is  nothing  but  a   joke  emotional  trickery  that  seems  threatening  but  it  was   not  nothing  2.  The  theory  of  con3lict,  which  speciQies  the  pressure  on  the   implications  of  treatment  between  the  two  conQlicting   impulse,  and    3.  Lack  of  harmony  theory,  namely  the  existence  of  two   meanings  or  interpretations  are  not  the  same  and   combined  in  a  complex  combination  of  meaning.  
  12. 12. Male  Gaze  ¤  Women   do   not   just   see   themselves   as   men   see   them,   but   are   encouraged   to   enjoy   their   sexuality   through   the   eyes   of   men.  (Janice  Winship,  Sexuality  for  Sale,  1980).  This  applies  also   to   the   roles   of   women   in   Indonesia’s   Comedy   Cinema.   A   dominant  masculine  image  that  appears  on  the  actor  portrayed   women   should   always   look   stunning,   especially   when   she   only   appeared  as  an  supporting  actress.  ¤  Men   act   and   women   appear.   Men   look   at   women.   Women   watch   themselves   being   looked   at.   This   determines   not   only   most   relations   between   men   and   women   but   also   the   relation   of   women   to   themselves.   The   surveyor   of   women   in   herself   is   male:  the  surveyed  female.  Thus  she  turns  herself  into  an  object   and  most  particularly  an  object  of  vision:  a  sight.  (John  Berger’s.   Ways  of  Seeing,  1972)  
  13. 13. ¤  Laura  Mulvey  took  this  concept  further  in  what’s  become  a   well-­‐known  work  of  psychoanalytic  Qilm  theory  in  her  essay,   “Visual  Pleasure  and  Narrative  Cinema.”  In  talking  about  the   way  narrative  Qilm  reinforces  the  gender  of  the  Qilm’s  viewer   using  a  sequence  of  looks.  ¤  In  a  world  ordered  by  sexual  imbalance,  pleasure  in  looking   has  been  split  between  active/male  and  passive/female.  The   determining  male  gaze  projects  its  phantasy  on  to  the  female   :igure  that  is  styled  accordingly.  In  their  traditional   exhibitionist  role  women  are  simultaneously  looked  at  and   displayed,  with  their  appearance  coded  for  strong  visual  and   erotic  impact  so  that  they  can  be  said  to  connote  to-­‐be-­‐looked-­‐ at-­‐ness.  Woman  displayed,  as  sexual  object  is  the  lit-­‐motif  of   erotic  spectacle:  from  pin-­‐ups  to  strip  tease,  from  Ziegfeld  to   Busby  Berkeley  she  holds  the  look,  plays  to  and  signi:ies  male   desire.  
  14. 14. Table.  3.  Gendered  Spectatorial  Positioning  (Tseelon  and  Kaiser   1992)  from  Tseelon  (1995).  P  68  •  Male  Gaze   •  Female  Gaze  •  Undimensional   •  Complex  •  Posing  for  male  audience;  aware  of   •  Self  absorbed;  not  self-­‐conscious;   audience   oblivious  to  audience  •  Glamorized,  idealized,  timeless   •  Variable;  both  beautiful  and  plain,   changing  and  aging,  contextualized  •  Accessible   •  Unavailable  •  Primarily  an  object  of  desired   •  A  range  of  role  •  DeQined  by,  through,  for  men   •  Independent  existence  beyond  and   outside  male  discourse  •  Pleasure  in  being  a  sexual  object   •  Pleasure  in  sexuality  and   autoeroticism  
  15. 15. Modes  of  Pleasure  Male  Gaze   Female  Gaze  Objectifying,  fetishing   Narcissistic  identiQication  Voyeuristic  pleasure  at  a  distance   Pleasure  in  closeness  
  16. 16. Masculine  Representation  in  Film  Comedy  Cornell  (1995)  provided  a  useful  breakdown  of  three  different  types  of  masculinities   that  are  present  in  modern  Western  Culture.  They  are  hegemonic  masculinity,   conservative  masculinity,  and  subordinated  masculinity.  ¤  Hegemonic   masculinity   is   based   on   the   political   idea   of   hegemony   (Gramsci,   1985),  which  contends  that  the  dominant  culture  in  any  society  is  based  on  the   values  of  the  ruling  class.  Because  in  most  societies  across  time  and  space,  man   have   tended   to   have   a   unequally   large   share   of   political   and   economic   power,   their   values   are   likely   to   have   been   more   culturally   inQluential   than   have   those   of   woman.  This  category  refers  to  masculinity  that  is  intended  to  dominate  (either   men  dominating  women,  or  men  dominating  other  men).  ¤  Conservative  masculinity,  Cornell  used  the  stereotypes  of  the  “New  man”  as  an   example  of  conservative  masculinity.  The  “New  man”  was  a  1980s  cultural  icon   that  represented  notions  of  changing  masculinities,  moving  from  the  hegemonic   virtues   of   toughness   and   strength   to   a   sensitive,   nurturing   ideal,   embodied   by   images  of  men  engaged  in  child  care  or  overt  displays  of  emotion.  ¤  Subordinated  masculinity  is  a  kind  of  alternative  or  outcast  masculinity  that  is   generally  seen  as  negative.  Trans  images  or  homosexual  or  drag  queen  have  been   the   subjects   of   derision   or   presented   as   a   problem   for   straight   men   to   solve.   This   is  represent  underclass  or  trailer  class  stereotype.
  17. 17. ¤  Laraine  Porter  accused  a  question  of  humor  that  uses  gender   stereotypes.  If  femininity  is  a  perverse  deviation  from  a   masculinity  understood  to  be  the  norm,  is  the  breast  an   inherently  humor  object?  Are  overweight  bosomy  ladies   intrinsically  funny  as  a  parody  of  heterosexual  desire?      Porter,  Laraine,  ‘Tarts,  Tampons  and  Tyrants:  Women  and   representation  in  British  comedy’,    Because  I  Tell  a  Joke  or   Two:  Comedy,  Politics  and  Social  Difference,  ed.  Stephen   Wagg  (London:  Routledge,  1998)  
  18. 18. Type  of  Femininity  in     Comedy  Cinema    ¤  The  Slender  Woman  when  the  accessories  of  female   attractiveness  and  femininity,  mini  skirt  and  the  large  breasts   are  denuded  of  both  their  appeal  and  their  functionality,  “they   become  obsolete,  parody  and  repulsive  to  the  male”.    ¤  The  Impersonated  Menopausal  Woman  is  funny  because  her   increased  sexual  appetite  and  decreasing  sexual  appeal,   concurrent  with  the  failing  virility  of  her  male  opposite,  poses  a   threat  to  male  authority  and  violates  the  principle  that  female   sexuality  is  a  function  of  male  desire.    ¤  The  Overweight  Ladies.  According  to  Sue  Thorman  called   Dysfunctional  Bodies.  This  become  parody  and  funny  because   they  tended  to  be  slapstick  victim.  
  19. 19. ¤  The  impersonated  menopausal  woman  is  funny  because  her   increased  sexual  appetite  and  decreasing  sexual  appeal,   concurrent  with  the  failing  virility  of  her  male  opposite,   poses  a  threat  to  male  authority  and  violates  the  principle   that  female  sexuality  is  a  function  of  male  desire.    ¤  In  consequence,  when  the  accessories  of  female   attractiveness  and  femininity,  mini  skirt  and  the  large   breasts  are  denuded  of  both  their  appeal  and  their   functionality,  they  become  obsolete,  parody  and  repulsive  to   the  male.  
  20. 20.  Conclusions  ¤  The  portrayal  of  humor  in  Indonesia,  especially  cinema   comedy  that  the  image  is  often  created  and  in  the  comedy   genre,  portrayal  of  gender  has  different  symbols.    ¤  The  world  will  still  sexist  even  without  the  mass  media,  but   media  opens  new  doors  for  people  to  perceive  and  believe   what  they  see.  Cinema  comedy  opens  another  discourse   about  the  representation  of  gender  and  body  image  
  21. 21. Reference  Boggs,  Joseph.  M.  (1991)  The  Art  of  Watching  Films,  MayQield  Publishing,  California.  29-­‐53  Bourdieu,  Pierre.  (2010)  Dominasi  Maskulin,  Jalasutra,  Yogyakarta.  90-­‐113  Davies,  Christie,  (1996)  Ethnic  Humor  Around  the  World:  A  Comparative  Analysis  Bloomington:  Indiana  University  Press.261  Fulton,   Helen   Elizabeth,   Huisman,   Rosemary   Elizabeth   Anne,   Murphet,   Julian   and  Dunn,  Anne  Kathleen  Mary  (2005):  Narrative  and  Media,  Cambridge  University  Press,  UK.  Gilbert,   Joanne   R.,   (2004),   Performing   Marginality:   Humor,   Gender,   and   Cultural  Critique.  Detroit:  Wayne  State  University  Press,  69-­‐70  Mulvey,  Laura.  (1989)  Visual  and  Other  Pleasure,  Bloomington:  Indiana  University  Press.  Nurrachmi,  Syafrida  dan  Aulia,  Rahmawati.  Penerimaan  Perempuan  terhadap  Eksploitasi  Perempuan  dalam  Film  Indonesia  bertema  komedi  Seksual.  10  Desember  2009.  Seminar  Universitas  Pembangunan  Nasional  Veteran.  Surabaya.  Kellner,  D.  (1995),  Media  Culture,  Routledge,  London,  1-­‐49.    
  22. 22. Reference  Kristanto,  J.  B.  (2007),  Katalog  Film  Indonesia  1926-­‐2007,  Nalar,  Jakarta,  320-­‐436.  Porter,   Laraine,   (1998),   Tarts,   Tampons   and   Tyrants:   Women   and   representation   in  British  comedy’,  Because  I  Tell  a  Joke  or  Two:  Comedy,  Politics  and  Social  Difference,  ed.  Stephen  Wagg.,  London:  Routledge,  75  Pratt,  A.C.,  Gornostaeva,G.,  (2005),  On  Film  Industry,  1-­‐27.  Sasono,  Eric,  (2007).,  Kandang  dan  Gelanggang.  Sinema  Asia  Tenggara  Kontemporer.  Yayasan  Kalam,  Jakarta.  97-­‐110  Siagian,  Gayus,  (2010),  Sejarah  Film  Indonesia.,  FFTV-­‐IKJ,  Jakarta,  140-­‐151  Siagian,  Gayus,  (2006),  Menilai  Film.,  Dewan  Kesenian  Jakarta,  Jakarta,  97-­‐103  Sobchack,  Thomas  &  Vivian  C  Sobchack  (1980):  An  Introduction  to  Film.  Boston,  MA:  Little,  Brown  &  Co.  Thornham,  Sue.,  (1999)  Feminist  Film  Theory.  A  Reader.  Edinburgh  University  Press.  Zeisler,  Andy.,  (2008),  Feminism  and  Popular  Culture.  Seal  Press,  California,  7-­‐9  
  23. 23. Film  Source  Makin  Lama  Makin  Asyik  (1987)  PT  Soraya  Intercine  Films  Malu  Malu  Mau  (1988),  PT  Soraya  Intercine  Films  Bisa  Naik  Bisa  Turun  (1991),  PT  Soraya  Intercine  Films