Daffodil Institute of IT
Program BBA
Business Communication
Types of Communication
1. Types of communication
2. ...
Advantages of Formal Communication
Formal communication is needed for any organization because of following reasons:
1. Pe...
Advantages of Informal Communication
1. Alternative system:
There are some messages, which cannot be sent through formal w...
The grapevine is a major informal communication pathway in an organization is such a term was used in the civil
Media / Channels of Communication
Communication and media are not independent rather they are dependent and complimentary ...
Oral communication is the process of communication which is sent by the sender through the
word of mouth. It takes the for...
Merits & Limitations of written communication
- It is accurate and precise
- It can be repeatedly referred to
- It ...
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02. types of communication


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02. types of communication

  1. 1. Daffodil Institute of IT Program BBA Business Communication Types of Communication Questions 1. Types of communication 2. Media of communication Types of communication Different types of communication system are found in different kinds of organization. The types of communication differ from organization to organization depending upon the nature of information to be communicated and the purpose of communication. Communication (On the basis of organizational relationship) 01. Formal communication The communication, which follows, established systems, rules, regulation, procedures or any other prescribed ways and means are known as formal communication. “Formal communication is that communication which follows the chain of command established by the organization’s hierarchy”. --- Hunt - Internal communication When formal communication occurred within the organization is called internal communication. Ex- sales report, inventory report, worker’s performance report etc. - External communication When formal communication takes place out side of the organization with various stakeholders, letters, reports, memo, e-mail, speech, news release, bulletin etc is called external communication. Ex - Annual financial report of business firm, Invitation to receive dividend etc. 02. Informal communication Communication, which does not follow any official or prescribed rules and procedure, is called informal communication. It follows no set of rules nor obedient to the organization’s hierarchy rather does it take place outside the chain of command. “Informal communication is those communications that do not adhere to the organization’s hierarchy”. --- Hunt. Communication (On the basis of flow of information) 01. Horizontal communication Communication between departments or people on the same level in the managerial hierarchy or an organization can be defined as horizontal or lateral communication. 02. Vertical communication A communication that exists between superior and subordinate can be termed as vertical communication. - Upward communication Communication flows from down to upward; from subordinate to superior levels. This communication takes place either in the nature of feedback or in the nature of original thoughts and suggestions at the initiative of the lower levels. - Downward communication Communication flows from up to downward; from the superior to subordinate levels. Generally this type of communication is applied in the form of directions, interpretations and clarification’s. 03. Crosswise communication Crosswise communication has the horizontal flow of information with people on the different levels that have no direct reporting relationship. Gross relationships exist between personnel in one division and personnel of equal, lower or superior status in other divisions. This type of communication is used to speed information flow, to improve understanding and to co-ordinate efforts for the achievement of organizational objectives. //Daffodil/Lakkhan/Business Communication
  2. 2. Advantages of Formal Communication Formal communication is needed for any organization because of following reasons: 1. Permanent Record: Formal communication is always kept in record. When needed, the record can be easily traced and can help in solving problems. It can act as reference. 2. To increase overall efficiency: Such types of communication follow all the set or established rules of an organization and therefore facilitate the increase of overall efficiency of the organization. 3. This is easy communication system: Formal communication moves through the pre-determined channel. Everyone in the organization is aware of the source or destination of the message. 4. Maintenance of discipline: It creates a sense of awareness among the employees to be punctual and attentive towards their jobs. 5. Less chance of mistake / error: Due to care is given to strictly perform the pre-conditioned requirements when anybody is engaged in for communication. 6. Presence of coordination: Co-ordination if activities are highly essential for the smooth functioning of an organization. Organization having multiple departments requires strict discipline to co-ordinate it. Various functions and such coordination are possible through formal communication. 7. Reliability of communication: Formal communication is more reliable and more credible as it passes through a formal process. That is why, for transmitting important issues, like objectives, orders and directions etc. Formal communication is required. 8. Self-explanatory: Formal communication is always self-explanatory because the source and destination are clear and definite. It creates no confusion rather a clear meaning to all. Disadvantages of Formal Communication 1. Wastage of Time: Formal communication requires a lot of time to pass through the various points. In each point, messages are decoded and encoded again for the transmission to the next stage. This process continues until the message reaches the final recipient. This results in killing of huge time. 2. Inflexibility: A message transmitted through formal communication cannot be changes as and when desires. To make any change in formal communication. It involves observation of the same rules and procedure as was followed in original communication. 3. Authoritarian system: Formal communication occurring in the vertical way follows the nature of authoritarian as communication takes place between boss and subordinates, and therefore formal communication turns into a job of mere observation of formalities. 4. Lack of initiative: Informal communication, everybody has to follow the set rules and systems. Employee has no choice to select any other system even if it is the best one compared to the prescribed one. There is no scope to develop creativity and exercise initiatives. 5. Costly: Procedures and formalities are maintained for formal commi8nication, the communication becomes more complex and time consuming and costly. 6. Lack of cordiality: Established rules are strictly observes. More emphasis is given to the formalities rather than human side. As a result, there is no scope to develop cordial relationship between the sender and receiver. //Daffodil/Lakkhan/Business Communication
  3. 3. Advantages of Informal Communication 1. Alternative system: There are some messages, which cannot be sent through formal way and therefore requires some alternative. Such alternative can be informal communication. 2. Interpretation present: Message sent to subordinates requires explanation or interpretation and informal communication is the valuable means here. 3. Grievance present: Employees cannot make any complaints to superiors through formal communication but informal communication gives the employees a better opportunity to raise their complaints, grievance or claim. 4. Enhance efficiency: Employees can freely exchange their opinions in terms of informal communication. They can ask any question without any hesitation. 5. Improvement of relationship: Any dispute created between management and the labor can be settled through informal communication. Coordination and cooperation can be established through harmonious relationship between management and labor. Such relationship is only possible through informal communication. 6. Providing recommendations: Subordinates feel free to provide management with their suggestions and recommendations on different job related issues like work methods, procedures, conditions etc. 7. Measuring reaction: Before releasing any information, management wants to know the reaction of employees. In such a case informal communication can be valuable in measuring the reaction of employees before any information is conveyed through formal channels. 8. Quick transmission: Information flows quickly through informal channels. Management may take advantage to send or receive the message of urgent nature through such network. 9. Provide emotional relief: Some employees may become emotional which cannot be removed through formal communication. But informal communication acts as a safety measure to provide emotional relief and therefore help in concentration to job. 10. Effectiveness: Organizational effectiveness is likely to be enhanced by informal communication through opening job related communication channels, which an organization requires to create social impression. Disadvantages of informal Communication 1. Distortion: Informal communication networks do not follow any set rules, definite lines or ways. So it can transmit any kind of information to any person without any respect or fear. It may spread wrong or distorted news, which may sometimes prove harmful even to the employees. 2. Lack of secrecy: In informal communication, everybody can freely interact, as there are no restriction or rules. Any secret matter is likely to be flashed without any problem or hesitation. This may cause a huge damage to any organization. 3. Damaging swiftness: The swiftness with which the informal communication transmits the message may even be damaging. A rumor may spread and cause serious damage before the management becomes aware of it and can take any corrective action. 4. Incomplete information: Information released usually incomplete. There is each and every chance of its being misunderstood or misinterpreted. 5. Non-cooperation: Sometimes confusion develops among the persons involved in informal communication. As a result they may remain separate without any cooperation. 6. Lack of control: Informal communication does not follow any established system; it is beyond of any control. Organization has no mechanism to resist its movement. 7. Huge rumor: Most of the time, informal communication fabricates the real facts and makes some rosy picture. This really damages the working environment of any organization. //Daffodil/Lakkhan/Business Communication
  4. 4. Grapevine The grapevine is a major informal communication pathway in an organization is such a term was used in the civil war to describe the telegraph lines falling loosely from tree to tree and resembling a grapevine. It arises from the social and personal interests of people rather than the formal requirements of an organization. Think about people making assembly in any function or ceremony, they become interested to know each other more closely, here grapevine is sure to develop. Characteristics of the Grapevine 1. Huge impact: A large number of employees in an organization depend on the grapevine because they consider this as the primary source of information as well as the reliable channel to communicate about the facts and events within the firm. 2. Extensive: Grapevine links the whole organization very quickly; from top to bottom of an organization no body is left from the touch of grapevine. 3. Flexibility: It is more flexible than formal channels because formal channels require various formalities whereas grapevine is free from those formalities. 4. Speed: Information moves very quickly through the grapevine. Grapevine runs faster than the wind. 5. Distortion: Information spreading through grapevine is like to be disported as it moves point-to-point, terminal-to- terminal or person-to-person. 6. Oral way: Grapevine uses oral techniques more rather than written or nonverbal techniques. As oral communication involves less time, grapevine is likely to be dependent on oral mode. 7. Large receivers: A huge number of individuals are always there to take part in grapevine. 8. Extra ability: Grapevine can pierce the strong security and can flow from mouth to mouth very easily. 9. Unsaid information: Grapevine normally carries those information that the formal communication downs not with to convey. Information based on fabrication or rumor is supposed to be transmitted more in a better way through grapevine. 10. Contradictory information: The same fonormation, which is transmitted through formal chain, can be distorted and therefore can raise contradiction if passed through grapevine. //Daffodil/Lakkhan/Business Communication
  5. 5. Media / Channels of Communication Communication and media are not independent rather they are dependent and complimentary to each other. Without media, communication cannot happen and therefore they are two sides of the same coin.  Verbal Communication A communication using oral or written methods know to be verbal communication or verbal communication is a method that uses oral and written expression face to face communication conversation, meeting, interview etc. are the methods used under oral communication. Whereas letters, memos, report, internet, telex, fax, telegram and others are used for written communication both oral and written communication methods can be used jointly or uniquely to create verbal communication. Oral Communication //Daffodil/Lakkhan/Business Communication M E D I A O F C O M M U N I C A T I O N Communication through Action Non-verbal Communication Verbal Communication Audible Communication Visual Communication Written Communication Oral Communication Passive Communication Gesture Communication Audio Visual Communication
  6. 6. Oral communication is the process of communication which is sent by the sender through the word of mouth. It takes the form of speech and listening. It consists of words arranged in meaningful patterns. Written Communication A message communicated in a written form is known as written communication. Obviously it is word based communication and is made in terms of writing and generally used when the audience is at a distance and when there is a need of record.  Non-verbal Communication Non-verbal communication is a non-word communication. It clearly defines that such communication is neither written nor oral but uses some series of symbols or ways to communicate a message. We can say, Non-verbal communication means all communication that involves neither written nor spoken words but occurs without the use of words. Visual Communication Visual communication is done using sight only. Ex- Facial expressions, gesture, printed picture, posters, slides, film etc. Visual communication generally communicates elementary and simple ideas. It can be effectively used only in combination with other media. When written communication fails, we can take the help of visual communication to communicate with persons. Audible / Audial Communication Communications that done by using only sound is called Audible / Audial communication. Ex - siren, calling bell, ringing bell etc. Audio-visual Communication Audio-visual communication is a combination of sight and sound i.e. it uses audible and visual techniques both for transmitting message, information or idea to create a meaningful picture which is communicative. Ex – Live telecasts, short films, cinema screen, video tapes etc. Gesture Communication A gesture is a deliberate body movement intended to convey a message. Many different attitude and intentions are expressed in gesture. Ex – Shakes head slowly from side to side, raises eyebrows, shrugs shoulders, nods head etc. Passive Communication Communication which completed by using another factors, means with third party is called Passive communication. Ex- Call a teacher through peon. Communication through Action Communication which done by an action, is applied to make communication through attention, indirectly. Ex- Whispering to make attention of a girl. //Daffodil/Lakkhan/Business Communication
  7. 7. Merits & Limitations of written communication Merits - It is accurate and precise - It can be repeatedly referred to - It is a permanent record - It is a legal document - It facilitates the assignation of responsibilities - It has a wide access Limitations - It is time consuming - It is costly - Quick clarification is not possible Merits & Limitations of Oral communication Merits - Oral communication saves time - Oral communication saves money - Speaker can convey shades of meaning - Speaker can get immediate feedback - Helps to promote friendly relations - Extremely useful while it is group communication Limitations - Not possible when speaker and receiver are far away - Lengthy message not suitable for oral communication - It not retained for long time - No legal validity - Greater chances of misunderstanding //Daffodil/Lakkhan/Business Communication