What is human behavior?
The capacity of mental, physical, emotional, and social
activities experienced during the 5 stages of human being’s lifeprenatal, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood.
Includes the behaviors as dictated by culture, society, values,
moral, ethics and generations.
Development vs. Maturation
Is the qualitative changes
within the individual as
s/he goes in the different
stages of development
Acquisition of social and
language and reasoning
sequence of growth and
bodily changes that are
relatively independent of
Stages in Life Span:
1. Pre – natal – conception to birth
2. Infancy – birth to end of the second week
3. Babyhood/Childhood – end of the second
week till end of the second year.
4. Early Childhood – 2 to 6 years old.
5. Late childhood – 6 to 12 years old
6. Puberty / preadolescence – 10 to 13years old
7.Adolescence – 13 to 18 years old
8. Early Adulthood – 18 to 40 years old
9. Middle age – 40 to 60
10. Old age – 60 to death
PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF
PSYCHOSEXUAL THEORY OF
Developed by Sigmund Freud who
associated development with the sexual
activities of the child
He said that each stages of development,
one’s needs must be satisfied moderately
otherwise it will cause FIXATION
Psychosexual Stages of Development
Prenatal – (0-1 1/2 years)
Mouth is the center of
infant’s pleasure seeking
is centered on the mouth
Under gratification and
over gratification happen
when there is excessive
anticipation in satisfying
2. ANAL STAGE (1-3 years)
Is concerned with
toilet training of the
development and its
Outcome that may exhibit if the child is not satisfied or
excessive anticipation during infancy stage
3. PHALLIC STAGE ( 3 to seventh year)
Center of development is the sex organ of the child
Freud characterized this stage as the development of unconscious
wishes to possess the parent of the opposite sex and get rid of the
parent of the same sex which called as OEDIPUS COMPLEX /
Most pleasurable moments – Masturbation
Sources of Conflict: Boys – boys feel sexual love for the
mother, Hostile rivalry toward the father: Fear of castration by
For Girls: Electra complex : feeling and concluding that they
have been castrated ( because they lack penis) : Girls feeling of
inferiority that finds expression in “penis envy”.
Common Problems: impotence, frigidity, inability to handle
competitive relationships , sexual problems in adulthood.
The child becomes more aware of his/her
sexuality and represents oedipal complex
The child likewise starts to go to school
and begin to make friends
At this stage, appropriate behaviors of
being female and male such as dress to
wear are being internalized
Marks the beginning
of the maturity of
Sexual energy are
now located in the
By Erik Erikson illustrated that the individual has
to resolve in order to become fully developed
A continuous development process of
personality dev. That takes place throughout life
He holds open the prospect of healthy positive
resolution of identity crisis.
He is very optimistic.
Erikson’s Eight Stages of Development
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
Industry vs. Inferiority
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1 year)
The socialization of
infants is solely based on
how their needs are
addressed by the people
around them specially for
those who provide them
Trust is developed when
the babies are given of
adequate warmth, love
and physical care
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
The child gains
control more of his or
her behavior the child
trying new skills like
eating by himself or
herself and having tie
his or her own shoe
Initiative vs. Guilt (3-5 years)
This stage characterizes the
shift from the focus on self
control to the discovery of the
There is a need to feel free of
doing tasks without adult
supervision – initiative
Encouraging the child to asks
questions, use his or her
imagination and allowing
choosing own activities will
help initiative takes place
Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12 years)
The child becomes more
capable of doing something
and learning new skills from
school such as reading and
he/she may develop the
attitude of mastering these
skills so that the child can
maximize their potentials
into their own advantage
thus developing industry or
when the child’s effort is
regarded as messy, childish
Identity vs. Role Confusion
is the period of
discovering more about
oneself and for search for
Decision making about
career options, self
concept and attitudes
The question WHO AM I?
helps adolescents to
reflect about themselves
Intimacy vs. Isolation (early adulthood)
interests in having
Begin to seek out
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Middle years of life
Develop a concern for
guiding the next
Childless adults find
with other people
Ego Integrity vs. Despair (old age)
Reflections on past
approaching to death
Men and women look
back their lives with
Psychosocial growth occur in sequential phases and each stage is dependent on completion of
his previous stage life style.
Focus on social and psychological development in the life stages.
In each stage, the person must complete a life task essential to his well being and mental health.
These tasks allow the person to achieve life’s virtue: HOPE, PURPOSE, FIDELITY, LOVE,
CARING and WISDOM. (infant)
Trust vs Mistrust - HOPE – Viewing the world as safe and reliable, relationships as nurturing,
stable and dependable. (Infant)
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt – Will – Achieving a sense of control and free will. (toddlers)
Initiative vs. inferiority – Purpose - Beginning development of a conscience , learning to manage
conflict and anxiety. (preschool)
Industry vs. Inferiority – Competence – Emerging confidence in own abilities , taking pleasure in
accomplishments. ( School age)
Industry vs. role confusion – Fidelity – formulating a sense of self and belonging. (adolescence)
Intimacy vs. Isolation – Love – Forming adult, loving relationships and meaningful attachments to
others. (young adult)
Generativity vs. Stagnation - Care – Being creative, productive, establishing the next generation.
Ego integrity vs. Despair – Wisdom – Accepting responsibility for one’s self and life. (maturity)
Proposed by Lawrence Kohlberg
Levels of morality follow a developmental
sequence that is distinctively different
from each other. Each level contains two
1. Preconventional Morality
2. Conventional Morality
3. Postconventional Morality
1. PRECONVENTIONAL MORALITY
Stage 1 Punishment-obedience orientation
Behaviors are perceived to be right when
children are able to avoid punishment
brought about by their own behavior
Stage 2 Instrumental relativism orientation
The child’s basis of moral reasoning is
based on benefit
Stage 3 Good boy/nice girl Orientation
It is other people’s perception that is
important in making moral behaviors in
The person thinks that moral behaviors
are right when he or she knows that other
will think positively of him or her in doing
Stage 4 Law and order orientation
There is a tendency to base moral
reasoning in the existing rules and policies
concerning the behavior.
Stage 5 Social contract orientation
The person in this stage believes that rules are
made in order to protect people, therefore when
one is no longer protected the rules should be
Stage 6 Universal ethical principle
This stage depicts the internalized morality of
It is no longer the society’s standards and
expectations that are used in making moral
judgment but it is the CONSCIENCE that
becomes the reference of the action.
Stages of Cognitive
By: Jean Piaget
1. Intelligence and cognitive functioning develop in children.
2. Human Intelligence progresses through a series of
stages based on age.
3. In his schema, he believed that biologic changes and
maturation were responsible for cognitive development.
4. Individual reach cognitive maturity by middle to late
Stages of Cognitive Development
SENSORIMOTOR (0-2 years)
Birth to two years
Function based on two aspects: sense
Infants are preoccupied with discovering
the relationships between their actions
and the consequences of these actions
It is the awareness
that object continues
to exist even if it is not
present to the senses
The children interact with their environment
through symbols and mental representation
Egocentrism is also evident the difficulty to
take the view of others
EXAMPLE – they may asked the parent to
play in the middle of the night without
necessary understanding the need of the
parent to take a rest.
Their thinking is considered to be logical but
limited to something that is concrete in nature.
They have the difficulty of understanding
abstract concepts like love and faith
The child is able to acquire the concept of
conservation that is, the amount of substance
remains the same even when its shaped is
changed or when parts are divided into parts.
The child at this stage is able to
understand concepts that are abstract in
nature going beyond from what the child is
capable of during the concrete operational
They are able to make use of their
previous experiences to integrate the
solving simple and complicated problems
Direction: Use the clue below to complete the crossword puzzle.
2. Is the desire for the middle age, to use one’s accumulated
wisdom to guide future generations.
3. Deprivation of oneself to have a meaningful relationship to
another individual with the opposite sex.
4. The child’s negative feeling and showing low self esteem.
6. Discrimination against the elderly is known____.
7. Child was deprived by the mother to give tender attachment and
care will have a tendency to develop_____.
8. Some middle age people experience________ in which
development is discontinued or not successful.
1. ___describes decreases in mental abilities experienced by some people
in old age.
5.The attachment of the child towards the farther and the feeling of rivalry
towards the mother.
Nervous system-control our body function, emotions, memory, thinking and
2 kinds of N.S.
1. Central Nervous System – nerves from the back transmit message
between the body and the brain.
2.Peripheral Nervous System - smaller nerves branch out from spinal
nerves take information from the body organs to the CNS.
II. NEURON – nerve of strings long and thin cells. It fires when stimulated.
3 types of neuron:
1. affarent neuron – sensory neurons (relay messages from the sense
2. efferent neuron – motor neuron – send signal from the brain to the glands
3. interneurons – transmit message between neuron to another neuron.
PARTS of the BRAIN
1. HINDBRAIN rear base of the skull.
Involved the main process of life.
cerebellum – controls posture and
medulla - controls breath and reflexes.
Pons – a bridge bet . Spinal and brain
produced chemicals needed for sleep.
2. MIDBRAIN – small part of the brain
above the pons. Collects information from
the senses and sends it upward.
Medulla,Pons, Midbrain – Brain stem
Reticular activating system – it alert the
rest of the brain to messages coming in.