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CHAPTER 2                              LITERATURE REVIEW2.0       INTRODUCTION TO FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT      A flexible paveme...
Figure 2.1: Flexible Pavement Load Distribution2.1   INTRODUCTION OF MICROSOFT EXCEL 2007             Microsoft Excel 2007...
with different colors according to the values. Besides that, icon sets,which precede the text in a cell with an icon that ...
Figure 2.3 Data bar2.1.1      ADVANTAGES OF MICROSOFT EXCEL 2007    Office Excel 2007 features the Microsoft Office Fluent...
Use the completely redesigned charting engine in Office Excel 2007 tocommunicate the analysis in professional-looking char...
Excel 2007 client, Excel Services users can navigate, sort, filter, input parameters,        and interact with the informa...
flexible pavement such as SW-1 , DARWin , FRD 904 , FAA Flexible Pavement        Design and others application.2.2.2   SW-...
Figure 2.4 SW-1 Interface for Cross SectionFigure 2.5 SW-1 Interface for Display Results in Report
2.2.3   DARWin CALCULATING FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN SOFTWARE               DARWin was released in 1991, it is the most com...
reach the underlying layer they will not overstress and produce excessive shear        deformation in the underlying layer...
requirement usually results in the stabilization of materials that     are of   a        relatively high quality initially...
Figure 2.6 Spreadsheets of FAA Flexible Pavement Design
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Chapter 2

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Politeknik Ungku Omar
Civil Engineering Department
Final Project Report
Sesi Jun 2012
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Chapter 2

  1. 1. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW2.0 INTRODUCTION TO FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT A flexible pavement structure is typically composed of several layers of materialplaced on a sub-grade, which better quality materials on top where the intensity of stressfrom traffic loads is high and lower quality materials at the bottom where the stressintensity is low. Flexible pavements can be analyzed as a multilayer system underloading and it receives the loads from the above layer, spreads and distributes the loadsout, then passes the loads on to the nest layer below that illustrate in Figure 2.1. Thus,the further down in the pavement structure a particular layer is, the less load (in terms offorce per area) it must carry (Washington Asphalt Pavement Association (WAPA),2002). The aim is to ensure that the transmitted stresses are safely, sufficiently reducedand do not exceed the capacity of the underlying sub- grade.(Faculty of CivilEngineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, November 2009)
  2. 2. Figure 2.1: Flexible Pavement Load Distribution2.1 INTRODUCTION OF MICROSOFT EXCEL 2007 Microsoft Excel 2007 support up to 1,048,576 rows and 16,384 columns (XFD) in a single worksheet, with 32,767 characters in a single cell (17,179,869,184 cells in a worksheet, 562,932,773,552,128 characters in a worksheet). It conditional formatting introduces support for three new features — Color Scales, Icon Sets and Data Bars. The color scales, which automatically color the background of a group of cells
  3. 3. with different colors according to the values. Besides that, icon sets,which precede the text in a cell with an icon that represent some aspect ofthe value of the cell with respect to other values in a group of cells, canalso be applied. Furthermore, the icons can be conditionally applied toshow up only when certain criteria are met, such as a cross showing up onan invalid value, where the condition for invalidity can be specified bythe user. In addition, the data bars show as a gradient bar in thebackground of a cell the contribution of the cell value in the group. Plus,the column titles can optionally show options to control the layout of thecolumn. Last and not least, multithreaded calculation of formulae, tospeed up large calculations, especially on multi-core/multi-processorsystems.(Microsoft Office Excel 2007 Formulas & Function ,by KenBluttmen and Peter Aitken, Wiley Publishing, Inc) Figure 2.2 Excel Basic Screen
  4. 4. Figure 2.3 Data bar2.1.1 ADVANTAGES OF MICROSOFT EXCEL 2007 Office Excel 2007 features the Microsoft Office Fluent user interface to help you find powerful tools when you need them.Find the tools which need to using the results-oriented Office Fluent user interface inOffice Excel 2007. Based on the job that need to accomplish, whether it’s creating atable or writing a formula, Office Excel 2007 presents the appropriate commandswhen you need them. Import, organize, and explore massive data sets within significantly expanded spreadsheets. Work with massive amounts of data in Office Excel 2007, which supports spreadsheets that can be up to 1 million rows by 16,000 columns. In addition to the bigger grid, Office Excel 2007 supports multicore processor platforms for faster calculation of formula-intense spreadsheets.
  5. 5. Use the completely redesigned charting engine in Office Excel 2007 tocommunicate the analysis in professional-looking charts.Build professional-looking charts faster with fewer clicks using charting tools inthe Office Fluent user interface. Apply rich visual enhancements to your chartssuch as 3-D effects, soft shadowing, and transparency. Create and interact withcharts the same way, regardless of the application you are using, because thecharting engine in Office Excel 2007 is consistent in Microsoft Office Word2007 and Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007.Help ensure the organization work with the most current businessinformation.Prevent the spread of multiple or outdated copies of a spreadsheet throughout theorganization by using Office Excel 2007 and Office SharePoint Server 2007.Control which users can view and modify spreadsheets on the server usingpermission-based access.Use Office Excel 2007 and Excel Services to help share spreadsheets moresecurely with others.Excel Services, a feature of Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007,dynamically renders a spreadsheet as HTML so others can access the informationusing a Web browser. Because of the high degree of fidelity with the Office
  6. 6. Excel 2007 client, Excel Services users can navigate, sort, filter, input parameters, and interact with the information, all within their Web browser. 2.1.2 DISADVANTAGES OF MICROSOFT EXCEL 2007 When develop the application into one file it can be huge and will make your program execution very slow. When separate functions to multiple files, Excel files are prone to get lost in your hard drive especially when break the application to too many files. Excel worksheet as a database has a limited number of rows or records that you can store.2.2.1 INTRODUCTION OF COMPUTER SOFTWARE IN THICKNESS DESIGN FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT Computer software has become very important nowadays because it is much fast and easily complete many tasks just a fraction of a second compared with tasks manually. In market , there are various types of computer software in engineering field . The computer software that are use for thickness design of
  7. 7. flexible pavement such as SW-1 , DARWin , FRD 904 , FAA Flexible Pavement Design and others application.2.2.2 SW-1 CALCULATING FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN SOFTWARE The Asphalt Institute have developed a program called SW-1 to provide users the capability to design asphalt pavements for highways , streets , parking lots , airports , industrial facilities supporting heavy wheel loads and other applications. Program SW-1 provides users an integrated pavement design suite to provide an unparalleled range of capability (Asphalt Institute , 2003 ) This program designed to run on common Microsoft Windows operating systems including Windows XP .The new Windows-based user interface dramatically integrates previous Asphalt Institute (AI) thickness design programs into a single , easy to use program. It features improved data file handling and storage capability . An extensive context-sensitive HELP file address common pavement design question (Asphalt Institude , 2003) . Interface of program SW-1 represented in Figure 2.4 and Figure 2.5
  8. 8. Figure 2.4 SW-1 Interface for Cross SectionFigure 2.5 SW-1 Interface for Display Results in Report
  9. 9. 2.2.3 DARWin CALCULATING FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN SOFTWARE DARWin was released in 1991, it is the most comprehensive and powerful pavement design program that available in the market . DARWin in is more than just a computerized version of 1993 AASHTA Guide for Design of Pavement Structure (TxDOT , 2006) . This software is a complete pavement design and analysis program for both initial design and rehabilitation. Nowadays , DARWin has undergone three major upgrades and the latest version is DARWin in 3.1 , which it is designed for the Window 95 , 98 , 2000 and NT operating systems. DARWin in 3.1 is divided into four modules that can be used to design and compare alternative pavement design such as flexible structural design , rigid structural design , overlay design and life cycle cost.2.3.4 FRD 904 (FLEXIBLE ROAD PAVEMENT DESIGN 904) FRD 904 (Flexible Road Pavement Design 904) is to determine minimum pavement thickness . The program FRD 904 is the flexible road design program that was revised in April 1989 (AFM , 1992) . The design procedure used by the Corps of Engineers and the Air Force to design flexible pavements is generally referred to as the CBR design procedure . This procedure requires that each layer be thick enough to distribute the stresses induced by traffic so that when they
  10. 10. reach the underlying layer they will not overstress and produce excessive shear deformation in the underlying layer. Besides , each layer must be compacted adequately so that traffic does not produce an intolerable amount of added compaction.2.3.5 FAA FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN When a site is selected for constructing a new pavement or rehabilitating an old pavement, the in-place materials may be used as they naturally occur. The materials may also be removed and replaced with higher quality materials, or they may be modified in some manner to provide qualities that are appropriate. When the soils are modified, it is referred to as stabilization. The reasons for stabilizing soils include improving properties such as volume stability, strength, durability, and permeability. Either all or some of these properties may be sought to be improved. The most suitable stabilizing procedure will usually be dictated by the particular property or properties that are desired and the type of material in place. It is most common to stabilize materials such as high-plasticity clays to reduce their susceptibility to moisture. However, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requires the use of stabilized layers directly beneath the surface course for airport pavements that will support large aircraft. This
  11. 11. requirement usually results in the stabilization of materials that are of a relatively high quality initially, particularly when compared to high-plasticity clays. The amount of literature available on stabilization of relatively high- quality materials is limited. For the most part, these high quality stabilized materials can be classified as low-quality surface materials. Guidance on these materials is similar or identical to the guidance for surface materials such as Portland cement concrete (PCC) or hot-mix asphalt concrete (HMAC).2.3.6 DESIGN PROCEDURES Thickness Design. Virtually any design procedure can be modified to include stabilized layers within the pavement section. The difficulty in including the stabilized layer is determining appropriate performance or failure criteria. The particular criteria used will dictate the material properties required to be determined. For example, if a fatigue criteria based on flexural strength is used for designing the stabilized layer, it will be necessary to measure the flexural strength of the stabilized layer. Spreadsheets of FAA Flexible Pavement Design can be refer in Figure 2.6 (Faculty of Civil Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, November 2009)
  12. 12. Figure 2.6 Spreadsheets of FAA Flexible Pavement Design

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