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  1. 1. NUEVA ECIJA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF HOTEL AND RESTAURANT MANAGEMENTFPS 1: MEAL MANAGEMENTSTUDENT’S/ TEACHER’S MANUALLAIYAH S. DELFIN<br />Contents TOC o "1-3" h z u CHAPTER 1 PAGEREF _Toc300549788 h 5INTRODUCTION TO MEAL MANAGEMENT PAGEREF _Toc300549789 h 5PEOPLE INVOLVED IN MEAL PLANNING PAGEREF _Toc300549790 h 5RISK CONDITIONS OF OVERWEIGHT/ OBESE PEOPLE PAGEREF _Toc300549791 h 5PHILOSOPHY, VALUES, AND GOALS IN MEAL PLANNING PAGEREF _Toc300549792 h 5PROCESS OF MANAGEMENT PAGEREF _Toc300549793 h 6FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN PLANNING MENU PAGEREF _Toc300549794 h 6GUIDE TO PLANNING NUTRITIOUS MEALS PAGEREF _Toc300549795 h 6THE FOOD GROUPS AND FOOD PYRAMID PAGEREF _Toc300549796 h 6FOOD GROUPS- a collection of foods that share similar nutritional properties or biological classification. PAGEREF _Toc300549797 h 6FOOD PYRAMID- is a triangular or pyramid-shaped nutrition guide divided into sections that show the recommended intake of each food group. PAGEREF _Toc300549798 h 6FOUR VARIATION OF FOOD PYRAMID PAGEREF _Toc300549799 h 6FOOD SOURCES AND THEIR FUNCTION PAGEREF _Toc300549800 h 9TYPES OF FOOD LABELING PAGEREF _Toc300549801 h 10CHAPTER 2 PAGEREF _Toc300549802 h 11MENU PLANNING PAGEREF _Toc300549803 h 11THE MENU PAGEREF _Toc300549804 h 11FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN MENU PLANNING: PAGEREF _Toc300549805 h 11TYPES OF MENU PAGEREF _Toc300549806 h 11SIMPLIFIED MENU COURSES PAGEREF _Toc300549807 h 111. Appetizer- literally "apart from the main work"), also known as Hors d'œuvre, are food items served before the course of a meal PAGEREF _Toc300549808 h 112. Soup is a food that is made by combining ingredients such as meat and vegetables with stock, juice, water, or another liquid. PAGEREF _Toc300549809 h 113. Salad- is any of a wide variety Of dishes including: vegetable salads; salads of pasta, legumes, eggs, or grains; mixed salads incorporating meat, poultry, or seafood; and fruit salads. They may include a mixture of cold and hot, often including raw vegetables or fruits. PAGEREF _Toc300549810 h 124. Main Course (entrée)- A main dish is the featured or primary dish in a meal consisting of several courses. The main dish is usually the heaviest, heartiest, and most complex or substantive dish on a menu. The main ingredient is usually meat or fish; in vegetarian meals, the main course sometimes attempts to mimic a meat course. PAGEREF _Toc300549811 h 125. Dessert- is a course that typically comes at the end of a meal, usually consisting of sweet food. PAGEREF _Toc300549812 h 12Guidelines in Writing a Menu PAGEREF _Toc300549813 h 13Context for Menu Planning PAGEREF _Toc300549814 h 13PROCEDURES IN MENU PLANNING PAGEREF _Toc300549815 h 13REFINING MENU PLANS PAGEREF _Toc300549816 h 13CHAPTER 3 PAGEREF _Toc300549817 h 14MANAGING MARKETING PAGEREF _Toc300549818 h 14THE MARKET PLACE PAGEREF _Toc300549819 h 14PURCHASING PAGEREF _Toc300549820 h 14THE SHOPPING LIST PAGEREF _Toc300549821 h 15MAXIMIZING SHOPPING PAGEREF _Toc300549822 h 16SHOPPING AIDS PAGEREF _Toc300549823 h 16COSTING AND PRICING PAGEREF _Toc300549824 h 16SELLING PRICE DETERMINATION PAGEREF _Toc300549825 h 16CHAPTER 4 PAGEREF _Toc300549826 h 19BUYING DAIRY PRODUCTS AND SUBSTITUTES PAGEREF _Toc300549827 h 19MILK CHOICES PAGEREF _Toc300549828 h 19TYPES OF PASTEURIZATION a heat treatment of milk adequate to kill microorganisms that can cause illness in people PAGEREF _Toc300549829 h 19Milk Cookery PAGEREF _Toc300549830 h 20CREAMS PAGEREF _Toc300549831 h 201.United States PAGEREF _Toc300549832 h 21YOGURT PAGEREF _Toc300549833 h 22Protein function in exercise PAGEREF _Toc300549834 h 26Since protein plays a vital role in our health, it is very important to choose the right entrée and their ingredients. It is said that red meat is appropriate two or three times a week, but their content of saturated fat makes it wise to limit their frequency and portion sizes when planning meals. In this case, the meal planner could choose other option of protein-rich food to include in the week’s plan. PAGEREF _Toc300549835 h 26<br />CHAPTER 1<br />INTRODUCTION TO MEAL MANAGEMENT<br />MEAL- is an instance of eating in a specific time and includes specific food preparation<br />MANAGEMENT- Getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources<br />MEAL MANAGEMENT- series of events concerned with menu planning, food purchasing, preparation and serving meal. <br />PEOPLE INVOLVED IN MEAL PLANNING<br /><ul><li>Dietitians
  2. 2. Food Service Professionals
  3. 3. Food Scientist and Technologists</li></ul>RISK CONDITIONS OF OVERWEIGHT/ OBESE PEOPLE<br /><ul><li>Hypertension- a cardiac chronic medical condition in which the systematic arterial blood pressure is elevated.
  4. 4. Dyslipidemia- is a general term that refers to abnormal levels of lipids, a broad category of compounds that encompass everything from vitamins to cholesterol.
  5. 5. Type 2 Diabetes- a non- insulin dependent type of diabetes- a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.
  6. 6. Coronary Heart Disease- refers to the failure of coronary circulation to supply adequate circulation to cardiac muscle and surrounding tissue.
  7. 7. Sleep Apnea- a sleep disorder characterized by abnormal pauses in breathing or instances of abnormally low breathing, during sleep.
  8. 8. Stroke- is the rapidly developing loss of brainfunction(s) due to disturbance in the blood supply to the brain
  9. 9. Gallbladder disease- Gallbladder disease is a common condition that affects mainly women. The symptoms vary widely from discomfort to severe pain which mainly begins after food. In severe cases the patient can suffer from jaundice, nausea and fever. The most common reason for gallbladder disease is gallstones.
  10. 10. Osteoarthritis- also known as degenerative arthritis or degenerative joint disease, is a group of mechanical abnormalities involving degradation of joints, including articular cartilage and subchondral bone
  11. 11. Some cancer (colon, breast or endometrial)</li></ul>PHILOSOPHY, VALUES, AND GOALS IN MEAL PLANNING<br />PHILOSOPHY- is a study of general and fundamental problems<br />PHILOSOPHICAL BASIS IN MENU PLANNING:<br /><ul><li>What can mealtime contribute to family communication?
  12. 12. How important is cost control in the food budget
  13. 13. Can family meals enhance social skills of individuals?
  14. 14. How can family meals promote the health of various family members?
  15. 15. Can various family members develop creativity by helping in meal preparation and service?
  16. 16. In what other ways can family meals add to the quality of life in a family, as a group, or as individuals?</li></ul>When philosophy has been identified, it provides the background for managing meals that fit the situation and improve the quality of life<br />VALUES- something considered very desirable and significant. Or maybe defined as intrinsically desirable, of relative worth or of importance<br />VALUES IN MEAL PLANNING:<br /><ul><li>Good Health
  17. 17. Social Values
  18. 18. Cultural Values
  19. 19. Management of time, energy or combination of these resources
  20. 20. Value for Money and Conservation
  21. 21. Value for creativity
  22. 22. Value for Education</li></ul>GOALS- are aims or objectives that people try to reach. <br />Goals depend on what the family values. If the family’s priority is good health then the goals in planning a meal should meet its demands. <br />PROCESS OF MANAGEMENT<br /><ul><li>KEY MANAGE- MENT TASKSVITAL PARTSPlanning
  23. 23. Organizing
  24. 24. Delegating
  25. 25. Implementing
  26. 26. Supervising
  27. 27. Evaluating</li></ul>FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN PLANNING MENU<br /><ul><li>Nutritional Adequacy
  28. 28. Food Budget
  29. 29. Differences in food habits
  30. 30. The time and skill of meal manager
  31. 31. Suitability, availability and quality of the food
  32. 32. Aesthetic and psychological aspects for food
  33. 33. Equipment available for food preparation</li></ul>GUIDE TO PLANNING NUTRITIOUS MEALS<br /><ul><li>Meeting recommended intakes within energy needs
  34. 34. Variety among and within food groups
  35. 35. Nutrient Dense Food
  36. 36. Nutrients of concern
  37. 37. Consideration for specific population groups
  38. 38. Fluid
  39. 39. Flexibility of food patterns for varied food preferences</li></ul>THE FOOD GROUPS AND FOOD PYRAMID<br />FOOD GROUPS- a collection of foods that share similar nutritional properties or biological classification.<br />Classification of Food Groups<br /><ul><li>GO- Go foods are the type of a food group that provides energy, hence the name "go". Examples of this type of food group are bread, rice cereals and other foods that primarily provides carbohydrates. 
  40. 40. GROW-Grow foods are foods that enhance growth development. Foods like milk, yogurt, cheese and other dairy products are types of this food group. 
  41. 41. GLOW-Glow foods are foods that enhance the quality or the "Glow" of our skin. These foods are rich in Vitamin D that is important for the development of a healthy skin. Green-leafy vegetables are examples of this food group.</li></ul>FOOD PYRAMID- is a triangular or pyramid-shaped nutrition guide divided into sections that show the recommended intake of each food group. <br />FOUR VARIATION OF FOOD PYRAMID<br /><ul><li>MY PYRAMID (USDA)</li></ul>2. CANADA’S FOOD GUIDE<br />3. CHINESE FOOD PAGODA<br />4. FILIPINO FOOD PYRAMID<br />33274088265<br />740410111760<br />187325240030<br />66675213995<br />FOOD SOURCES AND THEIR FUNCTION<br />1. Carbohydrates <br />FUNCTIONS:<br /><ul><li>Primary high-energy fuel source during
  42. 42. exercise
  43. 43. Replenish body stores of glycogen
  44. 44. Provide dietary fiber</li></ul>FOOD SOURCES:<br /><ul><li>Grains, breads, cereals, rice, pasta
  45. 45. Fruit and fruit juices </li></ul>2. Vegetables <br />FUNCTIONS:<br /><ul><li>Dairy and soy milk, yogurt
  46. 46. Fat Provides essential fatty acids
  47. 47. Provides fat-soluble vitamins
  48. 48. Adds flavor to foods
  49. 49. Used as a fuel source
  50. 50. Protects and insulates body organs
  51. 51. Component of cell structures</li></ul>FOOD SOURCES:<br /><ul><li>Liquid oils
  52. 52. Margarine and butter
  53. 53. Nuts and seeds
  54. 54. Avocado
  55. 55. Fish</li></ul>3. Minerals <br />FUNCTIONS:<br /><ul><li>Involved in energy production
  56. 56. Play role in building body tissue
  57. 57. Play role in muscle contraction
  58. 58. Involved in oxygen transport
  59. 59. Maintain acid-base balance of blood</li></ul>FOOD SOURCES:<br /><ul><li>Fruits and vegetables
  60. 60. Lean protein foods
  61. 61. Whole grains
  62. 62. Oils, nuts, and seeds</li></ul>4. Protein <br />FUNCTIONS:<br /><ul><li>Provides essential amino acids
  63. 63. Required for maintaining and developing muscle and other body tissue
  64. 64. Essential component of enzymes, hormones, and antibodies
  65. 65. Needed for the formation of hemoglobin</li></ul>FOOD SOURCES:<br /><ul><li>Meat, poultry, fish, cheese, eggs
  66. 66. Soy, dried beans, lentils
  67. 67. Dairy and soy milk, yogurt</li></ul>5. Vitamins <br />FUNCTIONS:<br /><ul><li>Enhance energy production
  68. 68. Involved in tissue repair and protein synthesis
  69. 69. Play role in red-blood-cell formation
  70. 70. Act as antioxidants</li></ul>FOOD SOURCES:<br /><ul><li>Fruits and vegetables
  71. 71. Lean protein foods
  72. 72. Whole grains
  73. 73. Oil, nuts, and seeds</li></ul>6. Water <br />FUNCTIONS:<br /><ul><li>Carries oxygen and nutrients to cells
  74. 74. Plays a role in digestion
  75. 75. Cools the body through sweat production
  76. 76. Has important role in many cellular processes
  77. 77. Significant component of muscle tissue</li></ul>FOOD SOURCES:<br /><ul><li>Tap water
  78. 78. Bottled water
  79. 79. Fruit juices, dairy milk, soy milk
  80. 80. Solid foods that contain water, such as fruits, vegetables, yogurt</li></ul>TYPES OF FOOD LABELING<br /><ul><li>INGREDIENT LABELING- list the content of all food mixtures containing more than one ingredient. It begins with the ingredient that has the greatest amount and continues in descending order
  81. 81. NUTRITION LABELING- appears on packages today in a specified format and is titled “Nutrition Facts.”</li></ul>CHAPTER 2<br />MENU PLANNING<br />MENU PLANNING- entails thinking through and listing down specific food and dishes desired for one meal such as breakfast, lunch or supper or throughout the day including snacks, or even throughout the week or month<br />MENU- a list of dishes served in a meal or the food served. <br />THE MENU<br />FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN MENU PLANNING:<br /><ul><li>Type of menu
  82. 82. People Being Served
  83. 83. Resources available
  84. 84. Nutritive value
  85. 85. Food Selection</li></ul>TYPES OF MENU<br />1. Cycle Menu- daily menus that are written to span a designated number of days before being in the same sequence again and again<br />2. A la carte Menu- foods offered are price individually<br />3. Table D’ Hote Menu- a complete meal in itself and is offered for a single price<br />4. Selective/ Non- Selective Menu- offer or do not offer choices for each course<br />5. Combination Menus- offers a limited number of table d’ hote menus plus an assortment of a la carte items. <br />6. Static Menu- same menu are included each day, although special dishes may be added to attract diners who are interested in items beyond the regular set menu. <br />7. Carte du Jour- a daily menu wherein the restaurant offers a specialty for the day<br />8. Single-use Menu- is planned for a specific circumstance and is not intended to become a part of a pattern of menus being served on a rotating basis. <br />SIMPLIFIED MENU COURSES<br />1. Appetizer- literally "apart from the main work"), also known as Hors d'œuvre, are food items served before the course of a meal<br />EXAMPLES OF APPETIZERS<br />Canapés- is a small, prepared and usually decorative food, held in the fingers and often eaten in one bite.<br />Cold cuts<br />Crudités (raw vegetables used for dipping) - are traditional French appetizers comprising sliced or whole raw vegetables which are sometimes dipped in a vinaigrette or another dipping sauce.<br />Deviled eggs<br />Cheeses<br />Sausages<br />Dumplings<br />Bruschetta-  is an appetizer from central Italy whose origin dates to at least the 15th century. It consists of roasted bread rubbed with garlic and topped with extra-virgin olive oil, salt and pepper. Variations may include toppings of spicy red pepper, tomato, vegetables, beans, cured meat, and/or cheese; the most popular recipe outside of Italy involves basil, fresh tomato, garlic and onion or mozzarella. Bruschetta is usually served as a snack or appetizer<br />Cocktail wieners<br />Tongue toast- is an open faced sandwich prepared with sauteed beef tongue, and scrambled eggs.<br />2. Soup is a food that is made by combining ingredients such as meat and vegetables with stock, juice, water, or another liquid.<br />TYPES OF SOUP<br />A bisque is a rich, thick, smooth soup that's often made with shellfish, such as lobster or shrimp.<br />A chowder is a thick, chunky soup. Traditionally, a chowder is made with seafood or fish, but chowders made with poultry, vegetables, and cheese have become popular.<br />Stock or broth is a strained, thin, clear liquid in which meat, poultry, or fish has been simmered with vegetables and herbs. While normally used as an ingredient in other soups, it can be enjoyed as a light course on its own.<br />Bouillon is basically the same as broth, but the term refers to commercial dehydrated products sold as granules or cubes.<br />Consomme is a strong, flavorful meat or fish broth that has been clarified.<br />3. Salad- is any of a wide variety Of dishes including: vegetable salads; salads of pasta, legumes, eggs, or grains; mixed salads incorporating meat, poultry, or seafood; and fruit salads. They may include a mixture of cold and hot, often including raw vegetables or fruits.<br />TYPES OF SALAD<br /><ul><li>Green Salad- The "green salad" or "garden salad" is most often composed of leafy vegetables such as lettuce varieties, spinach, or rocket (arugula). Due to their low caloric density, green salads are a common diet food. The salad leaves may be cut or torn into bite-sized fragments and tossed together (called a tossed salad), or may be placed in a predetermined arrangement (a composed salad).
  86. 86. Vegetable Salad- Vegetables other than greens may be used in a salad. Common vegetables used in a salad include cucumbers, peppers, tomatoes, mushrooms, onions, spring onions, red onions, avocado, carrots, celery, and radishes. Other ingredients, such as olives, hard boiled egg, artichoke hearts, heart of palm, roasted red bell peppers, green beans, croutons, cheeses, meat (e.g. bacon, chicken), or seafood (e.g. tuna, shrimp), are sometimes added to salads.
  87. 87. Bound Salad- A "bound" salad can be composed (arranged) or tossed (put in a bowl and mixed with a thick dressing). They are assembled with thick sauces such as mayonnaise. One portion of a true bound salad will hold its shape when placed on a plate with an ice-cream scoop. Examples of bound salad include tuna salad, pasta salad, chicken salad, egg salad, and potato salad. Bound salads are often used as sandwich fillings. They are also popular at picnics and barbecues, because they can be made ahead of time and refrigerated.
  88. 88. Main Course Salad- commonly known as "entrée salads" in North America) may contain grilled or fried chicken pieces, seafood such as grilled or fried shrimp or a fish steak such as tuna, mahi-mahi, or salmon. Sliced steak, such assirloin or skirt, can be placed upon the salad. Caesar salad, Chef salad, Cobb salad, Greek salad, and Michigan salad are types of dinner salad.
  89. 89. Fruit Salad- Fruit salads are made of fruit, and include the fruit cocktail that can be made fresh or from canned fruit.
  90. 90. Dessert Salad- Dessert salads rarely include leafy greens and are often sweet. Common variants are made with gelatin or whipped cream (oftentimes with the brand products Jell-O and / or Cool Whip);</li></ul>4. Main Course (entrée)- A main dish is the featured or primary dish in a meal consisting of several courses. The main dish is usually the heaviest, heartiest, and most complex or substantive dish on a menu. The main ingredient is usually meat or fish; in vegetarian meals, the main course sometimes attempts to mimic a meat course.<br />5. Dessert- is a course that typically comes at the end of a meal, usually consisting of sweet food.<br />An example of a twenty-one course dinner follows:<br />Palate cleanser, or amuse- This may be preceded by a refreshing, lightly alcoholic drink, if the diners are to wait or mingle before being seated.<br />Second amuse<br />Caviar- sometimes called black caviar, is a luxury delicacy, consisting of processed, salted, non-fertilized sturgeon roe. <br />Cold appetizer<br />Thick soup<br />Thin soup<br />Shellfish<br />Antipasto<br />Pasta (usually short, long pasta being more suited to informal lunches)<br />Intermezzo (Sorbet)<br />Quail<br />Wild mushrooms<br />Beef<br />Green salad<br />Puffed pastry filled with herbed mousse<br />Cheese<br />Pudding<br />Ice cream<br />Nuts<br />Petit four<br />Coffee, liquor (in a home, as opposed to a restaurant, these are properly served in the more relaxed setting of a drawing room or salon, not at the dining table)<br />Guidelines in Writing a Menu<br />1. Capitalize all words except preparations, articles or conjunctions<br />2. Arrange the menu items in the order in which they are to be eaten<br />3. Arrange the foods that are offered by courses<br />4. Write accompaniments for a certain menu item to the right or underneath the menu item. If there are two accompaniments write these to the left and to the right of the foods it is supposed to be served with.<br />5. Enclose special dishes in a box in the menu; clip on a carte du jour<br />6. Use accurate descriptions to stimulate the appetite of the diner.<br />7. Place at the top of the list the items you want to sell most.<br />8. Design the menu so that it is in harmony with the theme or motif of the establishment<br />9. Indicate the name and address of the organization, the days and hours of service, the telephone number and other information that will invite the customers for a “repeat business.”<br />10. Edit to avoid misspelled words, incorrect grammar, etc.<br />11. Provide margins on top, bottom and sides of the menu<br />12. Keep the menu clean.<br />Context for Menu Planning<br />1. Audience<br />a. How many people are to be served?<br />b. What are their approximate ages?<br />c. What cultures are represented?<br />d. Are there special needs?<br />2. Kitchen and Dining Facilities<br />a. What equipment limitations exist?<br />b. What serving limitations exist?<br />3. Resources<br />a. How much time is available for food preparation, service, and cleanup?<br />b. What budget is available for these meals?<br />c. What people are available to prepare the food?<br />d. What people will do the service and cleanup?<br />PROCEDURES IN MENU PLANNING<br />1. Choose the entrée. <br />2. Pick the soup, garnishes, and relishes which will accompany the main course<br />3. Select the rice, potato, and other carbohydrate-rich dishes<br />4. Select salad or fruits suited for the main course<br />5. Be sure that the chosen appetizers and dessert are appropriate<br />6. Beverages may vary according to individual preferences<br />REFINING MENU PLANS<br />1. Check each day’s plans against the recommendations in My Pyramid.<br />2. Determine the servings need to be added or deleted.<br />3. Identify specific recipes (preparations and serving) <br />4. Visualizing the main course.<br />5. Decide on the garnishes or accompaniments<br />6. Make some necessary adjustments need to be made.<br />CHAPTER 3<br />MANAGING MARKETING<br />Marketing is essential in meal management. Selecting good, quality ingredients should be a basic knowledge for a meal manager. Smart shopping can help keep food costs reasonable. Food-buying decision is important because they influence not only finances but also time, energy, food of excellent quality and health.<br />THE MARKET PLACE<br />A. Factors in Selecting a Market<br /><ul><li>Location
  91. 91. Cleanliness
  92. 92. Physical Features
  93. 93. Services and Personnel
  94. 94. Overall Food Quality
  95. 95. Fresh Produce
  96. 96. Meat and Dairy
  97. 97. Delicatessen and bakery
  98. 98. Breadth of inventory
  99. 99. Food prices</li></ul>B. Types of Market <br /><ul><li>Supermarket- a one-stop shopping market which offers wide array of products available. Most supermarkets are units in a chain owned by a large corporation wherein huge quantities are being purchased by these chains. Supermarkets that are owned independently, spawns a problem of purchasing goods at low enough prices to be able to retail them competitively against chain markets.
  100. 100. Niche Markets- a bit smaller than supermarkets. It is the subset of the market on which a specific product is focusing; therefore the market niche defines the specific product features aimed at satisfying specific market needs, as well as the price range, production quality and the demographics that is intended to impact.
  101. 101. Discount Stores- a type of department store, which sells products at prices lower than those asked by traditional retail outlets. 
  102. 102. Warehouse Clubs- A  retail store, usually selling a wide variety of merchandise, in which customers are required to buy large, wholesale quantities of the store's products, which makes these clubs attractive to both bargain hunters and small business owners. This type of market usually requires an annual membership fee for shopping privileges.
  103. 103. Convenience Store- is a small store or shop in a built up area that stocks a range of everyday items such as groceries, toiletries, alcoholic and soft drinks. Convenience stores are usually located near residential areas.
  104. 104. Farmer’s Market- consist of individual vendors, mostly farmers, who set up booths, tables or stands, outdoors or indoors, to sell produce, meat products, fruits and sometimes prepared foods and beverages</li></ul>PURCHASING<br />2 Types of Purchasing<br /><ul><li>Informal buying or open market methods- involves oral negotiation and in usually used when the amount involved is not large, and speed and simplicity are desired.
  105. 105. Quotation and order sheet method- quantity and quality of an item are listed and a space or column is provided for recording quoted prices of vendors. The prices are compared and decision is made.
  106. 106. Blank check- this method is used when there is an extreme need for a particular food item. The buyer orders something without knowing the price and the vendor locates the food item. When the item is located, the vendor informs the buyer of the price and if it is within the buyer’s range, the item is delivered to the buyer.
  107. 107. Cost-plus- this is used when markets are unstable or prices are not known. The vendor buys the food item at the most favorable price and adds a certain amount to the quoted price. The additional price is often expressed in percentage (20%) and is used to cover the seller’s profit.
  108. 108. Formal buying methods- usually involve large contracts for commodities to be purchased for long periods of time and are usually written than oral.
  109. 109. Competitive-bid- involves several steps such as 1) the buyer sends invitations or places of advertisements for possible sellers to bid to supply food items. Invitation includes Set of Conditions: terms of payments, discount, method of delivery, billing requirement, payment arrangement and specifications of quality and quantity of food items. 2) Sellers and bidders provide the buyer the price quotation and other information as requested.
  110. 110. Negotiated-bid- sometimes bidders are hesitant to bid because of time restrictions, a fluctuating market or perish ability of the products. Buyer and seller negotiate over the phone the terms of specifications and others.
  111. 111. Futures and contract method- this method is used by big businesses with enough capital and staff. Food items are contracted for future delivery. With this method, the buyer is assured of continuous supply at an established price thus avoiding shortages and price fluctuations.</li></ul>Factors that determine purchasing needs:<br /><ul><li>Menu
  112. 112. Type and image that the establishment wants to project
  113. 113. Style of operations and service system
  114. 114. Occasion when the item is needed
  115. 115. Amount of available storage area- dry, refrigerated, frozen
  116. 116. Financial resources and buying policies of the organization
  117. 117. Availability, seasonability, price trends and supply of the items needed.</li></ul>Quantity as a factor in food purchasing<br /><ul><li>Number of people to be served
  118. 118. Portion size based on yield test or other standard potion list set by management
  119. 119. Familiarity with weight and sizes of various products including common can and jar sizes. </li></ul>Quality as a determinant in food purchasing <br />Quality of food is assessed against standards or a set of specifications. Product quality includes the following:<br /><ul><li>grades
  120. 120. style
  121. 121. appearance
  122. 122. Composition
  123. 123. Variety
  124. 124. other quality factors such as color, size, maturity, texture, absence of defects</li></ul>2 Kinds of Standards<br /><ul><li>Voluntary Standards- is set by the producers and packers. They assign grade to their products
  125. 125. Regulatory Standards- set by the government and usually indicate the wholesomeness of the food. Government stamp approval on the product.</li></ul>THE SHOPPING LIST<br />Shopping list is a record of items needed to be purchased by a shopper. <br /><ul><li>Advantages of Shopping List
  126. 126. Save time and energy
  127. 127. Save fuel cost/ transportation cost
  128. 128. Avoids temptation to buy forgotten items at a convenience store
  129. 129. Organizing a List
  130. 130. Structured according to the market’s floor plan
  131. 131. Canned goods and heavy items are at the top of the list
  132. 132. Next is refrigerated items (meats and milk)
  133. 133. Fresh produce can be selected prior to frozen foods
  134. 134. Check your inventory in finalizing your shopping list</li></ul>Inventory- a systematic listing of basic information of stocks whether raw or finished products which is based on daily manual counting.<br />Portioning- to divide or distribute the food equally<br />Standardized recipe- refers to a particular standard-of-use of certain metrics in cooking - Standard sizes, time, temperature, amount, etc. Abiding by this rule creates uniformity in kitchen produce, whether or not it is tangible or intangible.<br />Considerations in Portioning<br /><ul><li>People to be fed
  135. 135. Total menu for a meal</li></ul>MAXIMIZING SHOPPING<br /><ul><li>Timing
  136. 136. Factors in Shopping Decisions
  137. 137. Different brands of a product
  138. 138. Different forms of food
  139. 139. Weight measurement or different sizes in packages
  140. 140. Prepared, semi-prepared or basic ingredients </li></ul>SHOPPING AIDS<br /><ul><li>Ingredient Labeling- a mandatory type of labeling on all packaged food products. Ingredients are listed in decreasing or ascending quantity order. This helps consumers to make wise choices among competing brands.
  141. 141. Unit Pricing- are the price of each products that states the type and size of the food item which are positioned on the shelf edge
  142. 142. Open Dating- gives consumers important information about the remaining shelf life that can be expected or it is also known as the expiring date of the food items.
  143. 143. Bar Codes- digital numeric code printed on packages that permit scanning products for identity and price at check stands.
  144. 144. COSTING AND PRICINGStandard Yield- the net weight or volume of food items after it has been processed and made easy for sale to the guests.FORMULA: Loss/ Shrinkage/ Waste = LOSS= As purchased weight- edible portion weightNET FOOD COST- represents the portion of sales which is spent for materials or the amount spent for every peso sold.FOOD COST % = _FOOD COST_ X 100FOOD SALESSELLING PRICE DETERMINATIONCost percentage methodSELLING PRICE = MATERIAL COST/ DESIRED FOOD COST %EXAMPLE: if the cost of ingredients (raw materials) for one portion of adobo is P20.00 and the desired food cost is 40%, then the selling price will be computed as:__P 20.00__ = P50.00 .40Mark up factor methodSELLING PRICE= MATERIAL COST X MARK UP FACTORMARK UP FACTOR= 100/ DESIRED FOOD COST %EXAMPLE: Using the example above, the computation will beComputing for the Mark up Factor:_100_ 40= 2.50Getting the Selling Price:SP= 20.00 x 2.50 = 50.00SAMPLE OF A STANDARD RECIPEOUTLET: CREAM OF CORN :FILE #1PORTION SIZE:200 ML.TESTED BY: CHEF DICKNO. OF PORTION:5DATE TESTED:5 FEB. 1999COST/PORTION:P36.96 OR 37.00INGREDIENTSQUANTITYUNIT OF MEASUREUNITCOSTTOTAL COSTCream of soup base80gramsP380/ kilo30.4Milk200ml.P30/ liter6Water800ml.  Cream of Corn, canned1canP29/can29Cream30ml.P60/liter1.8  TOTAL67.2 10% BUFFER MARGIN6.72 TOTAL COST73.92   SELLING PRICE @40% FC184.8 P73.92 X 2.50     COST PER PORTION37.0PREPARATION    1. Mix water and the cream of corn.2. Add the cream soup base then stir constantly.3. Bring to a boil with constant stirring.4. Reduce heat and simmer for 5 minutes.5. Add milk, and bring to boil. Finish with cream.</li></ul>CONVERSION TABLE<br />WEIGHTS<br />1/2 ounces = 14 grams<br />2/3 ounces = 21 grams<br />1 ounce = 28 grams<br />1,000grams = 1 kilogram= 2.27 Pounds<br />1 pound = 454 grams<br />98 lbs. of flour = 1 sack<br />2 sacks of flour = 1 barrel<br /> <br />LIQUID MEASURES<br />1 tablespoon = 3 teaspoon= 14.17 grams<br />16 tablespoon = 1 cup<br />227 grams = 1 cup<br />2 cups = 1 pint<br />2 pints = 1 quart= 4 cups<br />4 quarts = 1 gallon<br />16 cups = 1 gallon<br />1 ounce = 28.35 grams<br />16 ounce = 1 pound<br /> <br />1 teaspoon = .0005 liters<br />1 tablespoon = .015 liters<br />1/4 cup = .06 liters<br /> 1/2 cups = .012 liter<br />1 cup = .024 liter<br />4 cups = 1 liter<br />1 pint = .047 liter<br />1 US quart = .94 liter<br /> <br />CHAPTER 4<br />BUYING DAIRY PRODUCTS AND SUBSTITUTES<br />MILK CHOICES<br />Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammal.<br /><ul><li>Composition of Milk
  145. 145. Lipids- or milk fat made up of triglycerides with a wide array of fatty fats
  146. 146. Carbohydrates- lactose (glucose or galactose)
  147. 147. Proteins
  148. 148. Casein- (78%); precipitates readily to form a curd using acid or the enzyme rennin
  149. 149. Whey proteins- (17%); remaining liquid which can be separated by draining the casein curd
  150. 150. Vitamins and minerals- all except vitamin C and iron; good source of calcium and phosphorus
  151. 151. Types of milk in the market
  152. 152. Fluid Milk
  153. 153. 1.1 Heat Treatment
  154. 154. Pasteurized milk- milk that has been heat treated to kill disease- causing microorganisms.</li></ul>TYPES OF PASTEURIZATION a heat treatment of milk adequate to kill microorganisms that can cause illness in people<br /><ul><li>Hold Method- pasteurization in which milk is heated to 63 oC and held there for 30 minutes before it is cooled to 7 oC.
  155. 155. HTST method- high-temperature short time pasteurization in which milk is heated to 72 oC and held for at least 15 seconds before cooling to 10 oC.
  156. 156. UHT (ultra-heat-treated)- sterilized milk that can be stored at room temperature until opened. This ultra- high temperature pasteurization; milk is heated very fast to 138 oC held for at least 2 seconds, then stored in a sterile container
  157. 157. Fat Level
  158. 158. Whole milk- possibly as high as 3.8% fat, with 160 calories per cup
  159. 159. Reduced Fat- 2% of fat, with 125 calories per cup
  160. 160. Low-fat or light milk- 1% fat, 102 calories
  161. 161. Non-fat or Fat- free milk- <0.1% fat, 90 calories
  162. 162. Flavored milk
  163. 163. Lactase- Treated Milk- lactose, the sugar in milk, is digested by lactase to form glucose and galactose in enzyme-treated milk, such as Lactaid. Lactaid is a milk which lactase has digested much of the lactose.
  164. 164. Buttermilk- this milk is made from skim milk that has been heated to 85oC for 30 mins and then fermented with lactic-acid- producing bacteria at 22 oC to produce somewhat thickened, slightly acidic milk.
  165. 165. Goat’s Milk- has stronger odor and flavor than cow’s milk, appeals to some consumers.
  166. 166. Canned Milk- processed at high temperatures for an extended period in airtight cans.
  167. 167. Evaporated Milk- about half of the water has been evaporated from the milk before canning.
  168. 168. Sweetened Condensed Milk- is another canned milk product that has had approximately half of its water removed prior to canning. This type of milk has a large amount of sugar added to it, making its caloric content very high.
  169. 169. Dried Milk- or also known as powdered milk. Powdered milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content. Another purpose is to reduce its bulk for economy of transportation. Powdered milk and dairy products include such items as dry whole milk, nonfat dry milk, dry buttermilk, dry whey products and dry dairy blends. 
  170. 170. Milk Substitute
  171. 171. There are some people who are allergic to milk protein and may need to find different dietary source of calcium. Soymilk and rice drinks are today’s possible solution in avoiding milk proteins while still obtaining useful amounts of calcium</li></ul>Milk Cookery<br /><ul><li>Reactions of Milk
  172. 172. Heat- coagulation starts at 650c (1500F).
  173. 173. Acid- accelerates curdling and coagulation.
  174. 174. Salts- Depending upon the kind and amount, also hasten coagulation.
  175. 175. Enzymes- rennin in the stomach hastens coagulation.
  176. 176. Alkaloids- hasten coagulation.
  177. 177. Effects on prolonged heating on milk
  178. 178. Scum Formation and tendency of milk to boil over due to the pressure built below the scum
  179. 179. Scorching- if milk is heated directly over fire, it tends to be scorched due to the accumulation of a film of milk protein at the bottom and side of the pan
  180. 180. Fat coalescence; the colloidal system is broken
  181. 181. Pointers in milk cookery
  182. 182. Slow heat and at temperature below boiling point
  183. 183. To avoid scum formation, use proper dilution and stir occasionally.
  184. 184. Food Handling (Milk)
  185. 185. Check the best before date or the expiration
  186. 186. Remember to use milk in the order in which you purchased it.
  187. 187. Refrigerate at 4 oC as soon as possible after purchase
  188. 188. Store milk on refrigerator shelves rather than doors
  189. 189. Remember that exposing milk to light destroys its riboflavin content and can cause off flavors
  190. 190. Keep milk containers closed and stored away from strong- smelling foods
  191. 191. Although freezing milk affects the texture, it may be frozen for up to 3 weeks with only minor nutrients and flavor loss.
  192. 192. Dry powdered milk stored in a cool, dry place will keep for up to one year. Once the package is opened, it should be used within 2 months. After being reconstituted, it should be treated the same as regular fluid milk. Always close the package tightly after opening. </li></ul>CREAMS<br />A fatty portion of milk that has risen to the surface and is separated by gravity or centrifugal force.<br />Cream is a dairy product that is composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization. In un-homogenized milk, over time, the lighter fat rises to the top. In the industrial production of cream this process is accelerated by using centrifuges called "separators". In many countries, cream is sold in several grades depending on the total butterfat content. Cream can be dried to a powder for shipment to distant markets.<br />Cream skimmed from milk may be called "sweet cream" to distinguish it from whey cream skimmed from whey, a by-product of cheese-making. Whey cream has a lower fat content and tastes more salty, tangy and "cheesy".<br />Cream produced by cows (particularly Jersey cattle) grazing on natural pastureoften contains some natural carotenoid pigments derived from the plants they eat; this gives the cream a slight yellow tone, hence the name of the yellowish-white color, cream. Cream from goat's milk, or from cows fed indoors on grain or grain-based pellets, is white.<br /><ul><li>Types of CreamFat Content
  193. 193. Half and half- 10.15- 18 %
  194. 194. Coffee Cream 18-30 %
  195. 195. Light Whipping Cream 30-36 %
  196. 196. Heavy Cream 36 %
  197. 197. Sour Cream- 18% milkfat; acid flavor abtained through the addition of lactic- acid forming bacteria.
  198. 198. Other Cream Products</li></ul>Butter is made by churning cream to separate the butterfat and buttermilk. This can be done by hand or by machine.<br />Whipped cream is made by whisking or mixing air into cream with more than 30% fat, to turn the liquid cream into a soft solid. Nitrous oxide may also be used to make whipped cream.<br />Crème fraîche (28% milk fat) is slightly soured with bacterial culture, but not as sour or as thick as sour cream. Mexican crema (or cream espesa) is similar to crème fraîche.<br />Smetana is a heavy cream product (35-40% milk fat) Central and Eastern European sweet or sour cream.<br />Rjome or rømme is Norwegian sour cream containing 35% milk fat, similar to Icelandic rjómi.<br />Clotted cream, common in the United Kingdom, is cream that has been slowly heated to dry and thicken it, producing a very high-fat (55%) product. This is similar to Indian malai.<br /><ul><li>C. Pointers in Whipping Cream:
  199. 199. Chill cream for 30 minutes to one hour at 4 0c for maximum thickening.
  200. 200. A more stiff and permanent foam is attained with higher fat content.
  201. 201. Adding sugar decreases both volume and stability of foam. Whip cream before adding sugar.
  202. 202. Different Cream Grades by Jurisdiction</li></ul>United States<br />In the United States, cream is usually sold as:<br />Half and half (10.5–18% fat)<br />Light, coffee, or table cream (18–30% fat)<br />Medium cream (25% fat)<br />Whipping or light Whipping cream (30–36% fat)<br />Heavy Whipping cream (36% or more)<br />Extra-heavy, double, or manufacturer's cream (38–40% or more).<br /><ul><li>Australia
  203. 203. In Australia, levels of fat in cream are not regulated, therefore labels are only under the control of the manufacturers. A general guideline is as follows:</li></ul>Extra light (or 'lite'): 12–12.5% fat.<br />Light (or 'lite'): 18–20% fat.<br />Pure cream: 35–56% fat, without artificial thickeners.<br />Thickened cream: 35–36.5% fat, with added gelatine and/or other thickeners to give the cream a creamier texture, also possibly with stabilisers to aid the consistency of whipped cream (this would be the cream to use for whipped cream, not necessarily for cooking)<br />Single cream: Recipes calling for 'single cream' are referring to pure or thickened cream with about 35% fat.<br />Double cream: 48–60% fat. <br /><ul><li>United Kingdom</li></ul>In the United Kingdom, the types of cream are legally defined as follows:<br />NameMinimummilk fatAdditional definitionMain usesa. Clotted cream55%is heat treatedServed as it is. A traditional part of Devonshire tea.b. Extra-Thick Double cream48%is heat treated then quickly cooledThickest available fresh cream, spooned onto pies, puddings, and desserts (cannot be poured due to its consistency)c. Double cream48%Whips the easiest and thickest for puddings and desserts, can be pipedd. Whipping cream35%Whips well but lighter, can be pipede. Whipped cream35%has been whippedDecorations on cakes, topping for ice cream, strawberries and so on.f. Sterilized cream23%is sterilizedg. Cream or single cream18%is not sterilizedPoured over puddings, used in saucesh. Sterilized half cream12%is sterilizedi. Half cream12%is not sterilizedUncommon, some cocktails<br /><ul><li>Canada
  204. 204. Canadian cream definitions are similar to those used in the United States, except for that of "light cream." In Canada, "light cream" is low-fat cream, with 5% or 6% fat. Another form of cream available in Canada is "cereal cream", which is approximately mid-way between 5% cream and coffee cream in fat content.
  205. 205. Japan</li></ul>In Japan, cream sold in supermarkets is usually between 46% and 48% butterfat.<br />YOGURT <br /><ul><li>The process of making yogurt involves culturing cream or milk with live and active bacterial cultures; this is accomplished by adding bacteria directly to the milk. Commercially made yogurt is usually made with a culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilis. Some manufacturers use Lactobacillus bulgaricus rather than L. acidophilus.Yogurt made at home is usually started by adding a dab of commercially made yogurt to boiled milk, and then keeping the mixture at 112° Fahrenheit (45° Celsius).</li></ul>KEEPING YOGURT FRESH<br /><ul><li>Refrigerate immediately after purchase. Store on refrigerator shelves
  206. 206. Seal yogurt containers well to protect the yogurt from other foods with strong odors
  207. 207. If yogurt separates and a watery liquid rises to the top, stir it if you prefer the yogurt to remain fairly thin. Otherwise, drain it off.
  208. 208. The longer you keep yogurt, the sharper the flavor will be.
  209. 209. Spoon as much as you are going to eat into a bowl. Do not return unused portions of yogurt to the original container.
  210. 210. Do not freeze yogurt—freezing affects its flavor and texture.</li></ul>ICE CREAM<br />A frozen dessert usually made from dairy products, such as milk and cream, and often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavors. It is often a mixture of cream, milk solids and flavorings into which air has been stirred.<br />Overrun means increase in the volume of ice cream because of air incorporated during the freezing process. <br />Ingredients Added in Ice Cream: <br /><ul><li>Stabilizers- helps control the rate of melting when ice cream is served and promotes smoother texture
  211. 211. Flavoring Agent- may be artificial flavoring agents or they may be added ingredients.</li></ul>Procedures in Ice Cream Making<br />Ice Cream has become such a commonality today that it can be made by large companies, or at home using a variety of ingredients and equipment from the very finest to the most inexpensive. Different ways of making ice cream have also been developed. But there is still that basic way that has been being used for years and is still used by many today. It goes as follows:<br />Milk, cream, milk solids, sugars and flavorings are blended together in stainless steel vats.<br />The mixture is homogenized, under high pressure. This involves forcing the mixture through a fine nozzle in a stainless steel valve, helping to create the desired texture.<br />The mixture is then pasteurized by heating at 82 ºC to 85 ºC for 15 seconds and then rapidly cooling it to eliminate potentially harmful bacteria.<br />The mixture is left to stand for about four hours so that it solidify's and the viscosity increases. Flavors are added during this time.<br />The mixture is then frozen and beaten. The process adds air in small cells while it creates a texture.<br />The ice cream is then packaged.<br />The ice cream is frozen at about -25ºC to allow the ice cream to harden.<br />Other Frozen Desserts<br />The following is a partial list of ice cream-like frozen desserts and snacks:<br />Ais kacang: a dessert in Malaysia and Singapore made from shaved ice, syrup, and boiled red bean and topped with evaporated milk. Sometimes, other small ingredients like raspberries and durians are added.<br />Dondurma: Turkish ice cream, made of salep and mastic resin<br />Frozen custard: at least 10% milk fat and at least 1.4% egg yolk and much less air beaten into it, similar to Gelato, fairly rare. Known in Italy as Semifreddo.<br />Frozen yogurt: a low fat or fat free alternative made with yogurt<br />Gelato: an Italian frozen dessert having a lower milk fat content than ice cream.<br />Halo-halo: a popular Filipino dessert that is a mixture of shaved ice and milk to which are added various boiled sweet beans and fruits, and served cold in a tall glass or bowl.<br />Ice milk: less than 10% milk fat and lower sweetening content, once marketed as "ice milk" but now sold as low-fat ice cream in the United States.<br />Ice pop (or lolly): frozen fruit puree, fruit juice, or flavoured sugar water on a stick or in a flexible plastic sleeve.<br />Kulfi: Believed to have been introduced to South Asia by the Mughal conquest in the 16th century; its origins trace back to the cold snacks and desserts of Arab and Mediterraneancultures.[28]<br />Mellorine: non-dairy, with vegetable fat substituted for milk fat<br />Parevine: Kosher non-dairy frozen dessert established in 1969 in New York[29]<br />Sherbet: 1–2% milk fat and sweeter than ice cream.<br />Sorbet: fruit puree with no dairy products<br />Snow cones, made from balls of crushed ice topped with sweet syrup served in a paper cone, are consumed in many parts of the world. The most common places to find snow cones in the United States are at amusement parks.<br />Maple toffee: A popular springtime treat in maple-growing areas is maple toffee, where maple syrup boiled to a concentrated state is poured over fresh snow congealing in a toffee-like mass, and then eaten from a wooden stick used to pick it up from the snow.<br />MELTDOWN PROTECTION FOR ICE CREAM<br /><ul><li>Ice cream should be the last item you put in your shopping cart.
  212. 212. Place ice cream in the freezer as soon as possible after purchase.
  213. 213. Ice cream in the freezer will maintain its high quality in the refrigerator freezer for about one month.
  214. 214. Always keep the cartons tightly closed. Desserts such as ice cream sandwiches or ice cream bars should be placed in rigid containers such as baking pans, then wrapped tightly in foil or sealed in freezer bags.
  215. 215. Keep in mind that softening or partial melting produces a coarse texture when the product is frozen. It may also cause the ice cream to shrink in volume. To minimize this problem, take ice cream from the freezer a few minutes before serving and place it in the refrigerator to soften, rather than thaw.
  216. 216. To maintain its initial quality, do not freeze melted ice cream.</li></ul>CHEESES<br />It is made from milk by forming a curd with the use of acid or the enzyme rennin, and draining the whey.<br />Cheeses are classified on the basis of their manufacturing procedures and ingredients. The basic ingredient in cheese making is milk. Pasteurized milk is used to avoid bacterial hazards. <br />PROCEDURES IN MAKING CHEESE:<br /><ul><li>Coagulating or Curdling Process
  217. 217. Coagulating or curdling the milk until it turns into curds and whey is the first step taken when making cheese. Today, cheese is curdled with a bacteria culture and a coagulating enzyme, both of which help to speed the separation of liquids and solids. The curdling process begins by warming the milk until it reaches a bacteria-free temperature. During the warming period, a coloring dye is sometimes added to produce a particular color in the finished product. Once the milk has reached a consistent temperature, the starter culture is added and the milk begins to coagulate into one large curd.
  218. 218. Removing the Whey
  219. 219. As the milk forms into a huge curd, it is stirred and cut, allowing the whey to drain off. The milk is then reheated and pressed to remove as much whey as possible.
  220. 220. Molding and Shaping
  221. 221. When the whey removal process is finished, the warm curd is molded or shaped into a cheese. Many cheeses today are shaped by using a cheese wheel or similar mold. The warm curd is poured and pressed into the molding.
  222. 222. Salting Process
  223. 223. High amounts of salt are added to cheese during or before the process of molding. Salt plays an important role in the formation of the cheeses rind or outer coating. Heavily salted cheeses will develop thick outer coatings, such as that found on swiss cheese.
  224. 224. Ripening</li></ul>Once the cheese has been molded and salted, it is allowed to ripen. Some cheeses take only two weeks to mature and others can take as long as 7-years. Temperatures remain exact during this time.<br />It is during this period when the rind of the cheese is formed. Some form naturally and others, artificially. Many cheese surfaces are treated with bacteria, alcohol, wax, oils, or water during the maturing phase to enhance flavor and coloring. Washed rind varieties, for example, are washed and brushed regularly to promote an even bacteria growth across the surface and prevent their insides from drying out. Cheddar cheeses are salted and then wrapped with cotton, after which time they are left untouched until they are mature.<br />KINDS OF CHEESE<br /><ul><li>Very hard (grating)- made principally from low- fat cow’s milk
  225. 225. Example: Parmesan, Romano, Asiago Old, Sapsago, Spalen
  226. 226. Hard Ripened Cheeses- made from pasteurized milk and subjected to the action of the lactic acid bacteria, which brings about the proper acidity of the mixture for curdling.</li></ul>Example: Cheddar, Colby, Edam, Gonda, Provolone, and Swiss<br /><ul><li>Semi-soft ripened cheeses- those with moderate content of 35- 45% and a milk fat minimum of 27- 29%
  227. 227. Example: Brick, Munster, Port du Salut
  228. 228. Soft-unripened cheeses- made from cream or from a mixture of milk; skim milk and concentrated skim milk.
  229. 229. Example: Cottage, Cream and Neutchatel (Made from USA)
  230. 230. Soft ripened cheeses- made much like semi-soft cheese, but a mold or bacteria culture is used to effect the cure and to develop necessary flavor.
  231. 231. Example: Brie, Camembert, and Limburger, Bel Paese, Neutchatel (made from France)
  232. 232. Pasta filata- have curds that are very plastic or stretch easily.</li></ul>Exmaple: Italian Cheeses like Mozzarella and Provolone<br /><ul><li>Processed cheeses- made form a single type of cheese or they may be blends of different varieties of cheeses at various stage of ripening.
  233. 233. Pasteurized process cheese- has a maximum moisture content of 43% and milk fat minimum of 27%
  234. 234. Cheese Food- has similar moisture content (44%) but is lower in milkfat (23%)
  235. 235. Cold Pack Cheese Food- has the same moisture content but is even lower in fat, 13%
  236. 236. Cheese Spread- maximum moisture content is higher (44- 60%) with minimum milkfat of 20%</li></ul>CHEESE STORAGE TIPS<br />FOR OPTIMUM flavor, allow cold cheese to warm for 30-minutes before eating. Cheese can be placed on counter top during warming.<br />NEVER store cheese with heavy, strong smelling foods. Cheese will absorb the aroma of what is around it.<br />SOFT cheeses should be wrapped in wax paper and not plastic wrap.<br /><ul><li>CHAPTER 5
  238. 238. What are protein and its function?</li></ul>Protein is a nutrient needed by the human body for growth and maintenance. Aside from water, protein is the most abundant molecule in the body. Protein is found in all cells of the body and is the major structural component of all cells in the body, especially muscle. This also includes body organs, hair and skin.[2] Proteins also are utilized in membranes, such as glycoproteins. When broken down into amino acids, they are used as precursors to nucleic acid and vitamins. Hormones and enzymes are also formed from amino acids in which they help regulate metabolism, support the immune system and other body functions. Finally, protein is needed to form blood cells. <br />Protein function in exercise<br />Proteins are one of the key nutrients for success in terms of sports. They play a major role in the response to exercise. Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, are used for building new tissue, including muscle, as well as repairing damaged tissues. Proteins, however, only provide a small source of fuel for the exercising muscles, being used as fuel typically only when carbohydrates and lipid resources are low.<br />FoodAmount ofprotein (grams)fSpirulina 1 cup64Tempeh 1 cup41Dried Parsley 1 cup31Lentils, cooked 1 cup18Black Beans, cooked 1 cup15Tofu, firm 4 oz11Quinoa, cooked 1 cup9Peanut Butter 2 tbsp8Almonds 1/4 cup8Sun-dried Tomato 1 cup8Brown rice, cooked 1 cup5Broccoli, cooked 1 cup4Potato 1 med.4Lambsquarters 1 cup4<br />Since protein plays a vital role in our health, it is very important to choose the right entrée and their ingredients. It is said that red meat is appropriate two or three times a week, but their content of saturated fat makes it wise to limit their frequency and portion sizes when planning meals. In this case, the meal planner could choose other option of protein-rich food to include in the week’s plan. <br />FACTORS IN CHOOSING MEATS AND ALTERNATIVES<br /><ul><li>Cost
  239. 239. Cut
  240. 240. Creativity
  242. 242. Expanded Polystyrene (EPS)- Synthetic materials used in making trays for retail packaging of meats.
  243. 243. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)- synthetic material that can be extruded to make films suitable to enclose meats and their trays for the retail market.
  244. 244. Centralized Packaging- large plant that prepackages meats and poultry in specialized safe packaging for distribution to many different stores.
  245. 245. Gas- Barrier trays- packaging that traps gases in the package and also prevents other gases from entering.</li></ul>THE BEEF<br />2 FEDERAL GRADES OF BEEF<br /><ul><li>USDA Choice
  246. 246. USDA Select</li></ul>Prime- top grade for beef. It is characterized by its excellent flavor, juiciness, and tenderness. <br />Primal Cuts- first cuts made on meat carcasses; cuts from which retail cuts are made. <br />-342900377190DIFFERENT BEEF CUTS<br />THE VEAL<br />Veal is the meat of young cattle (calves), as opposed to meat from older cattle. Though veal can be produced from a calf of either sex and any breed, most veal comes from male calves of cattle breeds. Veal has a tender texture.<br />-26479543180KINDS OF VEAL<br />Bob Veal, from calves that are slaughtered when only a few days old (70-150 lb.) up to 150 lb. <br />Formula-fed (or "milk-fed") veal, from calves that are raised on a milk formula supplement. The meat colour is ivory or creamy pink, with a firm, fine, and velvety appearance. They are usually slaughtered when they reach 18–20 weeks of age (450-500 lb). <br />Non-formula-fed ("red" or "grain-fed")[4] veal, from calves that are raised on grain, hay, or other solid food, in addition to milk. The meat is darker in colour, and some additional marbling and fat may be apparent. Usually marketed as calf, rather than veal, at 22–26 weeks of age (650-700 lb).<br />Rose veal UK is from calves reared on farms in association with the UK RSPCA's Freedom Food programme. Its name comes from its pink colour, which is a result of the calves being slaughtered at around 35 weeks. <br />Free-raised veal, The veal calves are raised in the pasture, have unlimited access to mother’s milk and pasture grasses. They are not administered hormones or antibiotics. These conditions replicate those used to raise authentic pasture-raised veal. The meat is a rich pink color. Free-raised veal are typically lower in fat than other veal. Calves are slaughtered at about 24 weeks of age.<br />1714500-47625THE LAMB<br />Lamb, mutton, and hogget (UK, New Zealand and Australia) are the meat of domestic sheep. The meat of a sheep in its first year is lamb; that of a juvenile sheep older than 1 year is hogget; and the meat of an adult sheep is mutton.<br />THE PORK<br />Cured- pork or beef that has been processed using heat, salt, and sodium nitrate.<br />Curing alter the flavor and color of the meat. <br />Canned Hams- commonly require refrigeration because they have not been heated to high temperature during canning process. Advantages of canned hams is that the bone has been remove to save space in the can, and apart from this, it is easy to carve into attractive slices when it is served. <br />27209751057910Fresh Pork- in the market, you could often see it on packages bundled at a centralized packaging operation. It makes it easier to see the chops or other cuts in their packages. But there are also some buyers who would request the butcher for a specific thickness, or quantity with the pork. <br />Sausages- different types: fresh, fresh smoked, cooked, cooked smoked, or dry (either semi-dry or dry). <br />Bacon and Canadian Bacon- are cured products that are popular, particularly on breakfast menu or in sandwiches. Canadian Bacon is cured pork tenderloin, contains only about a third of the fat in bacon after each is fried. It does not become crisp enough to crumble into bits for salads.<br />THE POULTRY<br />Poultry is a category of domesticated birds kept by humans for the purpose of collecting their eggs, or killing for their meat and/or feathers. These most typically are members of the superorder Galloanserae (fowl), especially the order Galliformes (which includeschickens, quails and turkeys) and the family Anatidae (in order Anseriformes), commonly known as "waterfowl" (e.g. domestic ducks and domestic geese). Poultry also includes other birds which are killed for their meat, such as pigeons or doves or birds considered to be game, like pheasants. Poultry comes from the French/Norman word, poule, itself derived from the Latin word Pullus, which means small animal.<br />Poultry is the second most widely eaten meat in the world, accounting for about 30% of meat production worldwide, after pork at 38%<br />THE FISH AND SHELLFISH<br />Fish- any gill-bearing aquatic vertebrate (or craniate) animal that lacks limbs with digits. <br />Shellfish- a culinary and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms. Although most kinds of shellfish are harvested from saltwater environments, some kinds are found only in freshwater,<br />Overfishing is a big problem nowadays. The quantity of fish are being depleted at alarming rates. The international government are being directed in controlling the quantities of endangered species that can be caught. Chilean sea bass for example, has an order to be removed from restaurant menus. Abalone harvesting have been banned along the California seacoast, and as well as salmon fishing in waters of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska.<br />THE EGGS<br />-1333580645Eggs are laid by females of many different species, including birds, reptiles,amphibians, and fish, and have probably been eaten by mankind for millennia. Bird and reptile eggs consist of a protective eggshell, albumen (egg white), and vitellus (egg yolk), contained within various thin membranes. Popular choices for egg consumption are chicken, duck, roe, and caviar, but by a wide margin the egg most often humanly consumed is the chicken egg.<br />Egg yolks and whole eggs store significant amounts of protein and choline, and are widely used in cookery. Due to their protein content, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) categorizes eggs as Meats within the Food Guide Pyramid. Despite the nutritional value of eggs, there are some potential health issues arising from egg quality, storage, and individual allergies.<br />Egg white coagulates, or solidifies, when it reaches temperatures between 144 °F and 149 °F (62.2 °C-65 °C). Egg yolk coagulates at slightly higher temperatures, between 149 °F and 158 °F (65 °C-70 °C). <br />If a boiled egg is overcooked, a greenish ring sometimes appears around egg yolk due to the iron and sulfur compounds in the egg. It can also occur when there is an abundance of iron in the cooking water. The green ring does not affect the egg's taste; overcooking, however, harms the quality of the protein. Chilling the egg for a few minutes in cold water until it is completely cooled prevents the greenish "ring” from forming on the surface of the yolk. Cooking also increases the risk of atherosclerosis due to increased oxidization of the cholesterol contained in the egg yolk. <br />Egg Substitutes- liquid or frozen egg products in which the yolk has been removed from the whites and replaced with engredients that stimulates the character of the yolk.<br />CRITICAL KEYS IN KEEPING PROTEIN-RICH FOOD SAFE:<br />Keeping microorganism populations to an absolute minimum by avoiding contamination from food handlers or unclean surfaces<br />Maintaining temperatures no higher than 40F throughout commercial handling and marketing.<br />STORAGE OF HIGH- PROTEIN FOODS<br /><ul><li>Keeping the desired temperature. (not higher than 40F)
  247. 247. Keeping it sealed.
  248. 248. Keep it labeled.</li></ul>CHAPTER 6<br />BUYING FRUITS AND VEGETABLES<br />ORGANIC- Legally defined as being produced without using growth hormones, antibiotics, or petroleum- based or sewage sludge- based fertilizers.<br />The organic products which come from animals (including milk, egg, meat, and poultry) should not have undergone any of the following treatments:<br />2 TYPES OF FERTILIZERS:<br />1. ORGANIC FERTILIZERS- Organic fertilizers include naturally occurring organic materials, (e.g. manure, worm castings,compost, seaweed, guano), or naturally occurring mineral deposits (e.g. saltpeter).<br />Benefits of organic fertilizer<br />Organic fertilizers have been known to improve the biodiversity (soil life) and long-term productivity of soil, and may prove a large depository for excess carbon dioxide.<br />Organic nutrients increase the abundance of soil organisms by providing organic matter andmicronutrients for organisms such as fungal mycorrhiza, (which aid plants in absorbing nutrients), and can drastically reduce external inputs of pesticides, energy and fertilizer, at the cost of decreased yield.<br />Disadvantages of organic fertilizers<br />Organic fertilizers may contain pathogens and other disease causing organisms if not properly composted<br />Nutrient contents are very variable and their release to available forms that the plant can use may not occur at the right plant growth stage<br />Organic fertilizers are comparatively voluminous and can be too bulky to deploy the right amount of nutrients that will be beneficial to plants<br />More expensive to produce<br />2. INORGANIC FERTILIZERS-Inorganic fertilizer is often synthesized using the Haber-Bosch process, which produces ammonia as the end product. This ammonia is used as a feedstock for other nitrogen fertilizers, such as anhydrous ammonium nitrate and urea. These concentrated products may be diluted with water to form a concentrated liquid fertilizer (e.g. UAN). Ammonia can be combined with rock phosphate and potassium fertilizer in the Odda Process to produce compound fertilizer.<br /><ul><li>Petroleum- based or sewage sludge- based fertilizers
  249. 249. Conventional pesticides
  250. 250. Ionizing radiation
  251. 251. Bioengineering</li></ul>PROBLEMS WITH INORGANIC FERTILIZERS:<br /><ul><li>Trace Mineral Depletion
  252. 252. Overfertilization
  253. 253. High energy consumption
  254. 254. Long term sustainability</li></ul>INORGANIC VS, ORGANIC <br />Organic fertilizer nutrient content, solubility, and nutrient release rates are typically all lower than inorganic fertilizers One study found that over a 140-day period, after 7 leachings:<br />Organic fertilizers had released between 25% and 60% of their nitrogen content<br />Controlled release fertilizers (CRFs) had a relatively constant rate of release<br />Soluble fertilizer released most of its nitrogen content at the first leaching<br />In general, the nutrients in organic fertilizer are both more dilute and also much less readily available to plants. According to UC IPM, allorganic fertilizers are classified as 'slow-release' fertilizers, and therefore cannot cause nitrogen burn.<br />Organic fertilizers from composts and other sources can be quite variable from one batch to the next. Without batch testing, amounts of applied nutrient cannot be precisely known. Nevertheless they are at least as effective as chemical fertilizers over longer periods of use.<br />Phytochemicals- compounds that may have protective action in the body.<br />GRADES<br />Standard grading for fruits and vegetable is set according to color, shape, defects and texture established by the USDA.<br />4 GRADES DESIGNATION:<br />US FANCY: premium produce<br />US NO.1: chief trading grade<br />US NO. 2: intermediate quality range<br />US NO. 3: lowest commercially useful grade<br />*Nomenclature is a term that applies to either a list of names and/or terms, or to the system of principles, procedures and terms related tonaming - which is the assigning of a word or phrase to a particular object or property<br />BUYING FRESH FRUITS<br />POINTERS IN DETERMINING THE QUANTITY TO BUY (FRUITS)<br /><ul><li>Amount of waste
  255. 255. Preparations to be done
  256. 256. Anticipated shelf life</li></ul>POINTERS IN SELECTING/ BUYING FRESH FRUITS<br /><ul><li>Variety
  257. 257. Condition</li></ul>*Climacteric is a term for fruit that continues to ripen after harvesting. <br />Climacteric FruitNonclimacteric FruitAppleAppricotAvocadoBananaPeachPearPlumTomatoTropical (papaya, mango)CherryCitrusFigGrapesMelonsPineappleStrawberries<br />BUYING FRESH VEGETABLES<br />POINTERS IN DETERMINING THE QUANTITY TO BUY (VEGETABLES)<br /><ul><li>Amount of trimming required
  258. 258. Length of time
  259. 259. Storage
  261. 261. Save time.
  262. 262. Can be used without further cooking.
  263. 263. Easy to thaw using microwave ovens.</li></ul>JUICES<br /><ul><li>Fruit Juice-___________________________________________________________
  264. 264. Juice Drink- __________________________________________________________
  265. 265. Fruit Nectar- __________________________________________________________
  266. 266. Juice Ade- ___________________________________________________________
  267. 267. Fruit Drink- ___________________________________________________________</li></ul>CHAPTER 7<br />BUYING GRAINS AND GRAIN PRODUCTS<br />-62738015240<br />PARTS OF A WHOLE GRAIN:<br /><ul><li>Endsoperm- is the tissue produced inside the seeds of most flowering plants around the time of fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch, though it can also contain oils and protein.
  268. 268. Bran- is the hard outer layer of grain and consists of combined aleurone and pericarp. 
  269. 269. Germ- is the reproductive part that germinates to grow into a plant; it is the embryo of the seed
  270. 270. -51435315595Brush- </li></ul>** Pericarp layers<br />The pericarp itself is typically made up of three distinct layers: the exocarp, which is the most-outside layer or peel, the mesocarp, which is the middle layer or pith, and the endocarp, which is the inner layer surrounding the hollowed ovary or the containing seeds<br />** Refined wheat flour- a wheat flour made with the bran and embryo removed from the grain<br />FLOUR<br />TYPES OF FLOUR:<br />All-purpose flour is a blend of hard and soft wheat; it may be bleached or unbleached. It is usually translated as "plain flour." All-Purpose Flour has 8% to 11% protein (gluten) . All-purpose flour is one of the most commonly used.<br />Flour that is bleached naturally as it ages is labeled "unbleached," while chemically treated flour is labeled "bleached." Bleached flour has less protein than unbleached. Bleached is best for pie crusts, cookies, quick breads, pancakes and waffles. Use unbleached flour for yeast breads, Danish pastry, puff pastry, strudel, Yorkshire pudding, éclairs, cream puffs and popovers.Shelf-Life: For cabinet storage, up to 8 months if properly stored in a sealed container or if tightly wrapped, and for refrigerator storage, up to one year.<br />Bread flour is white flour made from hard, high-protein wheat. It has more gluten strength and protein content than all-purpose flour. It is unbleached and sometimes conditioned with ascorbic acid, which increases volume and creates better texture. Bread flour has 12% to 14% protein (gluten). This is the best choice for yeast products.Shelf Life: Several months in a cool, dry cabinet when stored in a sealed container or if tightly wrapped, and up to one year in the freezer.<br />Buckwheat Flour is gluten-free which makes it a good choice for anybody with gluten sensitivities or celiac disease. It is packed with nutrients, readily available, easy to work with and has a nice nutty flavor.<br />Cake flour is fine-textured, soft-wheat flour with high starch content. It has the lowest protein content of any wheat flour, 8% to 10% protein (gluten). It is chlorinated (a bleaching process which leaves the flour slightly acidic, sets a cake faster and distributes fat more evenly through the batter to improve texture. When you're making baked goods with a high ratio of sugar to flour, this flour will be better able to hold its rise and will be less liable to collapse. This flour is excellent for baking fine-textured cakes with greater volume and is used in some quick breads, muffins and cookies. If you cannot find cake flour, substitute bleached all-purpose flour, but subtract 2 tablespoons of flour for each cup used in the recipe.<br />Gluten flour is usually milled from spring wheat and has a high protein (gluten) of 12% to 14%. It is used primarily for diabetic breads, or mixed with other non-wheat or low-protein wheat flours to produce a stronger dough structure.<br />Instant flour (Wondra from Gold Medal) is granular and formulated to dissolve quickly in hot or cold liquids. It will not work as a substitute for all-purpose flour, although there are recipes on the container for popovers and other baked goods. It is used primarily in sauces and gravies.<br />Organic flour is used in the same way as regular flour. It must follow U.S. Department of Agriculture regulations to be labeled "organic." Using this flour is a matter of personal preference.<br />Pastry flour also is made with soft wheat and falls somewhere between all-purpose and cake flour in terms of protein content and baking properties. Pastry flour (also known as cookie flour) has a protein (gluten) of 9% to 10%. Use pastry flour for making biscuits, pie crusts, brownies, cookies and quick breads. Pastry flour makes a tender but crumbly pastry. Do not use it for yeast breads. Pastry flour (both whole-wheat and regular) is not readily available at supermarkets, but you can find it at specialty stores and online. You can try to mimic it by using a 2-to-1 ratio of all-purpose flour to cake flour.<br />Rice Flour - Rice flour (also called Mochiko on Japanese and Pirinç Unu in Turkish) is a form of flour made from finely milled rice. It can be made from either white or brown rice.<br />Self-rising flour, sometimes referred to as phosphated flour, is a low-protein flour with salt and leavening (baking powder) already added. It's most often recommended for biscuits and some quick breads, but never for yeast breads. Exact formulas, including the type of baking powder used, vary by manufacturer. Recipes that call for self-rising flour do not call for the addition of salt or leavening agents.Make your own self-rising flour:  Using a dry measure, measure the desired amount of all-purpose flour into a container. For each cup of all-purpose flour, add 1 1/2 teaspoons of baking powder and 1/2 teaspoon of salt. Mix to combine.<br />Semolina flour is used in making pasta and Italian puddings. It is made from durum wheat, the hardest type of wheat grown. The flour is highest in gluten. When other grains, such as rice or corn, are similarly ground, they are referred to as "semolina" with the grain's name added, i.e., "corn semolina" or "rice semolina." There are difference grades: (1) Semolina flour is finely ground endosperm of durum wheat.(2) Semolina meal is a coarsely ground cereal like farina.(3) Wheatina is ground whole-grain wheat. (4) Durum flour is finely ground semolina and is grown almost exclusively in North Dakota.<br />Spelt flour is one of the most popular and widely available non-wheat flours. The full name of spelt is Triticum aestivum var. spelta. Spelt flour has a nutty and slightly sweet flavor similar to that of whole wheat flour. It does contain gluten and is a popular substitute for wheat in baked goods. <br />Teff flour - Teff is an ancient and intriguing grain, tiny in size yet packed with nutrition. It is simple to prepare and similar to millet or quinoa in cooking. Teff is a great addition to your diet for nutrition, taste, and variety. Teff is packed with nutrition. It is higher in protein than wheat and has a high concentration of a wide variety of nutrients, including calcium, thiamin and iron. The iron from teff is easily absorbed by the body. Since the grains are so small, the bulk of the grain is germ and brand. It is very high in fiber and is thought to benefit people with diabetes as it helps control blood sugar levels. Teff contains no gluten which makes it a suitable grain for celiacs or people with wheat sensitivities. Due to its nutritional content and energy enhancing properties, it has also gained favor with athletes. <br />Whole-wheat flour (also called graham flour) is made from the whole kernel of wheat and is higher in dietary fiber and overall nutrient content than white flours. It does not have as high a gluten level, so often it's mixed with all-purpose or bread flour when making yeast breads. Whole wheat flour is equivalent to British whole meal flour. Shelf Life: 6 months to one year in the freezer if stored in tightly sealed plastic containers or if tightly wrapped. It will keep for only a few months if stored in a cabinet. Due to the presence of the wheat germ, resulting in unsaturated oil content that is higher than refined flour. The potential for rancidity is greater if whole-wheat flour is kept for long periods and particularly if it is not stored under refrigerated conditions. It is best to store whole-wheat flour in a tightly sealed container in the refrigerator or freezer.<br />** Wheat gluten is a protein complex formed from gliadin and glutenin during dough formation.<br />ENRICHMENT<br />Enriched flour is flour with specific nutrients returned to it that have been lost while it was prepared. <br />According to the FDA, a pound of enriched flour must have the following quantities of nutrients to qualify:<br /><ul><li>2.9 milligrams of thiamin,
  271. 271. 1.8 milligrams of riboflavin,
  272. 272. 24 milligrams ofniacin,
  273. 273. 0.7 milligrams of folic acid, and
  274. 274. 20 milligrams of iron. </li></ul>The first four nutrients are B vitamins. Calcium also may be added at a minimum of 960 milligrams per pound.<br />BREAD<br />It is a staple food prepared by cooking a dough of flour and water and often additional ingredients. Doughs are usually baked, but in some cuisines breads are steamed (e.g.,mantou), fried (e.g., puri), or baked on an unoiled skillet (e.g., tortillas). It may be leavened or unleavened. Salt, fat and leavening agents such as yeast and baking soda are common ingredients, though bread may contain other ingredients, such as milk, egg, sugar, spice, fruit(such as raisins), vegetables (such as onion), nuts (such as walnuts) or seeds (such aspoppy). Referred to colloquially as the "staff of life", bread has been prepared for at least 30,000 years.<br />TYPES OF BREAD:<br />White bread is made from flour containing only the central core of the grain (endosperm).<br />Brown bread is made with endosperm and 10% bran. It can also refer to white bread with added colouring (often caramel colouring) to make it brown; this is commonly labeled in America as wheat bread (as opposed to whole wheat bread).[8]<br />Wholemeal bread contains the whole of the wheat grain (endosperm and bran). It is also referred to as "whole grain" or "whole wheat bread", especially in North America.<br />Wheat germ bread has added wheat germ for flavoring.<br />Whole grain bread can refer to the same as wholemeal bread, or to white bread with added whole grains to increase its fibre content, as in "60% whole grain bread".<br />Roti is a whole-wheat-based bread eaten in South Asia. Chapatti is a larger variant of roti. Naan is a leavened equivalent to these.<br />Granary bread is made from flaked malted wheat grains and white or brown flour. The standard malting process is modified to maximise the maltose or sugar content but minimise residual alpha amylase content. Other flavour components are imparted from partial fermentation due to the particular malting process used and to Maillard reactions on flaking and toasting.<br />Rye bread is made with flour from rye grain of varying levels. It is higher in fiber than many common types of bread and is often darker in color and stronger in flavor. It is popular in Scandinavia, Germany, Finland, the Baltic States, and Russia.<br />Unleavened bread or matzo, used for the Jewish feast of Passover, does not include yeast, so it does not rise.<br />Sourdough bread is made with a starter.<br />Flatbread is often simple, made with flour, water, and salt, and then formed into flattened dough; most are unleavened, made without yeast or sourdough culture, though some are made with yeast.<br />BREAKFAST CEREALS<br /><ul><li>Excellent source of nutrients
  275. 275. Inexpensive
  276. 276. Convenient to prepare</li></ul>RICE<br /><ul><li>Brown Rice- rice that has not been polished to remove the bran.
  277. 277. Sticky rice- or also known as glutinous rice. This type of rice is usually preferred when the diner is using chopsticks.
  278. 278. Basmati and Jasmine- classified as aromatic rice. This type of rice has elevated levels of acetylpyroline, a natural flavor component of all varieties of rice.
  279. 279. Della Rice- represents a cross between basmati and regular- long grain rice. It is sometimes identified as popcorn, texmati or similar names.
  280. 280. Arborio- medium grain from Italy.
  281. 281. Koshihikari- a Japanese short- grain rice. This variety of rice and Arborio work well in risotto and paella. </li></ul>SEMOLINA PRODUCTS<br />Semolina (sem oh LEEN ah) [Alteration of Italian semolino, diminutive of semola, bran, from Latin simila, fine flour, ultimately of Semitic origin.]<br />1. A hot breakfast cereal made of the endosperm of soft wheat<br />2. A wheat product cooked and used primarily for baby food and the elderly<br />3. Any coarse ground grain, i.e. rice semolina, corn semolina<br />4. Gritty by-product the flour made from durum wheat used primarily in making pasta<br /> <br />Couscous (KOOS-koos) [French, from Arabic kuskus, from kaskasa, to pulverize; Berber, k'seksu, of Semitic roots.]<br />1. A hand rolled pasta made of semolina popular in  the Maghreb countries (Morrocco, Tunisia, Algeria)<br />2. A dish of the same name in which couscous is prepared and steamed over a soup or stew primarily of chicken or lamb with vegetables<br />Semolina is the endosperm or heart of the durum wheat kernel - a hard wheat variety with very high gluten content and high protein to carbohydrate ratio. Durum wheat is more coarsely ground than other flours.  The milling process separates the endosperm from the rest of the grain. <br /> <br />Durum flour is finely ground semolina (endosperm).  It's amber colour is what imparts the rich yellow typical of semolina pasta which is produced industrially by extruding or forcing the firm dough through metal dies to create the many shapes available.  It produces a very resilient product that can stand up to the pasta making process and retain its shape in cooking, even if overcooked. <br />Couscous is made from durum wheat semolina before it is ground even finer to make durum flour and is a unique pasta favoured in the Maghreb (Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria).   It also refers to a dish of the same name in which the grains of semolina are prepared in several steps consisting of dampening the grains with handfuls of water and working them between the hands to break up clumps into ever smaller granules. Eventually these granules are placed in a couscousiere, a two part pot containing the couscous in the upper part that has fine holes in its bottom.  This is set over the lower part in which a delicious soup usually of chicken or lamb with vegetables is cooked. Couscous, the dish, can also be made of cracked wheat.<br />CHAPTER 8<br />BUYING OTHER FOODS<br />FATS AND OILS<br />Excessive consumption of fats and oil can lead to various health problems. In this chapter, it will introduce us in selecting various types of oils and fat that we could use for cooking, baking, frying and for making salad.<br /><ul><li>TABLE SPREADS
  282. 282. Butter
  283. 283. Margarines
  284. 284. Olive oils
  285. 285. FATS FOR BAKING
  286. 286. OILS</li></ul>SWEETENERS<br /><ul><li>SUGARS
  287. 287. SUGAR SUBSTITUTES AND SWEETENERS</li></ul>SEASONINGS<br />SALAD DRESSINGS<br />SPREADS<br />CHAPTER 6<br />SETTING THE TABLE<br />FLATWARE- refers to table utensils used to serve and eat food, such as forks, spoons, butter knives and plates, all of which are fairly flat in design. <br />TYPES OF FLATWARE:<br />It is usually made of:<br />1. Silver<br />a. Sterling Silver- often characterized as pure silver. The price of sterling silver is higher than silver plate because of its greater silver content. Oftentimes, they add small amount of copper in this type of flatware. <br />b. Silver Plate- made of electroplating individual pieces of flatware that have been stamped from an inexpensive but durable metal. <br />2. Stainless Steel- it does not tarnish unlike silver flatwares. This is a hard metal that makes it particularly suited to crafting simple designs. Most stainless steel flatware creates a less formal appearance than silverwares. It requires normal washing procedures for it cleaning. <br />3. Gold- Colored Flatware<br />a. Dirilyte- a gold-colored metal that is an alloy of aluminum, copper and nickel. An attractive choice to go with porcelain trimmed with gold. <br />b. Vermeil- a gold-plated flatware containing some gold in the alloy. <br />What is an alloy?  It is a homogenous mixture or metallic solid solution composed of two or more elements<br />DINNERWARE- is the general term for the dishes used in serving and eating food, including plates and bowls. In British English the term crockery is used, and the term dishware is not widely understood.<br />FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN SELECTING DINNERWARES<br />1. Cost<br />2. Durability<br />3. Design Features<br />OTHER SELECTION FACTORS:<br />1. Open Stock<br />2. Coupe Design<br />3. Glassware and Flatware to be used<br />TYPES OF DINNERWARE:<br />1. Porcelain- Hard, bone, and soft china made from slightly different materials and fired to high temperature. It is also known as china. <br />PROCESS OF MAKING PORCELAIN<br />1. Grinding<br />2. Washing<br />3. Mixing of ingredients. Ingredients are mixed with water to form “slip.”<br />a. Bone Porcelain- made from kaolin, feldspar, and bone ash (calcium phosphate). The bone ash helps in fusing the dinnerware during firing. It gives pleasingly soft, rather than brittle, appearance, and also promotes the translucency and durability that are desired in hard paste porcelain. Soft porcelains are characterized by their creamy color and soft look and made from white- firing clays mixed with fusible silicate such as frit of glass, sand, or finely ground china. <br />b. Underglazed Porcelain- this Underglazed porcelain can be identified by a slight roughness of the glaze above the design. Designs are likely to have soft rather than sharp outlines.<br />c. Overglazed Porcelain- in this type of porcelain, the glaze is applied and fired before the design is applied and the piece is fired again. The second firing is at lower temperature than is used for underglazed porcelain. It has an advantage when it comes to the design and ease in manufacturing. But then its overglazing could have possible damage to the design details because of the greater exposure of the design and the need to firing to fuse the design into the glaze. <br />What is overglazing? It is the method of design application used most commonly today. <br />2. Stoneware- dinnerware that is usually informal and heavy. Slightly porous texture imparts a casual mood to the table setting. <br />3. Earthenware- is a rather broad category embracing a variety of products. Ironstone is fine hard earthenware with good handling characteristics and a fine appearance. Earthenware has no set of formula materials, but it is characterized best as mixtures of clay. It is typically less massive in appearance and weight than stoneware.<br />4. Other Materials- other dinnerware are made with plastic. The characteristics of plastic dishes are softer than ceramic tableware. Some could withstand high temperatures in dishwashers. Plastic dishes are susceptible to by sharp knives. Stainless steel, pewter, and silver are also possible choices for dinnerware. Pewter is a malleable metal alloy, traditionally 85–99% tin, with the remainder consisting of copper, antimony, bismuth and lead. This type of dinnerware is easy to maintain. It is relatively modest in cost and attractive designs. Enamelware offers opportunity for different color choices. Its greatest limitation is its susceptibility to chipping. Chipped enamelware detracts greatly from bold, contemporary look. Sometimes wood can also be used as a material in dinnerware. But its uses are limited to salad bowls or liners.<br />CARE OF DINNERWARE: <br />1. Should be handled carefully<br />2. Mild detergents are useful for washing dishes decorated with gold and platinum. <br />3. Scraping and rinsing promptly are helpful practices in washing dinnerwares. <br />4. Soaking plates helps loosen particles when food dries in the plate. <br />5. Metal scouring pads and abrasive cleaners should not be used. <br />GLASSWARE- is susceptible to breakage than the other components of a table setting. <br />Stemware- footed glassware mounted on a glass stem.<br />Selecting Glassware:<br />1. Color<br />2. Texture <br />3. Design<br />Components in Design:<br />1. Basic shape of the glass<br />2. Design details<br />LINENS- these are choice of table coverings that add general tones in a meal. <br /><ul><li>Place Mats- heavy fringed or deeply hemmed is placed to the table edge; narrowly hemmed is laid 1 ½ inches away from the table edge; standard sizes is 18 x 24 inches but there are variety of shapes and designs.
  288. 288. Tablecloths- covers the entire surface of the table with 10-16 inches overhang for a sit down dinner and floor length for a buffet table; back overhang for a presidential table is 12- 14 inches, front is floor length.
  289. 289. Silence Cloth- heavy pad of material such as flannel, thin foam of felt placed underneath tablecloths to improve the appearance of the tablecloths, protect the table from hot dishes, and deaden the sounds of plates and serving dishes when laid on the table.
  290. 290. Runner- long narrow strips of materials used on bare tables laid either across the length or across the width.
  291. 291. Top cloth- small pieces of materials placed on top of tablecloths; protects the tablecloth and eliminate the need for changing the large tablecloths more frequently.
  292. 292. Napkins- open edges should face plates</li></ul>- BREAKFAST: 9- 12 in2<br />- DINNER: 18 in2<br />- TEA: 9- 12 in2 for merienda or snacks<br />- COCKTAIL: 4-6 in2<br />MATERIALS: Linen, damask, cotton, rayon, paper, native fibers.<br />Selecting Linens<br />a. Durability<br />b. Occasion, service, versatility<br />c. Attractiveness<br /> <br />CARE FOR TABLE LINENS<br /><ul><li>Alcoholic beverages- blot excess liquid with an absorbent towel and soak in cool water. Vinegar rinses as 15 minute intervals may be used for stubborn stains.
  293. 293. Meat drippings and blood- blot the excess and soak in cold water. Rub by hand with a detergent until the stain is removed before subjecting it to normal laundering.
  294. 294. Candle wax- solidifies the wax with ice and then uses a dull table knife to scrape off the extra wax. Then sandwich the waxy area of the cloth between layers of paper towels and press with a warm iron. The heat of the iron will soften the wax, permitting it to be absorbed by the paper towels.
  295. 295. Chocolate and cocoa- wash and scrub the stain in cold water, using a detergent. Follow this treatment with washing in hot water.
  296. 296. Coffee- rinse well with cold water. Remove any remaining stain by scrubbing the spot by hand, using cold water and liquid detergent. Rinse this out and then pour boiling water through the cloth into the sink, holding the container of water approximately water through the cloth into the sink, holding the container of water approximately 2 feet above the cloth. Care must be taken to avoid splashing hands with the boiling water.
  297. 297. Cream- before washing in cold water, scrape off any excess. A hot water washing with detergent is the final step.
  298. 298. Egg- follows the procedure used for removing cream.
  299. 299. Fruit- wash the spot with cold water before second washing in hot water. Persistent stains can be treated with bleach if the fabric can handle this treatment without damage.
  300. 300. Gum- Chill thoroughly with ice and carefully scrape off as much as possible with a dull table knife. Cleaning fluid probably will be needed to sponge the area before it is washed.
  301. 301. Mustard- treats with liquid detergent before rinsing in cold water. Follow with a washing in hot soapy water.
  302. 302. Rust- dip affected area in solution consisting of a tablespoon of oxalic acid crystals in a cup of very hot water. Continue dipping the fabric until the spots disappear.
  303. 303. Tea- uses the same treatment as for coffee.</li></ul>CENTERPIECES<br />Centerpieces are to provide a focal highlight in table setting. Careful consideration in choosing the appropriate centerpiece in every occasion, or function should be well thought-out. <br />In choosing the centerpiece in table setting, we should consider:<br /><ul><li>Color
  304. 304. Line
  305. 305. Proportion and
  306. 306. Design</li></ul>Most Commonly Used Centerpiece<br /><ul><li> Flower Arrangement
  307. 307. Candles
  308. 308. Fruits and Vegetables</li></ul>SETTING THE TABLE<br /><ul><li>Cloths and Mats
  309. 309. Napkins</li></ul>7 BASIC NAPKIN FOLDS<br /><ul><li>Pyramid Fold
  310. 310. Sailing Boat Fold
  311. 311. Banana Fold
  312. 312. Candle Fold
  313. 313. Bishop’s Hat Fold
  314. 314. Fan with Stand Fold
  315. 315. Lotus Fold</li></ul>OTHER SPECIAL NAPKIN FOLDS<br /><ul><li>Bird of Paradise
  316. 316. Shirt Fold
  317. 317. Flatwares
  318. 318. Glassware
  319. 319. Dinnerware</li></ul>THE FORMAL TABLE SET-UP <br /><ul><li>Serviette (Napkin)
  320. 320. Service Plate (Dinner Plate)
  321. 321. Soup Bowl on Plate
  322. 322. Bread and Butter plate with butter knife
  323. 323. Water glass
  324. 324. White wine
  325. 325. Red wine
  326. 326. Fish fork
  327. 327. Dinner fork
  328. 328. Salad fork
  329. 329. Service knife
  330. 330. Fish knife
  331. 331. Soup spoon
  332. 332. Dessert spoon and cake fork</li></ul>Cover- individual place setting<br />Charger- large plate placed at a cover to decorate it, but food is not placed on it.<br />Liner- Plate placed beneath a soup bowl or other small dishes to facilitate serving<br />CHAPTER 7 <br />METHODS OF MEAL SERVICE<br />COMPONENTS OF A COMPLETE DINING EXPERIENCE<br /><ul><li>Décor and atmosphere
  333. 333. People who serve
  334. 334. Food and its presentation
  335. 335. The art of service</li></ul>INFORMAL STYLES OF MEAL SERVICE<br /><ul><li>Blue- Plate Service- simple method of service; plates for the salad and entrée are filled in the kitchen and placed on the table before guests are seated.
  336. 336. A meal is served from the right side.
  337. 337. Blue plate- a plate that is divided into sections
  338. 338. In American culture, it refers to relatively cheap budget meals consisting of one serving of meat and three servings of vegetables.
  339. 339. Cafeteria Setting
  340. 340. Same as Tray service the difference is that they uses tray in tray service.
  341. 341. Family Service- dinner plates are stacked in front of the host, who serves them and passes them to the adjacent diner to pass down the table to the hostess or others. This type of service is also known as compromise service.
  342. 342. Family style meal service allows participants to eat together and to make food choices based on individual appetites and food preferences
  343. 343. Family style meal service can be conducted in a variety of ways. For example, participants may help in preparing for the meal by clearing the table and setting places, sharing conversation during the meal, and cleaning up after the meal.
  344. 344. Sufficient amounts of prepared food must be placed on each dining table or be readily available to provide the full required portions of all food components for all participants and any adults supervising and eating the meal at the table. Readily Available means: All required food components, in amounts sufficient to offer each participant and supervising adult a full portion of each food item, must be available.</li></ul>Family style meal service allows participants to make choices in selecting foods and the size of the initial servings. Participants should initially be offered the full required portion of each meal component, but may choose less. <br />All required meal components are placed on the table at the same time. <br />Participants may serve themselves from serving dishes that are on the table.<br />Adults supervising the meal help those participants who are not able to serve themselves.<br />Participants are allowed to make choices selecting foods and in the size of the serving. <br />A supervising adult is seated at each table to actively encourage participants. The supervising adult offers the food item again later in the meal if participants initially refuse the food or take a very small portion. Adult staff should model good eating habits while supervising participants at the dining table.<br /><ul><li>American Service- empty plates are at each cover; serving dishes are passed for diners to serve themselves.
  345. 345. Also known as plated service
  346. 346. Complete meal is prepared in the kitchen and brought by the waiter
  347. 347. Foods are served from the right side of the guest
  348. 348. Dishes are covered to keep the food warm till it reaches the guest.
  349. 349. Cutleries are already arranged at each cover.
  350. 350. Buffet Service- diners take a plate at the buffet table and serve themselves before proceeding to sit down to dine.
  351. 351. Good for entertaining large group
  352. 352. Buffet table- a table which is arranged to help guest serve themselves as they proceed along the table.
  353. 353. Beverages sometimes are placed at the end of the buffet table so they can be picked up after diners have finished serving themselves. </li></ul>FORMAL STYLES OF SERVICE<br /><ul><li>English service- a formal servi