Laingsburg an indepth look at the town


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Laingsburg an indepth look at the town

  1. 1. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN CA... Page 1 of 72 RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATEDVULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN CAPE PROVINCE Chapter 2 Central Karoo: Laingsburg Prepared by: Charles Wyeth and Alan WebbPrepared for: Provincial Administration: Western Cape, Department of Social Services, Directorate: Poverty Alleviation Date: 14 July 2002mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  2. 2. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN CA... Page 2 of 72RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN CAPE PROVINCE Contact Persons: Charles A Wyeth Strategic Innovation Group CSIR Manufacturing and Materials Technology P.O Box 320 Stellenbosch 7599 Tel: +27 21 888 2400 Fax: + 27 21 888 2696 E-Mail: Alan Webb Enterprise Development Centre CSIR Manufacturing and Materials Technology 15 Lower Hope Street Rosebank 7700 Tel: +27 21 685 4309 Fax: + 27 21 689 1726 E-Mail: and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  3. 3. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN CA... Page 3 of 72 FOREWORDThe CSIR is the premier technology and research organisation in Africa. It is committed to innovation,supporting sustainable development and economic growth and creating value for our clients, partnersand stakeholders.As a national asset, the CSIR provides technology solutions and information to support sustainabledevelopment and economic growth in the context of national priorities.As a Knowledge Intensive Technology Organisation, the CSIR provides its services through multi –disciplinary project teams sourced from the CSIRs nine operating divisions, or from experts located inpartner organisations. Our multi- disciplinary approach means that CSIR is able to address complexproblems using the integration of the different skills and resources of our staff and partners, to providesolutions to complex, multi-faceted problems and other challenges.This report has been drafted by a core team of scientists, researchers and business developmentspecialists, with additional inputs from the following persons:Core Team:Charles Wyeth CSIR – Innovation and Business Development Group (Manufacturing and Materials Technology)Alan Webb CSIR – Enterprise Development Centre (Manufacturing and Materials Technology)Bernadette Brown CSIR - EnvironmentekSadi Luka CSIR – Technology for DevelopmentDave Harcourt CSIR - BiochemtekOther Contributors:At Kruger CSIR – EnvironmentekSteve Button CSIR – Innovation and Business Development Group (Manufacturing and Materials Technology)Andries Naude CSIR – Roads and Transport TechnologyEmma Maspero CSIR – Roads and Transport TechnologySekokoko Lekalakala CSIR – Enterprise Development Centre (Manufacturing and Materials Technology)Godfrey Moses CSIR – EnvironmentekEsbeth van Dyk CSIR – Roads and Transport TechnologyAdrian Simmers CSIR – EnvironmentekMaryke Meerkotter University of the Western CapeCharlene Biggs University of the Western CapeThe CSIR would also like to acknowledge the contribution of the survey staff who participated in thedoor-to-door Household Survey in each of the towns visited, particularly the individuals from thosetowns.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  7. 7. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN CA... Page 7 of 721. INTRODUCTIONThe Central Karoo is the largest and poorest region in the Western Cape. It is sparselypopulated and distances between towns are great. Although the Karoo is a vast semi-desertarea, it is one of the worlds most interesting arid zones. The total population of the CentralKaroo District is about 56500, with a Gross Regional Product of only R581 million. The twoleading sectors in the regional economy are agriculture and tourism.Beaufort West in the biggest town in the region, with an estimated population of 31522, or justunder 56% of the regions population. The other major towns in the region are Prince Albert,Murraysburg and Laingsburg.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  8. 8. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN CA... Page 8 of 722. LAINGSBURG2.1 BACKGROUNDLaingsburg is a small town situated on the banks of the Buffelsriver in the Central Karoo about200km from Cape Town. It is well known for the 1981 flood that devastated a large part of themain town, although little evidence of the flood remains.Laingsburg was originally established as a service centre for rural agriculture and rail transport.Both these sectors are in decline in terms of economic activities, and the advances incommunication technology and road transport have resulted in redirecting much of theeconomic activity to larger centres such as Cape Town and George.The National Road from Cape Town to Johannesburg (N1) bisects the town, and isresponsible for generating a significant portion of the town’s income.The town is currently structured into 4 sections:• Centralised ‘Oudorp’ including the main business areas• Nuwe dorp on the Western bank of the river• Bergsig, an RDP housing development on the western extreme of the town• Goldnerville on the eastern extremeIn addition, the area includes farmland as well as the settlements of Matjiesfontein (hotel and28 houses) and Konstabel (3 houses). The Ou & Nuwe dorp settlements are predominantlywhite, whilst Bergsig and Goldnerville are predominantly inhabited by the coloured community.The black population is very small, at +/- 20 persons.The town has:• Municipal Offices• Office of the Dept of Agriculture• Traffic Department• Police Station• Magistrates Court• Post Office• 22 Bed Hospital with ambulance and Helicopter landing. 8 nurses and one doctor.• Railway Station• Two public schools (180 pupil Model C and 710 pupil Primary)• School hostel accommodating +/-80 pupils• One small Christian (ACE) private school with ± 15 pupils• 3 Nursery Schools• Old age home (nominally integrated) accommodating ± 40• Sports stadium• Golf course• Caravan park• Mortuary2.2 BIOPHYSICAL FEATURESmhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  9. 9. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN CA... Page 9 of 722.2.1 RainfallThe Laingsburg municipal area is situated in a transitionary rainfall region. The southern areasreceive winter rainfall (250 – 300 mm per year, the central region (Moordenaars Karoo)receives less than 100 mm per year and these rainfall “events” may occur in either winter orsummer. Fortunately, the composition of the vegetation allows for some growth days inreaction to either summer or winter rainfall. The northern region, also known as the Koup inlocal vernacular, receives predominately summer rainfall, but the rainfall is very low (150 mmper year). There are several mountain ranges in the district, and at altitude, annual rainfall maybe as high as 700 mm per year. In addition, snow occurs on the mountains. As a result, thereis subterranean water available in the lower lying areas.2.2.2 WatershedsThree watersheds occur in the region. The Matjiesfontein watershed diverts most of the winterrainfall away from the Laingsburg municipal demarcation. The little rainfall that does occur inthe summer rainfall region is diverted by the Dwyka watershed and flows out of the district viathe Dwyka River. Fortunately, the rainfall in several of the high altitude regions, flows throughthe district via the Vleilands, Buffels and Baviaans rivers.2.2.3 AltitudeAltitude in the region varies from approximately 750 to 1500 m amsl. As a result, the wintertemperatures are low.2.2.4 SoilsThe underlying geology is primarily sedimentary. The sandstones giving rise to sandy soils oflow inherent fertility and the finer particle shales resulting in soils of higher clay content.Unfortunately, the severity and nature of the 1981 flood resulted in most of the fine particle,fertile alluvial soils in the immediate vicinity of the town being eroded and deposited furtherdownstream. Therefore, more than 20 years after the event there are still negativeconsequences for urban agriculture in Laingsburg.2.2.5 VegetationThe vegetation (Karoo veld) is sparse and does not carry much nutrients, and results in anaverage carrying capacity of 10 ha per one sheep.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  10. 10. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 10 of 722.3 SOCIO – DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES2.3.1 Profile of the populationBased on the 1:5 door – to – door household survey conducted by the CSIR, Laingsburg has apopulation of about 4457 people, excluding those individuals who reside on the surroundingfarms (falling within the boundaries of the town). This figure compares favourably with the 1996Census estimation, which estimated the towns population at 3654. Statistics South Africa(1996) estimated the population of the magisterial district to be 5913, including Matjiesfontein,with a population of 140. Laingsburg Population 2007 Females 2450 MalesThe previous graph indicates the relative numbers of males versus females in the town. As canbe seen, 45% of the towns population is male, and 55% female. This unequal genderdistribution is normal for rural areas, where economically active males tend to leave the townfor long periods in search of work in the big cities.From the graph below, it can be seen that nearly 47% of the towns population fall outside ofthe prime economically active population segment (18 to 50). This situation places immensepressure on the (employed) economically active.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  11. 11. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 11 of 72The population of the town is not equally distributed within its boundaries, and the highestconcentration of people is located in Goldnerville, an area covering only 15% of the town’s totalsurface area, but housing 54% of its people. The graph below provides a breakdown of thepopulation according to the four main parts of town. Suburb population distribution 327 425 Goldnerville Bergsig Oudorp 2427 1278 Nuwedorp2.3.2 Health StatusAccess to health care facilities and adequate nutrition in Laingsburg is a major problem, asnearly 20% of the towns population is either physically or mentally challenged, or sufferingfrom chronic illnesses. This places immense pressure on the 8 nurses and one doctor whowork at the 22 - bed hospital in the town. A primary health care clinic operates from thehospital, and treats some 2000 patients each month. The clinic staff also visits the outlyingareas, where they see an additional 60 persons every two weeks. It should however be notedthat health care is merely one of the determinants of health, along with housing, sanitation andaccess to safe drinking water. Fortunately the level of service provision in the town is of a highstandard, and most families have access to, albeit crowded, formal housing.Laingsburg has no chemist or pharmacy, which increases the cost of treatment for patients, asthey have to visit the only doctor in town to secure prescriptions for medication.Given that 883 of the 4457 people in the town are over the age of 50, the incidences of chronichigh blood pressure, diabetes and other ailments associated with elderly people are relativelyhigh.The following graph compares the number of chronically ill versus the total population. In thisgraph, P/MC refers to physically or mentally challenged persons, and CI refers to Chronically illpersons.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  12. 12. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 12 of 72 Challenged persons Healthy Population 705 P/M C 194 CI 3558A further cause of concern in Laingsburg is the current high levels of malnutrition andinadequate eating patterns of the poorer people, particularly the residents of Bergsig, who onaverage only eat protein two days per week. This supports information provided by the clinic,indicating a high level of treatment for malnourished children. The graph below provides a veryvivid picture of the nutritional shortcomings in the diets of the poorer segments of thepopulation. It also indicates that Carbohydrates are the staple foods of the town.In the following graph, and subsequent references to the abbreviations, GV refers toGoldnerville, BS to Bergsig, OD to Oudorp, and ND to Nuwedorp. Laingsburg Suburb Nutrition Average 8 Days per week GV 6 BS 4 OD 2 ND 0 d o n g it ie u a rb Ve Fr Tr ot Ca PrThe Laingsburg Clinic is short staffed and requires an additional Primary Health CareProvider. The Sister in charge of nutrition is willing to be trained for this position but the fundsare not available. There are a number of cases of Foetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) beingtreated at the clinic, an unfortunate consequence of the high level of alcohol abuse in thetown.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  13. 13. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 13 of 722.3.3 Literacy LevelsThe graph below indicates that whilst most of the town’s adult population is literate, there arestill several hundred adults who are not literate. In this report, literate refers to persons beyondthe age of 16 years who (by their own definition) are able to read and write. Even though thesurvey did not explore the competency levels of those individuals who identified themselves asbeing literate, some of the stakeholders visited indicated that the overall level of education isextremely low, and most people are probably only able to do basic reading and writing. Adult Literacy levels 2000 1500 Total 1000 Literate 500 0 Adult Females Adult Males Formal Education • Primary and Secondary Schooling The town has two public schools, with a combined total of 890 pupils, and a small private Christian school with only 15 pupils. The secondary school has a hostel, which accommodates +- 80 pupils. Cold drinks and sandwiches are provided daily for the Grade 1 – 5 pupils. Generally, education levels of the townsfolk are very low, as only 7.7% of the adult population has formal secondary schooling. In addition, only about 100 people have any form of tertiary education. The high school has a high attrition rate, with increasing numbers of pupils not completing their secondary schooling.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  14. 14. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 14 of 72 600 Number Female 400 Male 200 0 Primary Tertiary Level completed • Tertiary Education. The town has no tertiary educational institutions, nor any institutions filling a tertiary education function.No (local) bursaries or scholarships (from the Local Authorities or other (local) sources) existat present for promising students to study further. There are also no incentives for theseyoung people to bring their skills back to Laingsburg on completion of their studies. Informal Education • Day-care/crèche/pre-primary schooling. Goldnerville has a nursery school with 79 pupils, and 5 staff members (3 of whom are teachers). The school is funded by the WCED and a grant from the Dept. of Social Services. Children here receive three meals daily. • ABET programmes. Notwithstanding the fact that nearly 50% of the townsfolk are illiterate, the majority of whom are adults, no formal or informal ABET programmes are being conducted by any institutions in Laingsburg.There is a lack of Basic Life Skills Training, including alcohol and drug abuse counselling,coping skills, financial planning (budgeting and saving money earned), and dealing withsexual harassment and HIV/AIDS education and prevention strategies. These are all issueswhich urgently need to be addressed, although no government departments or otherinstitutions (e.g. NGOs) are currently providing these services.Very few extramural activities are on offer to keep the youth of the town occupied and tobroaden their minds. What activities there are, are run through the High School for their pupilsthereby excluding those that do not pursue secondary education.There are no programmes in place to encourage the training and employment of women.Such programmes would not only improve the self-image of women and contribute to birthcontrol, but financially independent women may be able to leave abusive environments.2.3.4 Social Assistance and Welfare Grant Beneficiaries2.3.4.1 IntroductionA unique feature of the income patterns of Laingsburg is the high level of households living offsocial and welfare grants. From the graph below it can be seen that only 745 people receive awage, compared with the 1511 that receive some form of social/welfare assistance.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  15. 15. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 15 of 72 Income type Other Income Source UIF Pension Social Grants Remittances Wages 0 200 400 600 800 Number of households2.3.4.2 Municipal GrantsAbout 562 households receive the Municipal Services Equitable Share Grant (MSES Grant)each month, which ranges from R85 to R96, depending on the perceived level of need withineach household. Government Pensions220 Individuals of qualifying age receive Old Age Pensions of R620 per month from theGovernment. For many households, including those with individuals of an economically activeage, this represents the only form of household income. Disability Grants282 people receive these grants. Foster –Care Grants22 Individuals receive a monthly foster – care grant of R450. Child Support Grants407 young mothers receive a monthly grant of R100. It is reported that teenage girls see thechild support grant as an incentive to have a child, as it increases their potential income byR100 per month. Civil PensionsAbout 14 people receive Civil pensions or other forms of company pensions.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  16. 16. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 16 of 722.3.4.8 Care Dependency GrantsFour persons receive a monthly Care Dependency grant of R620.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  17. 17. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 17 of 722.4 ECONOMIC FEATURES2.4.1 IntroductionAs stated in the introduction to Laingsburg, the town was originally established as a servicestation to the surrounding agricultural areas, as well as the railways. Unfortunately, bothsectors have been in decline over the past few years, and together with changingcommunication patterns, is resulting in decreasing use of the town as a regional centre.There are only a handful of formal businesses in the town, none of which are organised intoany formal Chamber of Commerce. The main town has four bottle stores and only two foodshops (OK and a Superette). The other businesses include a general dealer, Pep stores and abutcher. There is no Pharmacy. In general shopping is very limited, and many of the wealthierresidents shop in other towns such as Worcester and Beaufort West.There are two banks – Standard and ABSA (which has an auto teller). Two white owned microlending agencies operate in the town, and charge between 13 & 30% interest (per month!).There are two hotels and at least one guesthouse.Goldnerville and Bergsig have a few mobile & home shops, as well as a number of Shebeens,reportedly 25 in Goldnerville, and 9 in Matjiesfontein (where there are 28 houses in total).Agriculture remains the dominant economic activity, and consists mainly of extensive smallstock grazing (Dorper and Döhne Merino sheep). The district produces an estimated 80 000sheep carcases per annum. Approximately 50% of this annual yield is marketed andprocessed outside the district. A small amount of wool is still produced in Laingsburg district. Dorper Döhne Merino• Sheep Farming: As stated earlier, most carcasses are sent away to Maitland; Beaufort West & Ceres as there are only 2 small abattoirs in the vicinity. As a result, no skins are processed locally. Due to the poor vegetation, farms are extensive and have a low sheep population density. Wool production is not a priority, but wool is also sent away.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  18. 18. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 18 of 72Dorper is the main type, but some merino are also found. Angora is probably also suited to the area.• Fruit Farming: There is a 50 km stretch in the Vleiland area SW of the town, which gets water from the Floriskraal Dam, as well as a 20 km stretch north (Moordenaars Karoo) of the town. These are the traditional fruit farming areas, which produce apricots, peaches and plums. Due to poor infrastructure, the fruit is damaged in transport, so most is dried on the local farms. Some grapes are produced, and sent to de Doorns for processing.• Seed Farming. For the past 6 years, the above area is also being increasingly utilised for seed production on a contract basis for a European Co who supply the feedstock and technology. Main products are onions, chard, pumpkin & beetroot.Work is very scarce, only at the garages, hotels and on the farms. Farm work is seasonal andlow paid R 70 –R130 per week. It is furthermore difficult to break into this work, as mostfarmers use the same workers each year. People travel as far as Tulbagh to look for work inthe fruit season.2.4.2 Employment And UnemploymentAs stated earlier, employment opportunities are extremely scarce, and limited to the garages,hotels, farms and the few other small businesses located in the town. The limited businessesand declining economic activities consequently results in a high unemployment rate (37%),which is double the provincial average of 19%. Unemployment 37% Employed Unemployed 63%It should furthermore be noted that employment opportunities appear to be skewed in favour ofmales, as can be gleaned from the following graphs, 34% of males are unemployed, asopposed to 39% of females.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  19. 19. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 19 of 72 34% Male Employed Male Unemployed 66% Female Unemployment Female Employed 39% Female Unemployed 61%From the graph below it can also be seen that the level of self-employment is almost non-existent, indicating a very low capacity of the people to generate employment opportunities forthemselves. Employment FE – Female Employed FSE – 600 Female self – 500 employed FUE - female 400 unemployed ME – Male 300 employed MSE – Male 200 self employed 100 MUE – Male unemployed 0 FE FSE FUE ME MSE MUE CategoryIt should also be noted that for the sake of this study, it was resolved that only people receivinga monetary remuneration would be considered as being employed. All others, e.g. Housewiveswould be considered as unemployed. The graph above does however distort the employmentmhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  20. 20. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 20 of 72situation somewhat, as can be seen in the graphs below. These graphs indicate that onlyabout half the employed people are employed on a full-time basis. Seasonal and part-timework together account for nearly half of all employment, and indicate that incomes are not ashigh as they would have been should people have been employed on a full-time basis. Female Employment FS 18% FFT FFT FPT 52% FS FPT 30%In both these graphs, FFT refers to Females Full time employed, FPT refers to females part-time employed and FS refers to Females seasonally employed. The same definitions apply tomales, where the M replaces the F. M ale Employment MS 18% MFT MPT MFT MS MPT 54% 28%2.4.3 Income LevelsIncome levels in the town vary considerably, with some families earning below R250 permonth, and others earning above R5000. Statistically, Bergsig is the poorest part of town,where the average income is only R687.84 per household per month. In Goldnerville, theaverage monthly household income is R876.49, and this compares with R1623.15 in Oudorp,and R1508.68 in Nuwedorp. The graph below provides a breakdown of the residents incomebased on selected categories.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  21. 21. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 21 of 72 %residents in income group 60.0 50.0 40.0 Goldnerville Bergsig 30.0 Oudorp 20.0 Nuwedorp 10.0 0.0 R 250 R 500 R1 R2 R3 R5 R 000 000 500 000 5000+A further breakdown of the income distribution in the town reveals that 66% of the town’spopulation earn below R1000 per month. Income Distribution 250 5000 250 500 4% 5000+ 1000 3500 9% 6% 2000 4% 500 15% 3500 2000 5000 25% 1000 5000+ 37%2.4.4 Consumption PatternsAnother way of assessing the poverty in Laingsburg is reviewing the income expenditurepatterns of the local residents. With 67% of the towns population earning below R1000 permonth, expenditure is largely based on the purchasing of basic foodstuffs and payment formunicipal services. The next graph provides a breakdown of expenditure per residential areato the expenditure type of the residents. As can be seen, very few households have anydisposable income for recreation or savings once the costs of food and services have beendeducted from their income.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  22. 22. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 22 of 72 1400 1200 Expenditure 1000 800 600 Ave 400 GV 200 BS 0 ng OD e g er t eb in yl ND th vi st av D Li O fe S ic Li as BFrom the following graph, it can be seen that on average, households spend about 70% oftheir income on basic living expenses, which in this instance is nearly entirely attributable tofood and municipal services. The rate of payment for municipal services in the town is high.Very few people have any kind of formal savings (mainly bank and endowment policies). Only4% of households currently save any money. Expenditure Patterns 11% Basic Living 4% 2% Lifestyle 12% Saving 71% Debt Other2.4.5 CommentaryAs indicated by the Poverty and Inequality Report, extreme inequality can be a major obstacleto development within a community/society. Such is the case in Laingsburg, where oneindividual owns most of the most profitable (and biggest) businesses in the town. In addition,land ownership patters are also highly skewed in favour of specific individuals. This limits thepotential of other residents to effectively participate in entrepreneurial initiatives and thebroader local economy. It further limits the proper functioning of a local market economy,resulting in market failure, albeit it, at a local level.As a key stakeholder in local development processes, the Local Authority and governmentmhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  23. 23. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 23 of 72needs to create scope for a freeing up of the resources of the town (natural, institutional,economic and other), to at least create some possibilities for the participation of a largernumber of people in the economic affairs of the town.As can be seen from the graph on Types of Employment in the town, there is an extremely lowlevel of Self Employment and personal income generating activities taking place. This needs tobe addressed as a matter of urgency, as the people themselves will have to play a bigger andmore direct role in initiating and implementing local economic development interventions intheir town.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  24. 24. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 24 of 722.5 CREATING COMMUNITY ASSETS: INFRASTRUCTURE DELIVERY2.5.1 IntroductionLaingsburg is in the very fortunate position that much of the town’s “engineering” infrastructuralneeds have already been met, or programmes are currently being implemented to ensure thatthese services, such as water reticulation, sanitation, electricity supply and refuse removal willbe supplied within the foreseeable future.2.5.2 Water ProvisionAll residential erven and sites have access to at least one water point per site. Water is of agood quality, and managed and monitored by the local municipality.2.5.3 SanitationAll sites have access to waterborne sanitation. All other forms of sanitation (e.g. VIP - latrinesand buckets) in both coloured areas, viz. Bergsig and Goldnerville, have been converted toflush toilets.2.5.4 Electricity SupplyEskom, through the Municipality is the supplier of electricity, and all households have accessto electricity.2.5.5 HousingOver the past five years, 317 houses have been built in Laingsburg. Nearly all these houseshave been funded through the Housing Capital subsidy scheme of the national department ofhousing. The town still plans to build another 450 low-income houses over the next five years,in so doing providing an asset to many of the poorest residents of the town.2.5.6 Streets And StormwaterMost of the streets in the Ou- and Nuwe-dorp are tarred, together with the main commercialstreets in the “business” area. Although most of the streets in Bergsig and Goldnerville are nottarred, concrete kerbing is being installed to prevent degradation of the road surfaces and“protection” of the sidewalks.2.5.7 Community FacilitiesAs stated earlier (2.3.2) the town has a clinic and small hospital, in addition to a library, policestation and post office. A Multi-purpose community centre is currently under construction,which could provide a venue for the delivery of various community services, such as a crèche,frail – care services and a venue for social events.2.5.8 CommentaryThe Municipality has done an outstanding job in providing the necessary infrastructure (forwhich it is responsible) to all the residents of the town, and this is evident in the high level ofmhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  25. 25. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 25 of 72services currently available.The Municipality furthermore provides a monthly “Equitable Share Grant” to poor households,a grant which essentially provides a R85 to R96 subsidy on services to qualifying residents.Currently, 562 households receive this grant, which remains a vital affordability tool forresidents to have access to these basic services. Many residents would not have access to theservices currently offered (water, sanitation, refuse removal and electricity) were it not for the“Equitable Share” Grant.The provision of these basic services to nearly all households in Laingsburg has gone a longway in alleviating absolute poverty in the town, and provides residents with a certain minimumbasic quality of living.The high level of municipal services provision in the town is perhaps evident of theMunicipality’s capacity to access CMIP and other funding sources for infrastructure projects.Whilst fulfilling a necessary function, these infrastructure projects also provide income toresidents during the construction and implementation phase. Such public works/infrastructureprojects do however often only provide short – term injections of money into the localeconomy, but do not materially improve the overall level of economic sustainability of the town.The Municipality therefore needs to start placing as much emphasis on initiating sustainablejob creation and local economic development interventions.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  26. 26. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 26 of 722.6 CREATING COMMUNITY ASSETS: SOCIO-INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK2.6.1 IntroductionWhilst the Local Authority has been good at delivering the infrastructural services for which it isresponsible, the provision of social support services at a community or household level has notkept pace with the needs of the community. Notwithstanding the dire need for various services,very few organisations are currently active in the town. The only agency that seems to beactive in the town is the Child and Family Welfare Society, a Dept. of Social Servicessupported institution, although their work is hampered by lack of space, support and interest.The following community forums/committees have been formed:• Multi Purpose Centre committee• Police Forum• Health committeeThere are small offices of both the ANC and the DA in town, although the feeling is that neitherare very effective. The ANC Women’s League is also very active in the area of HIVcounselling.From the graph below it can be seen that membership and participation in church/religiousstructures is very high, and highlights the potential role that the church could play in drivingand supporting development initiatives in the town. %participation in Community Structures 100.0 90.0 80.0 70.0 Goldnerville 60.0 Bergsig 50.0 Oudorp 40.0 30.0 Nuwedorp 20.0 10.0 0.0 H S M H S R B C C U B E LU AT LU R R TH U O C .W .C O H .F TS C C H M O R IG M S PO O E N C SA major point of concern in the town is the large number of shebeens. According to the latestpolice figures, there are seventy-three shebeens in the town. The police are by all accounts, atpresent, unable to deal effectively with this issue. There is no system of regulation or meansmhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  27. 27. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 27 of 72of controlling the quantity of alcohol sold or to whom it is sold.2.6.2 List Of Institutions And RolesDept. of Agriculture The department has two representatives (one clerk and an extension officer) in town who provide information and support to farmers in the area. Limited impact – mainly for white farmers.Dept. of Social Services The department has one full-time social worker (Ms Snyders) who deals with many of the day-to-day complaints and social issues troubling residents. She is supported by a second social worker (who although based in Beaufort West), handles all court – related social cases. From September 2001 to March 2002 there were 67 new cases added to their existing case load of 257.Police Forum Responsible for initiating the first “Community Garden”, the Forum maintains an interest in broader community – development initiatives.Child & Family Welfare Soc. Two people are currently employed by this organization. They have 6 projects on the go at the moment. These are "Die Karoolelies" (club for aged); Reach Out (an HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention project); Alcohol and Drug abuse prevention project; Sewing project; Pre-primary school ("die Donald Duck kleuterskool"); Youth project ("om die jeug lewensvaardighede te leer"). They have many people that volunteer their time and services for many of the projects, and reach between 300 and 400 people through these projects.Alcoholics Anonymous Provides support to alcoholics and their families. Limited impact, not really active in prevention programmes.Sisters Bond A women’s group in Goldnerville that provides support to the needy.Local ANC office Provides information to the community and caters mainly for the Coloured Community. Very limited impact.Local DA Office Provides information to the community and caters mainly for the White Community. Very limited impact.ANC Women’s League Provides a soup kitchen and sandwiches for the aged.School Governing Body addresses school related problems, mainly complaints about school fees and uniforms. Limited to learners, their parents and staff of the respective schools.Churches & Church Groups There are 6 churches in town. The potential impact of the churches and church groups is enormous, although the churches do not appear to be very active in the community, and do not appear to have any significant projects currently in implementation.3. MOST VULNERABLE GROUPS3.1 IntroductionFrom the information gathered in Laingsburg, it is very difficult to assess who the mostvulnerable groups are. Poverty is widespread, and not limited to any specific part of town, orracial group. As far as the accumulation of assets is concerned, the distribution of wealth ismhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  28. 28. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 28 of 72highly skewed in favour of the White residents, although this should be viewed against the factthat current income levels across the town remains low. As can be seen from 2.3.4, there arehouseholds of both the Oudorp (36%) and Nuwedorp (21%) who live off a monthly income ofless than R1000 per month.Based on age and income as well as economic and social vulnerability, the followingvulnerable groups have been identified:3.2 Children Younger Than Seven Years OldIn a community with many single, unemployed mothers, the basic nutrition and health careneeds of young children is often not adequately addressed. Inadequate nutrition andupbringing results in impaired mental and physical growth and development of the child,resulting in further problems being experienced later in life. There are 683 children under theage of seven living in Laingsburg, representing 15% of the total population of the town.Children are exposed to domestic and “community” violence, physical and mental abuse,especially in households where alcohol and drugs are being over - consumed. Children arealso often left alone or in the care of relatively unknown people when their parents go to workor in search of work. This increases their risk to sexual and physical abuse, both of which arereported in Laingsburg. Children are entirely dependent on others for the provision of theirbasic needs, making them probably the most vulnerable population group.Mothers of these children receive a R100 State grant, and it is reported that this often servesas an incentive to young girls to have children. The mothers also have access to “free” healthcare at the local clinic and hospital, where it is possible to receive support for malnourishedand sick children.3.3 Old Age PensionersNearly all the households headed by elderly people receiving government pensions have noother forms of income, and are consequently only receiving the R620 income per month. Inaddition, many have very low levels of education, and in the case of the aged in Goldnervilleand Bergsig, are illiterate and poorly skilled. This further exacerbates their vulnerability, as theyare unable to secure worthy employment (should such opportunities be available).Furthermore, many of those who are chronically ill or disabled have difficulties accessinghealth care and other essential facilities, due to impaired mobility, which is exacerbated by alack of public transport in the town. Given that there are 391 (9%) people over the age of65years, many of who suffer chronic illnesses, this group is particularly dependent on socialand welfare services and support.3.4 Children Aged Eight To Sixteen YearsThere are nearly 800 children in Laingsburg who fall into this “school-going” category. Neitherthe children, nor their parents receive any direct welfare support from the State. Many of theyoung who are subjected to high levels of poverty often resort to begging and crime.3.5 Physically And Mentally Challenged PeopleTwo hundred and eighty two government Disability Grants are paid out by the State inLaingsburg. There are no formal support programmes or structures for disabled persons, evenmhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  29. 29. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 29 of 72though 5.6% of the population is physically and/or mentally challenged. Many of these people,nearly all of who are unemployed, only receive the R620 disability grant.3.6 Female-Headed HouseholdsWithin Laingsburg, males are more likely to find employment (53%) than females (50%). Inaddition, males often receive higher wages for the same work, than females do. Furthermore,unemployed females with dependents are more vulnerable than unemployed females withoutdependents, both of whom are more vulnerable than employed females with and withoutdependents. According to the South Cape District Municipality, 29.19% of households areheaded by females.3.7 Male Headed HouseholdsEven though males appear more likely than females to secure employment in Laingsburg(2.3.3) incomes in the town are low for both men and women. In addition, it should be notedthat both unemployed males and female who have dependents, are more vulnerable thanunemployed males and females without dependents.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  30. 30. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 30 of 724. DEVELOPMENT PLANS AND OTHER PROJECTS4.1 IntroductionThe draft IDP has been completed, and has the potential to truly involve all residents in the “participatory planning process to achieve future goals b.m.o the integration of sectoral strategies to realize the optimal allocation of scarce resources in an orderly, manageable and sensible manner, for the purpose of sustainable development, equity and empowerment of all residents.”Once established, the IDP Forum could play a leading role in facilitating different social andeconomic development interventions in the town. Given that the purpose of the IDP process isto alleviate and eradicate poverty, strengthen the local economy, create sustainableemployment opportunities and expand the reconstruction and development process in thetown, the IDP Forum should take on this leading role in driving the various social anddevelopment processes in Laingsburg.Laingsburg is in the fortunate position that Council maintains a positive bank balance, as wellas a fund for any “disasters” that may occur in the future. The Municipality also has anambitious project list, and hopes to secure funding from external sources, particular othergovernment departments to pay for those priority projects.The IDP lays the foundation for all development planning and prioritisation in the town, andguided by the towns vision and mission statement, seeks to steer the town towards anequitable and sustainable future. The town has close links with the Central Karoo DistrictMunicipality, as well as the District’s PIMMS initiatives. This bodes well for positioning of thetown with one of its biggest stakeholders.Whilst many of the initiatives identified in the IDP go a long way in identifying what should bedone to support socio-economic development, few concrete plans or initiatives are identifiedthat will realise the dreams and vision of the townsfolk.4.2 National GovernmentVarious programmes initiated by the National Government but being implemented throughProvincial Government departments are currently in implementation across the province; theseinclude the Integrated Sustainable Rural Development Programme (ISRDP) and theConsolidated Municipal Infrastructure Programme (CMIP). Projects funded by theseprogrammes, but being implemented through the relevant provincial government departmentsare reflected in section 2.8.3.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  31. 31. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 31 of 724.3 Provincial Government4.3.1 HealthThe Western Cape’s Department of Health is currently in the process of renovating andextending the buildings at the local hospital, but does not (at this stage) appear to have madeany provision for additional nursing staff for the hospital. Whilst the extra facilities will benefitthe community, one of the highest needs of the community is extra staff, as people have towait very long for help. This project will not have any job creation or poverty relief impact, asthe workers needed for the building work will be the currently employed staff of the ProvincialDepartment of Public Works.4.3.2 EducationThe Department of Education does not have any projects planned for Laingsburg.4.3.3 HousingThe Department of Housing intends to construct an additional 450 “RDP” houses in Bergsigover the next three years. One hundred units are budgeted for the 2002/3 financial year, andan additional 270 houses in 2003 and 2004.4.3.4 Planning and Local GovernmentThe provincial Department of Planning and Local Government acts as a conduit through whichfunding from the treasury is channelled into local authorities for “Transformation” and otherspecial capacity building programmes. CMIP funding is currently being used for the upgradingof the oxidation ponds (R152 000), Water pipeline rehabilitation (R47 000) and roads andstorm water upgrading (R1.3 million).4.3.5 Transport and Public WorksNotwithstanding the fact that Laingsburg has a high need for a Rapid Response Unit to dealwith the high level of accidents within 20km of the town, apparently neither the Department ofTransport nor the local authority have any plans for the provision of said services within thenext three years.4.3.6 AgricultureThe Department of Agriculture has an extension office with two staff members located inLaingsburg. The extension officers provide technical support as well as information to farmersin and around Laingsburg.4.3.7 Economic Development and TourismThe Department of Economic Development and Tourism does not have any projects plannedfor Laingsburg.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  32. 32. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 32 of 724.3.8 Social Services and Poverty AlleviationThe Provincial Department of Social Services is responsible for the funding andimplementation of the Multi Purpose Community Hall (in Bergsig). It has budgetaryresponsibility for the payment of the various social grants paid to eligible residents, and fundsthe two social workers who operate in the town. In addition, the department also providesfinancial support to the Child and Family Welfare Society, the Karoo Lelies club for the aged,the local crèche in Goldnerville as well as the Old Age Home in the Oudorp.4.3.9 Cultural Affairs and SportThe Department of Sport and Recreation does not have any projects planned for Laingsburg.4.3.10 Other Government DepartmentsNo other Provincial Government departments were identified that have any plans or projectsplanned for Laingsburg for the next three years.4.4 DISTRICT MUNICIPALITYA number of initiatives that will impact Laingsburg have been identified in the IDP of theCentral Karoo District Municipality. The Tourism Forum and Tourism Marketing Programme inparticular have the potential to increase the visibility of the town, and in so doing, encouragemore people to visit Laingsburg. This is however a medium to long – term intervention, and willnot lead to direct job creation within the short – term, or for that matter contribute tosustainable economic growth without additional supportive interventions being undertaken.Other initiatives such as the Flood Route (and its marketing) and the Small FarmerEmpowerment initiative do however contribute to “economic value” of the town, and need to besupported.4.5 LOCAL GOVERNMENTThrough the IDP process, the Municipality has identified a number of projects that it hasidentified as most addressing the needs of the community, and potentially improving the qualityof life of the majority of the residents. Nevertheless, it should be noted that at this stage, (June2002), funding for only the upgrading of the street lighting and street and storm water controlhas been secured. It is hoped that funding from provincial and national governmentdepartments will be secured for the remaining projects.4.6 OTHERSBased on the information obtained, no other institutions were identified as planning anyprojects for Laingsburg.4.7 COMMENTARYThe Development Strategy presented in the Laingsburg IDP is based on the vision ofmhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  33. 33. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 33 of 72“advancing, increasing and maintaining the standard and quality of living of the greaterLaingsburg community”. Whilst the IDP lists ten different performance areas for achieving thisvision, it provides little concrete plans for “identifying the economic limitations and opportunitiesto stimulate the local economy in a sustainable manner”.In the opinion of the CSIR project team, the forty or so projects identified in the IDP willcertainly lead to an increase in the quality of living of the town’s residents, by improving theengineering infrastructure in the town. It will however have very limited impact on the overallstandard of living of the town’s residents. In fact, the team has no reason to believe that theprojects identified will stop the current situation of negative economic growth and migrationfrom the town. There needs to be a stronger, more focused and proactive look at revitalisingthe local economy of Laingsburg. The Municipality needs to invest more money, time and effortin this function, to ensure that future infrastructure investments are not wasted on a “dying”town.The IDP Forum (identified in the IDP) has the potential to address all the issues raised hereinin a comprehensive and integrative manner, and all attempts to launch this local structureneeds to be encouraged as a matter of extreme urgency.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  34. 34. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 34 of 725. DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT INTERVENTIONS: SOCIAL5.1 INTRODUCTIONIt is noted that the success of most “economic” interventions recommended herein depend onparallel “social” processes taking place. Laingsburg is a town heavily influenced by a culture ofalcohol and drug abuse, symptomatic of a sub-economic environment. According to some localstakeholders, a “Culture of Poverty” is entrenched in the minds of many residents, and thereappears to be a philosophy that the Government grants are enough to live on and there is nopoint to working.Unless these social ills can be treated simultaneously with the implementation of any of therecommended projects and interventions, little will change. The Laingsburg Community needsto proactively engage development, reject alcohol and drug abuse and those who sell thoseproducts, and instead embrace gainful employment and its resulting rewards. The fracturedsocial environment must be mended and residents need to agree on common goals and beprepared to work together to achieve those goals.5.2 YOUNG CHILDRENOne of the key challenges facing young children, particularly those in the pre-school goingyears, is the high level of malnourishment. This is partly attributed to the lack of knowledge ofparents, particularly young mothers about basic nutrition, but primarily a result of an inability ofparents to buy food. Interventions are required that will improve the basic nutrition of children,to prevent any long-term damage to their personal and physical development.5.3 OLD AGE PENSIONERSThere is a need in the predominantly coloured “suburbs”, for a facility for the aged.The town only has one old age home, which according to the local residents, caters mainly forthe white community. Pensioners who live with their children often find their pensions beingused as the only source of income in the household. In many instances, children also stealsome of their parents money. Given the governments latest policies in dealing with the aged, itis recommended that a frail care centre or similar amenity providing basic services to the agedbe established. Another major problem experienced by the aged and frail is a lack of access tothe limited facilities available in Laingsburg. A subsidised taxi service would solve this problem.5.4 DISABLED PERSONSDisabled persons find it very difficult to seek and secure gainful employment, not only becauseemployment opportunities themselves are limited, but also because of potential employersattitudes towards physically and mentally challenged persons. There are no support structuresin Laingsburg for this group, and disabled people often have to secure the help of churchmembers, neighbours and strangers (often at great cost) to get from point A to point B. Likethe aged and frail, access to services in town is difficult and expensive, and some form ofpublic transportation would go a long way in dealing with this problem.5.5 UNEMPLOYED FEMALESOf the economically active population, unemployed females (with dependents) are probablythe most vulnerable. Job creation is really the only sustainable solution to problemsmhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  35. 35. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 35 of 72experienced here. There is however, a need for some form of support structures or groups tobe established to help women cope with the pressures of being unemployed and withoutincome.5.6 UNEMPLOYED MALESNotwithstanding the fact that unemployed males are probably less vulnerable than some of theother groups identified, it should not distract one from the fact that wages throughout the areaare very low, and all unemployed people are vulnerable to poverty. Even employed peopleoften do not have the means to sustain themselves and their families. Economic growth andjob creation represents the only real tool for breaking the cycle of poverty.All strategies that therefore seek to create jobs, improve the nutrition of the poor, deliverservices such as water, sanitation and electricity will therefore contribute to addressing themost basic needs of the poor.5.7 RECOMMENDATIONSWithin Laingsburg, religion and politics play a leading role in influencing people’s behaviour.Both the churches and the political parties are visible in the town, although some of thestakeholders interviewed have questioned the impact of either. Church leaders in particular arerespected for their position, and could play a vital role in driving specific developmentinterventions.Based on the information gathered during the socio-institutional scan, as well as the focusgroups, the need for the following key social support interventions was identified. The listbelow also includes the names of individuals who were identified by the CSIR as localresidents who could play a valuable role in implementing any of the interventions listed below.• Training and capacity building in nutrition and child care. Any initiative of this type could be spearheaded by Sister Jenny Duimpies of the clinic.• Further education and training (FET). Messrs Eygelaar and Essau of the local schools could be valuable drivers of any programme of this nature.• Entrepreneurial skills training and development. Mr Eygelaar (High School Principal), Mrs Myburgh (ex- community development facilitator), Inspector Augustyn (SAPS) and Cpt. Dyantji (SAPS), especially given their experience with the community vegetable gardens project.• Life skills training. Rev. F Kietas has experience in dealing with youth training and development initiatives.• The creation of a Forum for the sharing of lessons learnt and success stories within the community, as well as between different communities. Mr B Kleinbooi of the Laingsburg Municipality could play a vital networking and relationship building role in this regard.• Special Youth Enrichment and Development programmes for local residents. Rev F Kietas (Roman Catholic Church).• Incentive schemes for encouraging further learning. Mr Gouws (the mayor), Mr Essau and Mr Eygelaar.• The creation of an “Awards and Recognition Scheme” within the town to honour and praise outstanding individuals and groups. Mr Williams (the mayor).• Establishment of a nutrition supplementation programme (vegetable gardens). Cpt.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  36. 36. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 36 of 72Dyantji (SAPS) and Sister J Duimpies (clinic).• Training and capacity building associated with alcohol and drug abuse. Rev. E April, Rev. F Kietas, Sister Duimpies.• Construction of a trauma centre (at the police station). Cpt. Dyantji (SAPS).5.8 HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITYHousehold Food Security can be simply stated as “the right of all households to the right foodfor a life with dignity”. It is generally accepted that this requires the continuous availability offood, the accessibility of this food by the household and a conducive household andcommunity environment.This view is included in the Department of Health’s Integrated Nutrition Programme( which states: “Many factors contribute to the development of malnutrition. Some direct causes of malnutrition are disease, illness, poor health and poor/incorrect food intake. Underlying causes of malnutrition include: a household’s inability to access food needed for a healthy active life; poor care of members of the household, particularly mothers and children; an unhealthy environment; and poor access to clean water”There is much literature available on this complex subject – a good starting place is probablythe United Nations’ document entitled “System-Wide Guidance on Household Food Securityand Nutrition” published in October 2000, that contains the figure below( indicates the complexity of the issues and allows the impact of the proposals contained inthis report to be considered and to understand constraints on poverty alleviation.Many of the proposals are focussed on improving purchasing power so as to improve accessto the food that is widely available in Laingsburg (see second column of figure). The first phaseof the vegetable garden proposal focuses by giving direct access to nutritious fruit andvegetables for families at risk of malnutrition. The infrastructure proposals are aimed atimproving purchasing power while improving the overall environment.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  37. 37. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 37 of 72The figure above also indicates all the other issues that need to be in place e.g. the socio-economic and political environment, health and sanitation and care practices. A particularconcern is the care practices, where the Participlan indicated overall community problems aswell as substance abuse that would clearly impact here. Just as nutrition will not improve, theproposals addressing poverty in this report will fail if these constrains are not addressedOn the other hand Health and Sanitation is well addresses with all houses having piped waterand waterborne sanitation and some of the proposals will improve on food safety and qualityand nutritional aspects of healthcare.5.9 PROPOSED INTERVENTIONSThe following interventions represent the opinion of the CSIR Domain Specialists, who visitedLaingsburg, and the short overviews of each intervention are intended to provide interestedstakeholders with sufficient information to consider further studies or pilot implementation ofthe proposals presented.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  38. 38. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 38 of 72 PROPOSAL 1 ESTABLISHMENT OF VEGETABLE AND FRUIT TREE GARDENSBackgroundVegetable gardens have been used throughout South Africa as development vehicles for boththe rural and urban poor since the late eighties. These gardens were originally (mainly in thedrought of the late eighties) established to improve the nutrition of poor families. Thesegardens often succeeded when success was measured as the improved intake of vegetablesby the household.Later community gardens were established to allow the individual users the opportunity togenerate income. When evaluated against this objective, these gardens have been much lesssuccessful and there have been few long - term (more than 3 seasons sustainable operation)successes. The main cause of this is that projects have been set up with groups/individualswith low commercial capacity and poor infrastructure. Under these circumstances, the gardenswere unable to generate sufficient income from sales to cover all the input costs (e.g. pumpingenergy, maintenance seeds, fertiliser) required to run the garden, and have subsequentlyfallen into disarray.The food garden established in Laingsburg is an example or a garden that failed. Informationcollected during the Rapid Review was conflicting, including non-representativity, theft,vandalism and market limitations. These reasons need to be confirmed, unpacked andaddressed as the first phase of any centralised garden in Laingsburg.The flagship project in Beaufort West gives further background on the constraints on theestablishment of vegetable gardens. In this case, the garden was established with 40 of themost needy women in the town and aimed at income generation with the objective of attainingfinancial sustainability. The project has been through many changes and adjustments and isstill not sustainable although it now employs less than ten people and has expanded intochickens and other products, and is strongly supported with “grant” funds and inputs. TheDepartment of Health currently coordinates the projects and has a case study that any futureprojects should be built on.In addition to these nearby examples, much experience and literature is available. The bestpractices therein should be integrated into the design of any intervention to ensure that failurescommon to many garden projects do not occur in Laingsburg. It must be noted that this mayresult in projects that are not financially sustainable without some grant input.In South Africa the Limpopo Province has considerable experience in the establishment ofcommunity vegetable gardens for both nutrition and income generation. Ms Marjorie Mongwethe Deputy Director of Nutritional Services in the Northern Province Department of Health (015291 2798) is currently completing a study on this which will be available on request.A recent in depth review of food-based interventions by the International Food Policy ResearchInstitute stated that: “This review shows that increasing the availability of foods rich in vitamin A and iron by encouraging households to tend home gardens and to raise small animals and fish is a popular approach. Increasingly, the food-based strategiesmhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  39. 39. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 39 of 72 combine a variety of intervention components. A key to success appears to be the inclusion of a strong nutrition education and behaviour change intervention. For example, strategies to promote increased production of micronutrient-rich foods are more effective when combined with a nutrition education intervention, which ensures that increased household food supply and income translates into improved dietary quality. Proper processing and storage of plant products, in order to retain vitamins and minerals and to extend the time when fruits and vegetables are available—through drying, for example—are other ways to boost consumption of essential nutrients year-round.” Marie T. Ruel; Can Food-Based Strategies Help Reduce Vitamin A and Iron Deficiencies?; International Food Policy Research Institute; Washington, D.C.; December 2001;and provides reference to the original information.The Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) has large amounts of information on householdgardens e.g. Agriculture, food and nutrition for Africa - A resource book for teachers ofagriculture; Food and Nutrition Division; Food And Agriculture Organization Of The UnitedNations; Rome; 1997 and should be consulted in intervention design.JustificationThere is both land and water available for significant production of a range of vegetables andfruit. Implementation could involve the establishment of a range of solutions that provideappropriate community members with opportunities for improving their nutrition, as well as theirincome (albeit to a lesser extent).It is proposed that the production of vegetables and fruit is introduced in a phased process thatresults in a range of opportunities being created for the townsfolk. This phased approach willbe of a developmental nature, and recommends a development path for people as the marketsfor the vegetables and fruit change.The existing gardens established by the Food Garden Foundation could form the basis of anutrition based household intervention. Currently there appears to be an opportunity for anextension of the growing season, which is currently limited. Vegetable production will bereviewed from a horticultural viewpoint and a set of products developed with the Department ofHealth’s nutritional input that will maximise food availability to the household. An area ofapproximately 10 m2 per household is recommended for the production of vegetables,excluding any staple food production, for nutrition supplementation.Should this “first phase” be successful, a second phase could be initiated, in which people withproven capacity could focus on replacing vegetables supplied into Laingsburg. The local needswill be evaluated and plans developed to produce as much as possible of the currently“imported” vegetables. This would most likely be through the establishment of larger gardenswhere jobs would be created on a much larger scale. These larger gardens will requirepreparation, fencing, and provision of a water supply. According to the Department of PublicWorks they should be sized to provide a minimum of 2 square meters per person and wouldcost of approximately R25 000 per hectare to establish. It should be noted that this data istotally dependent on what part of the family’s food needs are to be produced and the locationmhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  40. 40. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 40 of 72of the garden.With gardens operating successfully, there will be an opportunity to identify and supply highervalue markets with more unique products such as herbs and speciality vegetables.Additionally, should markets justify it; there is an opportunity to introduce improved productiontechnologies such as shaded gardens, tunnel and hydroponics. On the product - side there isthe potential of organic production.The introduction of vegetable production will allow Laingsburg to supply its own needs forvegetables and to progressively grow into additional and higher value markets. The gardeningsystem will also supply a significant part of the raw materials for the small-scale production ofprocessed foods.Key RequirementsLANDIt should be noted that the figures below depend on what is to be grown and are given asindicators. It is in fact critical to develop the garden design from the bottom up rather thanimplementing an outside design. A bottom up design would evaluate the nutrition needs andconvert these to a production need, which would define the amount of land required forimplementation.In the household phase, the houses of Laingsburg have sufficient ground (say a maximum of20 square meters per household) to produce significant quantities of nutritious vegetables fortargeted households.The currently disused community vegetable garden would provide a starting place fordevelopments of “market gardens” in Laingsburg. As success is achieved, there is room forsome expansion of the garden but a plan should be put in place to identify further land, whichshould be easily available.WATERWater supply does not appear to be a limiting factor in Laingsburg, and it should be easy tosecure a reliable and cost effective supply.OTHER INPUTSOn going inputs for household gardens are basically seedlings and aftercare as all labour,water and materials for composting are available in the household..Commercial gardens will need to generate income to pay for all their input costs includingseeds, water, labour, packaging,TRAINING AND CAPACITY BUILDINGVery little technical skills will be required to establish a project of this nature at householdPhase 1 level. Training and on-going support could however be provided very easily byextension officers of the Dept. of Agriculture, or local farmers.In the commercial level there will be a significantly increased demand for real entrepreneurialmhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  41. 41. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 41 of 72skills particularly in the marketing and logistics areas.This project requires considerable local support to ensure success.The Beaufort West Dept. of Health office has written a case study on this type of project, andhas reflected much of the requirements for successful implementation.FINANCEFunding will be required for the start-up of these vegetable gardens.For commercial gardens, other organisations active in this field estimate the costs to be in theorder of R 25 000 per ha (see justification).ImpactThe introduction of vegetable production as a poverty relief project will allow Laingsburg’swomen to supply their children’s nutritional needs for vegetables and to progressively growtheir skills and capacity to enter into additional and higher value markets. Should the project befocussed on malnourished households only, indications are that in the order of 75 familiescould benefit in LaingsburgInitially the vegetable gardens will improve household nutrition and wealth by freeing income tobe used for purposes other than food. In the later phases there will be increasing job creationwhich could reach 10 “full time” jobs / 2000m2 assuming that sufficiently good markets can beestablished.BeneficiariesIt is proposed that the household project is mainly run by the women of Laingsburg because oftheir commitment to the nutrition status and development of their children. This type of projectshould only be implemented where private household ownership models are employed.The commercial gardens need to be run by skilled entrepreneurs although it is proposed thatthe women of Laingsburg become shareholders and are supplied with produce for theirnutritional needs.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  42. 42. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 42 of 72 PROPOSAL 2 FISH – BASED FOODS AND FEEDSBackgroundA lack of protein intake in the diets of the poor is common throughout the world. Protein intakealong with sufficient carbohydrates and the necessary micronutrients is the basis for thehealthy development of children.In many parts of the world, fish although a potential sources of proteins in diet, is seldom amajor part of a child’s diet. This is particularly true in South Africa, especially in the interior.However, in the East fish, including freshwater fish, forms a much larger part of the diet.The Floriskraal dam, some 20 km from Laingsburg, is a potential source of freshwater fish,probably barbel, which has the potential to improve nutrition as well as create jobopportunities. However, it is important to realise that consumption of freshwater fish is notnormal and that it should not be imposed as a solution but rather offered as an opportunity.The first step of any utilisation of the resource is the evaluation of the fish population andpotential of the Floriskraal dam. The next phase in the utilisation of the resource would bebased on supplying fish, cooking and nutrition information to households at risk, to combatmalnutrition.To further utilise the fish it is proposed that the production of fish meal be introduced to formthe basis of a sustainable business, which would then develop local markets by using novelprocessing technologies and international markets where there is an established demand forspecialised barbel products e.g. smoked barbel in HollandJustificationThe Floriskraal dam is potentially one of the largest agribusiness resources in the area andhas the potential to support nutrition programmes leveraging government’s spending onmalnutrition and to create income and jobs both as part of the nutrition intervention and withina sustainable business.Key RequirementsThe key requirement of the proposal is for the community of Laingsburg to gain the right to thefish in the dam. Thereafter the requirements focus on the fishing and processing.FISHING EQUIPMENTThere is a definite need for equipment probably boats and nets to fish the dam. This will bedefined by the resource survey.COLD STORAGE & PROCESSING EQUIPMENTCold storage both at the dam and in Laingsburg will be required throughout the project. Oncemhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  43. 43. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 43 of 72processing is started, a processing plant will be required.Fishmeal production is expensive as pressure processing and drying is involved. While smallscale packaged plants are available in Europe it will probably be necessary to consider localmanufacture because of their high cost. Since this will form the basis of the enterprise, afinancially sustainable operation is vital and an early feasibility study is recommended.The production of novel fish products will require a processing plant but, assuming that alloperations can be manual, a reasonably priced plant is possible. To process around 500 kg offish using freezing and smoking would require a capital investment in the order of R 300 000.The processing of significantly more fish and the introduction of blast freezing and canning andpasteurisation would require significantly higher capitalLANDLand will be required for the housing of the boats and fishing equipment as well as theprocessing plant or a cold store if the processing plant is sited in the town where betterservices are available. However, the area would be small nothing larger than a standardcommercial site being necessary – no more than a total of half a hectare will be required.OTHER INPUTSNormal food processing inputs will be required both for fish dressing and processing.TRAINING AND CAPACITY BUILDINGTraining in household fish preparation and nutrition, fishing, processing and enterprisemanagement will need to be built into the various phases of the project.FINANCEThe first funding required would be for a survey of the fish resource and a report on its capacityand harvesting mechanisms.ImpactThe impact in terms of improved nutrition and job creation will be determined by the magnitudeof the resource. An evaluation of this should, therefore, be a first step in any project.BeneficiariesHouseholds and in particular the under twelve year olds at risk of malnourishment will benefitfrom subsidised access to high protein food. In the under 12 group the long-term effect can bevery large avoiding stunting and retarded development.In the commercial phase, jobs will be created for local workers and an entrepreneurialopportunity will be created.mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011
  44. 44. RAPID REVIEW OF DESIGNATED VULNERABLE AREAS IN THE WESTERN C... Page 44 of 72mhtml:file://C:Documents and SettingsOwnerMy DocumentslaingsburgRAPID REVIE... 9/16/2011