Three instructional guidelines for struggling adolescent and adult Ells


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Introduces an instructional model in which both teachers and learners adapt to the learning paradigm of the other: A Mutually Adaptive Learning Paradigm. DeCapua and Marshall (2010).
Designed for L2 learners who continue to struggle despite other interventions on their behalf.

Published in: Education
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Three instructional guidelines for struggling adolescent and adult Ells

  1. 1. Helaine W. Marshall LIU HudsonLong Island University
  2. 2. Who are Struggling L2 Learners?• Students with limited or interrupted formal schooling (SLIFE), who have recently arrivedor• Long-term ELLs, who continue to have difficulty despite years of schooling in USor• Low-literate adult English learners
  3. 3. Needs of Struggling L2 Learners • Develop basic literacy skills • Learn basic subject area concepts • Develop academic ways of thinking • Adapt to cultural differences in learning and teaching
  4. 4. Two Aspects of Culture1 Ways of Thinking2 Individualism / Collectivism
  5. 5. Western-Style Formal Education • Abstract knowledge • Scientific reasoning • Logical deduction • Formal school settings • Literacy as central(Anderson-Levitt, 2003; Flynn, 2007; Grigorenko, 2007; Ozmon & Carver, 2008)
  6. 6. Informal Ways of Learning• Revolves around immediate needs of family and community• Grounded in observation, participation in sociocultural practices of family and community• Has immediate relevance• Centered on orality(Faulstich Orellana, 2001; Gahunga, Gahunga, & Luseno, 2011; Paradise & Rogoff, 2009)
  7. 7. Sample Task(Luria, 1976)
  8. 8. Academic Tasks• Definitions • What is a tree?• True/False • Washington, D. C. is the capital of the U. S. • New York City is the capital of New York State.
  9. 9. Ways of Learning Continuum Informal Ways Struggling Western-style of Learning L2 Learners Formal Education
  10. 10. Cultural Orientations Individualism and Collectivism(Hofstede, 2001; Nisbett, 2003; Oyserman & Lee, 2008; Triandis, 1995; 2000)
  11. 11. Individualism vs. Collectivism• Personal efforts praised, • “We” rather than “I.” rewarded• Personal interests, desires,• People see themselves as part of primary an interconnected whole• Personal judgments • “Web” of relationships• Personal responsibility • Group is more important than• “Self-actualization” any single individual
  12. 12. Assumptions of North American Teachers and Learners 1. The goals of instruction are a) to produce independent learners b) to prepare the learners for their future 2. The learner brings along a) preparation for academic tasks b) an urge to compete and excel as an individual(Adapted from DeCapua & Marshall, 2011)
  13. 13. (Ibarra, 2001)
  14. 14. Mutually Adaptive Learning Paradigm - MALP• Instructional Model• Elements from students’ learning paradigm• Elements from U.S. learning paradigm• Transitional approachMarshall, 1998; DeCapua & Marshall, 2011
  15. 15. Two Different Learning Paradigms Aspects of Struggling North American Learning L2 Learners Classrooms Immediate FutureCONDITIONS Relevance Relevance Interconnectedness Independence Shared IndividualPROCESSES Responsibility Accountability Oral Transmission Written Word Pragmatic Tasks Academic TasksACTIVITIES(Adapted from DeCapua & Marshall, 2009, 2011; Marshall, 1994,1998)
  16. 16. MALP Struggling North American L2 Learners Classrooms Immediate FutureAccept learner Relevance Relevanceconditions Interconnectedness IndependenceCombine learner& North American Shared Individualprocesses Responsibility Accountability with Oral Transmission Written WordFocus on newactivities with Pragmatic Academicfamiliar language Tasks& content Tasks(Adapted from DeCapua & Marshall, 2009, 2010; Marshall 1994, 1998)
  17. 17. Carol’s Class• Ages: 15 – 21• Education: – 3rd grade to 8th grade• Classes: Self-contained – English – Social Studies – Math – Science• Countries of origin: Haiti, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala
  18. 18. Class Brainstorming
  19. 19. Bar Graph• Class brainstorming• Five most common activities• Interviews in class• Data gathering• Graph• Sentences below graph
  20. 20. Gloria’s Class• Ages: 14 - 18• Education: – 5th grade – 9th grade• Class: – Integrated Algebra – Low-proficiency ELLs and SLIFE• Origin: – Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Puerto Rico and Albania
  21. 21. What does a MALP Classroom Look Like?• Word wall• Calendar• Sentence frames• Teacher-made concept posters• Student–produced posters
  22. 22. Betty’s Class• Ages: 18-61• Education: None to 5th grade• Classes: – ESL – Hmong Literacy – Life-skills Math – Problem Posing• Origin: Hmong from Laos
  23. 23. Class Diagram• Crossing the Mekong• Interviewing at home• Sharing data in class• Drawing map & flags• Using sentence frame• Entering data• Responding to questions
  24. 24. Paj Ntaub
  25. 25. More about MALP?Visit these sites:•• http://malp.pbworks.comEmail us:••