DeCapua_ Marshall_CulturalDissonance_malp_leslla2011

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Plenary Address at the 2011 Low Educated Second Language Literacy Acquisition Symposium, Minneapolis, MN

Published in: Education, Technology
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DeCapua_ Marshall_CulturalDissonance_malp_leslla2011

  1. 1. From Cultural Dissonance to a New Learning Paradigm Andrea DeCapua Helaine W. MarshallThe College of New Rochelle Long Island University
  2. 2. “Culture acts as a filter or set oflenses through which we view and interpret the world around us.” (DeCapua & Wintergerst, 2004)
  3. 3. Two Research Strands• Ways of Thinking• Individualism / Collectivism
  4. 4. Research Strand 1Ways of Thinking:• Formal Western-style education• Informal learning (Anderson-Levitt, 2003; Flynn, 2007; Grigorenko, 2007; Ozmon & Carver, 2008 )
  5. 5. Formal Western-Style Education • Abstract knowledge • Scientific reasoning • Logical deduction • Literacy as central • Formal school settings (Anderson-Levitt, 2003; Flynn, 2007; Grigorenko, 2007; Ozmon & Carver, 2008)
  6. 6. Informal Ways of Learning • Revolves around immediate needs of family and community • Grounded in observation, participation in the sociocultural practices of family and community • Has immediate relevance • Centered on orality (Faulstich Orellana, 2001; Gahunga, Gahunga, & Luseno, 2011; Paradise & Rogoff, 2009;
  7. 7. Sample Task (Luria, 1976)
  8. 8. Sample QuestionWhat do dogs and rabbits have in common? (Flynn, 2007)
  9. 9. Academic Tasks• Definitions • What is a tree?• True/False • St. Paul is the capital of Minnesota • New York City is the capital of New York State• Classification • Categorize these objects
  10. 10. Contrasting Ways ofThinking & LearningAcademic Pragmatic• Classification • Cooking• Sorting • Childcare• Sequencing • Farming• Compare/contrast • Crafts• Defining • Religious practices
  11. 11. A Continuum of Ways of Thinking & Learning SLIFEInformal Western-styleLearning Formal Education
  12. 12. Research Strand 2 Individualism and Collectivism(Hofstede, 2001; Nisbett, 2003; Oyserman & Lee, 2008; Triandis, 1995; 2000)
  13. 13. Individualism• Personal efforts praised, rewarded• Personal interests, desires, primary• Personal judgments• Personal responsibility• “Self-actualization”
  14. 14. Collectivism• “We” rather than “I.”• People see themselves as part of an interconnected whole• “Web” of relationships• Group is more important than any single individual
  15. 15. Cooperative Learning  Individual Responsibility SAMPLE ROLES • Checker • Datakeeper • Group Leader • Keyboard Operator • Materials Manager • Messenger • Permission Giver • Questioner • Reader • Reporter • Summarizer • Timekeeper • Word Analyst • Writer/Recorder
  16. 16. Assumptions of North American Teachers and Learners1. The goals of instruction are a) to produce independent learners b) to prepare the learners for their future2. The learner brings along a) preparation for academic tasks b) an urge to compete and excel as an individual (Adapted from DeCapua & Marshall, 2011)
  17. 17. (Ibarra, 2001)
  18. 18. Mutually Adaptive Learning Paradigm MALP Elements from • Students’ learning paradigm • North American learning paradigm (Marshall, 1998; DeCapua & Marshall, 2010)
  19. 19. Two Different Learning Paradigms Aspects of North American SLIFE Learning Classrooms Immediate Future CONDITIONS Relevance Relevance Interconnectedness Independence Shared Individual PROCESSES Responsibility Accountability Oral Transmission Written Word Pragmatic Tasks Academic Tasks ACTIVITIES (Adapted from DeCapua & Marshall, 2009, 2010; Marshall, 1994,1998)
  20. 20. MALP SLIFE North American Classrooms Immediate Future Accept SLIFE Relevance Relevance conditions Interconnectedness Independence Combine SLIFE & North Shared Individual American Responsibility Accountability processes with Oral Transmission Written Word Focus on new activities with Pragmatic Academic familiar language Tasks Tasks & content(Adapted from DeCapua & Marshall, 2009, 2010; Marshall 1994, 1998)
  21. 21. Prototypical MALP Project Class Surveys Characteristics that foster MALP• Interpersonal• Relevant topics likely to emerge• Natural movement from oral interaction to written product• Provision for both group and individual task delegation• Instruction in academic ways of thinking
  22. 22. Carol’s Class• Ages: 15 – 21• Education: o 3rd grade to 8th grade• Classes: Self-contained o English o Social Studies o Math o Science• Countries of origin: Haiti, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala
  23. 23. Class Brainstorming
  24. 24. Bar Graph• Class brainstorming• Five most common activities• Interviews in class• Data gathering• Graph• Sentences below graph
  25. 25. Betty’s Class• Ages: 18-61• Education: o None to 5th grade• Classes: o ESL o Hmong Literacy o Life-skills Math o Problem Posing• Origin: Hmong from Laos
  26. 26. Class Diagram• Crossing the Mekong• Interviewing at home• Sharing data in class• Drawing map & flags• Using sentence frame• Entering data• Responding to questions
  27. 27. Paj Ntaub

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